Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

Material Properties

Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more

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Density

Density of different solid materials, liquids and gases. Definitions and convertion calculators.

Boiling point

Documents giving boiling point of elements and different kind of chemical species at varying conditions

Melting points - freezing points

Documents giving melting or freezing point of elements and different kind of chemical species at varying conditions

Viscosity

Documents giving viscosity of different kind of chemical species at varying conditions

Acetone - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of acetone at temperatures ranging from -95 to 275 °C (-138 to 530 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Acetone - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of acetone, also called 2-propanone, dimethyl ketone and pyroacetic acid. Phase diagram included.

Acetylene - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Acetylene.

Acid and Base pH Indicators

pH range vs. color change for acid and base indicators - together with pKa and structures of the indicators.

Acids - pH Values

pH values of acids like sulfuric, acetic and more..

Air - Composition and Molecular Weight

Dry air is a mechanical mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, argon and several other gases in minor amounts.

Air - Density and Specific Volume vs. Altitude

Density and specific volume of air varies with elevation above sea level.

Air - Density vs. Pressure and Temperatures

Air density at pressure ranging 1 to 10 000 bara (14.5 - 145000 psi) and constant selected temperatures.

Air - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficients of air at temperatures ranging -100 to 1600 °C (-140 to 2900 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Air - Diffusion Coefficients of Gases in Excess of Air

Diffusion coefficients (D12) for gases in large excess of air at temperatures ranging 0 - 400 °C.

Air - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables with dynamic (absolute) and kinematic viscosity for air at temperatures ranging -100 to 1600°C (-150 to 2900°F) and at pressures ranging 1 to 10 000 bara (14.5 - 145000 psia) - SI and Imperial Units.

Air - Molecular Weight and Composition

Dry air is a mixture of gases where the average molecular weight (or molar mass) can be calculated by adding the weight of each component.

Air - Prandtl Number

Prandtl number for air vs. temperature and pressure.

Air - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Properties of air change along the boiling and condensation curves (temperature and pressure between triple point and critical point conditions). An air phase diagram included.

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Air - Specific Heat Ratio

Specific Heat Ratio of air at temperatures ranging -40 - 1000oC (-40 - 1500oF) at standard atmospheric pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Air - Specific Heat vs. Pressure at Constant Temperature

Figures and tables with isobaric (Cp) and isochoric (Cv) specific heat of air at constant temperature and pressure ranging 0.01 to 10000 bara.

Air - Specific Heat vs. Temperature at Constant Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing specific heat (Cp and Cv) of dry air vs. temperature and pressure. SI and imperial units.

Air - Speed of Sound

Speed of sound in air at standard atmospheric pressure with temperatures ranging -40 to 1000oC (-40 to 1500oF) - Imperial and SI Units.

Air - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing air thermal conductivity vs. temperature and pressure. SI and imperial units.

Air - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables withdry air thermal diffusivity vs. temperarure and pressure. SI and Imperial units.

Air - Thermophysical Properties

Thermal properties of air at different temperatures - density, viscosity, critical temperature and pressure, triple point, enthalpi and entropi, thermal conductivity and diffusivity and more.

Air Properties - Imperial Units

Thermodynamic properties of air at low pressures - imperial units.

Air Properties - SI Units

Ideal gas properties of air at low pressure - SI units.

AISI 310 Stainless Steel - Properties

Thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, density and thermal conductivity of stainless steel AISI 310 vs. temperature.

AISI/SAE Steel and Alloys - Designation System

The AISI/SAE carbon steel and alloys naming conventions.

Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids - Physical Data

Molweight, melting and boiling point, density, pKa-values, as well as number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in molecules are given for 150 different alcohols and acids.

Alloy Steels

Alloy steels have properties due to elements other than carbon.

Alternative Fuels - Properties

Properties of alternative fuels like biodiesel, E85, CNG and more.

Aluminum - Melting Points of Binary Eutectic Alloys

Al - Aluminum - binary eutectic alloys and their melting points.

Aluminum Alloys - Mechanical Properties

Mechanical properties of some common aluminum alloys.

Aluminum Alloys - Mechanical Properties

Mechanical properties of aluminum alloys - tensile strength, yield strength and more.

Amines, diamines and cyclic organic nitrogen compounds - pKa values

Values for the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant, pKa, of the conjugated acid of amines, diamines and cyclic organic nitrogen compounds, shown together with the molecular structure of the acids.

Ammonia - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic (absolute) and kinematic viscosity of gasous and liquid ammonia at temperatures ranging from -73 to 425°C (-100 to 800°F) at pressure ranging from 1 to 1000 bara (14.5 - 14500 psia) - SI and Imperial Units.

Ammonia - Prandtl Number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and table with changes in Prandtl number for ammonia with changes in temperature and pressure.

Ammonia - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of liquid and gaseous ammonia changes along the boiling/condensation curve (temperature and pressure between triple point and critical point conditions). An ammonia phase diagram are included.

Ammonia - Specific Heat vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat, CP and CV, of gasous and liquid ammonia at temperatures ranging from -73 to 425°C (-100 to 800°F) at pressure ranging from 1 to 100 bara (14.5 - 1450 psia) - SI and Imperial Units.

Ammonia - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of liquid and gaseous ammonia at temperatures ranging -70 to 425 °C (-100 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Ammonia - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Ammonia. Phase diagram included.

Ammonia - Vapour Pressure at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium

Figures and table with ammonia saturation pressure at boiling points, SI and Imperial units.

Ammonia Gas - Density vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ammonia for temperatures ranging -50 to 425 °C (-50 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Antifreeze - Ethylene Glycol Volume vs. Temperature Rating

Freeze protecting of cooling systems - temperature rating vs. required amount of antifreeze.

Antifreeze - Ethylene Glycol vs. Propylene Glycol

Comparing ethylene glycol and propylene glycol antifreeze properties.

API Gravity

API expresses the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products. Online API to Specific Gravity calculator.

Aqueous Salt Solutions - Acid and Base Properties

Salts contains ions that may affect the pH in aqueous solutions in both acidic and basic directions.

Argon - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of argon, Ar, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Argon - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Argon.

Arsenic - Melting Points of Binary Eutectic Alloys

As - Arsenic - binary eutectic alloys and their melting points.

Bases - pH Values

pH values for bases like sodium hydroxide, ammonia and more.

Benzene - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing density and specific weight of benzene, C6H6, at temperatures ranging from 5 to 325 °C (42 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Benzene - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of benzene, C6H6, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Benzene - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of benzene, also called benzol. Phase diagram included.

Benzene Gas - Specific Heat vs. Temperature

Specific heat of Benzene Gas - C6H6 - at temperatures ranging 250 - 900 K.

Benzene Liquid - Thermal Properties

Properties like density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity and Prandtl number.

Brick Densities

Densities of common types of bricks.

Brinell Hardness Number - BHN

The Brinell hardness test of metals and alloys.

Brix Scale

The content of sucrose - Brix scale vs. Specific Gravity and Plato - used in the sugar, fruit juice and wine making industry.

Bulk Modulus and Fluid Elasticity

Introduction to - and definition of - Bulk Modulus Elasticity commonly used to characterize the compressibility of fluids.

Butane - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of liquid and gaseous butane, C4H10, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Butane - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables with dynamic and kinematic viscosity of liquid and gaseous butane, C4H10, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Butane - Specific Heat vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables showing specific heat, Cp and Cv, of gasous and liquid butane, C4H10, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Butane - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of liquid and gaseous butane, C4H10, at varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Butane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of n-Butane.

Calcium Chloride Water Solutions

Freezing point, density, specific heat and dynamic viscosity of Calcium Chloride Water coolants.

Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Classifications

Steel is considered to be carbon steel when no minimum content is specified or required for chromium, cobalt, columbium (niobium), molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, vanadium or zirconium.

Carbon dioxide - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of carbon dioxide, CO2, at temperatures ranging from -50 to 775 °C (-50 to 1400 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Carbon Dioxide - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of carbon dioxide, CO2, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Carbon Dioxide - Liquid Properties

Properties of saturated liquid Carbon Dioxide - CO2 - density, specific heat, kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number.

Carbon Dioxide - Liquid Properties, Imperial Units

Properties of saturated liquid Carbon Dioxide - CO2 - density, specific heat, kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number.

Carbon dioxide - Prandtl Number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and table with changes in Prandtl number for carbon dioxide with changes in temperature and pressure.

Carbon Dioxide - Specific Heat of Gas vs. Temperature

Specific heat of Carbon Dioxide gas - CO2 - temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K.

Carbon dioxide - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of carbon dioxide, CO2, at temperatures ranging from -50 to 775 °C (-50 to 1400 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Carbon Dioxide - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of carbon dioxide. Phase diagram included.

Carbon Monoxide - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of carbon monoxide, CO, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Carbon Monoxide - Specific Heat vs. Temperature

Carbon Monoxide Gas - CO - specific heat of at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K.

Carbon Monoxide - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Carbon Monoxide - CO.

Ceramic Materials - Properties

Physical properties of ceramics.

Combustion Heat

Heat of combustion (energy content) for som common substances - with examples how to calculate heat of combustion.

Combustion of Fuels - Carbon Dioxide Emission

Environmental emission of carbon dioxide CO2 when combustion fuels like coal, oil, natural gas, LPG and bio energy.

Composition of Steels

Typical composition of AISI steels.

Compressed Water - Properties vs. Temperature

Specific volume, enthalpy and entropy of compressed water.

Compression and Tension Strength of some common Materials

Common materials and average ultimate compression and tension strength.

Concrete Mixtures

Cement, sand and gravel mixtures.

Concrete Properties

Properties of normal strength Portland cement concrete.

Copper Alloys - Typical Applications

Typical use of copper alloys in architecture, automotive, electrical, building wire, energy, tube, pipe fittings, fuel gas, industrial and marine applications.

Copper Binary Eutectic Alloys - Melting Points

Cu - Copper - binary eutectic alloys and their melting points.

Copper, Zinc and Tin Alloys

Strength of Copper, Zinc and Tin alloys.

CPVC - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of CPVC - Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) - to common chemicals and products.

Crude Oil - Density vs. Temperature

Variations in crude oil density are shown as function of temperatur, together with volume correction factors.

Crude Oil Metal (Ni, V) Content vs. Gravity

Content of nickel and vanadium in more than 120 crudes as function of specific gravity@15°C/60°F.

Crude Oil Properties - Standard test methods (ASTM and others)

An overview of common test methods and typical ranges of variation of petroleum quality parameters. What, why and how do the different test?

Crude Oil Viscosity vs. Gravity

Viscosity at 20°C/68°F and 50°C/122°F for more than 120 crudes is shown as function of specific gravity@15°C/60°F.

Cryogenic Fluids and Liquefied Gas Properties

Cryogenic properties as density, boiling points and heat of evaporation for fluids like hydrogen, methane, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine and helium.

Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Inorganic Chlorides

Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of inorganic chlorides in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.

Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Inorganic Potassium Salts

Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of potassium salts in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.

Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Inorganic Sodium Salts

Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of inorganic sodium salts in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.

Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Organic Acids

Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, D-lactic acid, oxalic acid and trichloroacetic acid in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.

Densities of common Products

Densities of common products - Imperial and SI-units.

Density Converter

Online density converter with commonly used units.

Density of Aqueous Solutions of Organic Substances as Sugars and Alcohols

Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of some sugars, alcohols and other organic substances in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.

Density of Aqueous Solutions of some Inorganic Substances

Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of inorganic substances in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.

Density vs. Specific Weight vs. Specific Gravity

An introduction to density, specific weight and specific gravity.

Dichlorodifluoromethane - Properties

Properties of saturated liquid Dichlorodifluoromethane R-12 - CCl2F2 - density, specific heat capacity, kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number.

Dichlorodifluoromethane - Properties, Imperial Units

Properties of saturated liquid Dichlorodifluoromethane - CCl2F2 - density, specific heat, kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number.

Dimethyl Propylmethane Gas - Specific Heat vs. Temperature

Specific heat of Dimethyl Propylmethane Gas - C6H18 - at temperatures ranging 250 - 800 K.

Dirt and Mud - Densities

Densities - pound per cubic foot and kilograms per cubic metre - of dirt and mud.

Ditch Filling Materials - Densities

Weight or density of ditch filling materials.

Dry Air - Thermodynamic and Physical Properties

Thermodynamic properties of dry air - specific heat, ratio of specific heats, dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, density and kinematic viscosity at temperatures ranging 175 - 1900 K.

Drying Time of Products vs. Temperature

Drying temperature and time for products like food, coffee, fruits, lumber and more.

Dust Explosions - Critical Temperatures and Concentrations

Critical temperatures and concentration parameters for substances like coal, zinc, uranium and more.

Dynamic Viscosity Liquids

Absolute (dynamic) viscosity values for some common fluids.

Elastomers

Natural and syntetic rubbers guide.

Elements - Melting Points

Melting points of elements.

Elements of the Periodic System

The elements of the periodic system with names, symbols, atomic numbers and weights, melting and boiling points, density, electronegativity and electron affinity, and electron configuration.

Emissivity Coefficients common Products

The radiation heat transfer emissivity coefficients for some common materials like aluminum, brass, glass and many more.

Engineering Materials

Some typical properties of engineering materials like steel, plastics, ceramics and composites.

Epoxy - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of Epoxy to common products like Acetic acid, Alcohol, Diesel oil and more.

Ethane - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ethane, C2H6, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Ethane - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of ethane, C2H6, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Ethane - Liquid Thermal Properties

Density, specific heat and more of liquid ethane.

Ethane - Specific Heat Gas vs. Temperature

Specific heat of Ethane Gas - C2H6 - for temperatures ranging 250 - 900 K.

Ethane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Ethane - C2H6.

Ethanol - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of ethanol, C2H5OH, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Ethanol - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ethanol at temperatures ranging from -25 to 325 °C (-10 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Ethanol - Specific Heat vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables showing specific heat , Cp and Cv, of gasous and liquid ethanol at temperatures ranging from -25 to 325 °C (-10 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Ethanol - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethanol (also called alcohol or ethyl alcohol). Phase diagram included.

Ethanol Freeze Protected Water Solutions

Freezing temperature and flash points for ethanol based water solutions or brines.

Ethanol Water Mixtures - Densities vs. Temperature

Density of Ethyl Alcohol aqueous solutions.

Ethylene - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ethylene, C2H4, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Ethylene - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of ethylene, C2H4, also called ethene or acetene, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Ethylene - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of ethylene, also called ethene or acetene, C2H4, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Ethylene - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethylene, also called ethene, acetene and olefiant gas. Phase diagram included.

Ethylene Gas - Specific Heat vs. Temperature

Specific heat of Ethylene Gas - C2H4 - temperatures ranging 175 - 900 K.

Ethylene Glycol Heat-Transfer Fluid Properties

Properties like freezing point, viscosity, specific gravity and specific heat of ethylene glycol based heat-transfer fluids, or brines.

Fibre-reinforced Polymer Composites

Mechanical properties of fibers used to reinforce polymer composites.

Flash Points

The flash point of a chemical indicates how easy it may ignite and burn.

Float Glass - Weight vs. Thickness

Weight of float glass.

Food and Foodstuff - pH Values

pH in common food products - like apples, butter, wines and more.

Food and Foodstuff - Specific Heat

Specific heat of common food and foodstuff like apples, bass, beef, pork and many more.

Food Products - Bulk Densities

Bulk densities of some common food products like grain, corn, barley, sugar and more.

Food Products - Viscosities

Absolute (dynamic) viscosity for common food products.

Foods - Thermal Conductivities

Thermal conductivity of selected foodstuff like apples, beef, sugar and more.

Foodstuff - Thermal Diffusivity

Thermal diffusivity of some selected food products.

Fossil and Alternative Fuels - Energy Content

Net (low) and gross (high) energy content in fossil and alternative fuels.

Fuel Oils - Densities vs. Temperature

Variations in fuel oils density as function of temperatur, together with volume correction factors.

Fuels - Densities and Specific Volumes

Densities and specific volumes fuels like anthracite, butane, gasoil, diesel, coke, oil, wood and more.

Fuels - Properties Database

Online petroleum-based fuels properties database.

Fusion and Evaporation Heat of common Materials

Melting points, heat of fusions, boiling points and heat to evaporate common substances - like hydrogen, water, gold and more ..

Gas Data

Online database with gas properties.

Gases - Densities

Densities and molecular weights of common gases like acetylene, air, methane, nitrogen, oxygen and others.

Gases - Dynamic Viscosities

Absolute (dynamic) viscosities of some common gases.

Gases - Molar Specific Heats

Molar specific heats for some common gases at constant volume.

Gases - Specific Gravities

Specific gravities of air, ammonia, butadiene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and some other common gases.

Gases - Specific Heats and Individual Gas Constants

Specific heat at constant volume, specific heat at constant pressure, specific heat ratio and individual gas constant - R - common gases as argon, air, ether, nitrogen and many more.

Gases Solved in Water - Diffusion Coefficients

Diffusion flux [kg/m2s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m2/s] for several gases in water.

Glycerine - Boiling and Freezing Points

Boiling and freezing points of glycerine aqueous solutions.

Gold Binary Eutectic Alloys - Melting Points

Some Au - Gold - binary eutectic alloys and their melting points.

Hardwood and Softwood Species

Species of hardwood vs. softwood.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to change the temperature of a substance by one degree.

Heavy Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D2O) like density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.

Helium - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of helium, He, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Helium - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Helium - He.

Human Body - Specific Heat

Specific heat of the human body - compared to substances like protein and wood.

Hydrocarbon Mixtures - Average Boiling Points vs. Gravity and Molecular Weights

Formulas and examples of calculation of boiling point of hydrocarbon mixtures from gravity and molecular weight.

Hydrocarbon Mixtures - Molecular Weight vs. Gravity and Average Boiling Point

Formulas and examples of calculation of average molecular weight of hydrocarbon mixtures from gravity and average boiling point, achieved from distillation data.

Hydrocarbons - Physical Data

Molweight, melting and boiling point, density, flash point and autoignition temperature, as well as number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in each molecule for 200 different hydrocarbons.

Hydrocarbons - Autoignition Temperatures and Flash Points

Autoignition temperatures and flash points (°C and °F) of different types of hydrocarbons with varying carbon numbers up to C12.

Hydrocarbons - Melting Point vs. Molecular Weight

Calculate melting point of hydrocarbons from molecular weight (molar mass).

Hydrocarbons - Vapor Pressure

Vapor pressure vs. temperature for propane, n-butane, n-heptane and n-pentane hydrocarbons.

Hydrocarbons, Alcohols and Acids - Boiling points

Boiling temperatures (°C and °F) with varying carbon numbers up to C33.

Hydrocarbons, Linear Alcohols and Acids - Densities

Density of hydrocarbons like alcohols and acids as function of carbon number at 20°C / 68°.

Hydrogen - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of hydrogen, H2, at temperatures ranging from -260 to 325 °C (-435 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Hydrogen - Specific Heat

Specific heat of Hydrogen Gas - H2 - at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K.

Hydrogen - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of hydrogen, H2, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Hydrogen - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Hydrogen - H2.

Hydrogen sulfide - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of hydrogen sulfide, H2S, also called hydrosulfuric acid, sewer gas and stink damp. Phase diagram included.

Ice - Properties

Properties like Youngs modulus, tensile strength, compressive strength and fracture of toughness for ice.

Ice - Safe Loads vs. Thickness

Safe loads vs. thickness for clear and solid ice.

Ice - Thermal Properties

Thermal and thermodynamic properties of ice like density, thermal conductivity and specific heat at temperatures from 0 to -100 oC.

Ice and Water - Melting Points vs. Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables with melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

Industrial Lubricants - Viscosities vs. ISO-VG Grade

ISO-VG viscosity grades for industrial lubricants.

Inorganic Acids and Bases - pKa Values

Values for the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant, pKa, of inorganic acids and bases, as well as hydrated metal ions.

Inorganic Compounds in Water - Melting and Boiling Temperature, Density and Solubility

Physical constants for more than 280 common inorganic compounds. Density is given for the actual state at 25°C and for liquid phase at melting point temperature.

Ionic Compounds in Water - Solubility Guidelines

Guidelines or solubility rules to predict whether or not a given ionic compound is soluble in water at room temperature.

Iron Binary Eutectic Alloys - Melting Points

Fe - Iron - binary eutectic alloys and melting points.

ISO Grade Oils - Viscosities and Densities

Viscosities and densities of ISO - and equivalent SAE grade oils.

Isopropanol (2-Propanol) based Freeze Protected Water Solutions

Freezing and flash points of isopropanol (2-Propanol) based water solutions or brines.

Jet Fuel - Density vs. Temperature

Variations in jet fuel density as function of temperatur, together with volume correction factors.

Latent Heat of Melting for some common Materials

Latent heat of fusion when changing between solid or liquid state for common materials like aluminum, ammonia, glycerin, water and more.

Lead Binary Eutectic Alloys - Melting Points

Pb - Lead (Plumbum) - binary eutectic alloys and melting points.

Liquid Ammonia - Thermal Properties at Saturation Pressure

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity and Prandtls no. of liquid ammonia at saturation pressure.

Liquid-Liquid Solution - Shrinkage and Estimation of Density

It is possible to estimate the density of a liquid-liquid solution from the density of the solute and the solvent. However, due to shrinkage, the estimate will be a bit too low.

Liquids - Densities

Densities of common liquids like acetone, beer, oil, water and more.

Liquids - Dielectric Constants

Dielectric constants or permittivities of some fluids or liquids.

Liquids - Freezing and Melting Points

Common fluids and their freezing and melting points.

Liquids - Kinematic Viscosities

Kinematic viscosities of some common liquids like motor oil, diesel fuel, peanut oil and many more.

Liquids - Latent Heat of Evaporation

Latent heat of vaporization for fluids like alcohol, ether, nitrogen, water and more.

Liquids - Specific Gravities

Specific gravities for common fluids like acetone, alcohol, turpentine, oil and more.

Liquids - Specific Gravities

Specific gravities of liquids like alcohol, oils, benzene, water and many more.

Liquids - Thermal Conductivities

Some fluids and their thermal conductivities.

Liquids - Vapor Pressures

Vapor and saturation pressure for some common liquids.

Liquids and Fluids - Specific Heats

Specific heats for some common liquids and fluids - acetone, oil, paraffin, water and many more.

Liquids and Gases - Boiling Points

Boiling temperatures for common liquids and gases - acetone, butane, propane and more.

Lubricating Oil - Densities vs. Temperature

Variations in lubricating oil density as function of temperatur, together with volume correction factors.

Lumber - Weights

Weights of green, kiln dried and pressure treated lumber boards.

Magnesium Binary Eutectic Alloys - Melting Points

Mg - Magnesium - binary eutectic alloys and melting points.

Malleability vs. Brittlenes vs. Ductility

Plastic deformation properties.

Matal Alloys - Melting Points

Alloys and their melting points.

Melting and Boiling Temperatures - Evaporation and Melting Heats common Materials

Melting and boiling point temperatures, latent heat of evaporation, and melting heat of common substances like copper, gold, lead and more - SI units.

Melting points of Hydrocarbons, Alcohols and Acids

Melting temperature (°C and °F) with carbon number up to C33.

Mercury - Thermodynamic Properties

Properties of saturated liquid Mercury - Hg - density, specific heat capacity, kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number.

Metal Alloys - Specific Heats

Specific heat of metal alloys like brass, bronze and more.

Metals - Boiling Points and Specific Heat

Boiling points and specific heat of liquid metals.

Metals - Boiling Temperatures

Metals and their boiling temperatures.

Metals - Corrosion Resistance to Aggresive Fluids

Common metals and their corrosion resistance to aggressive fluids like acids, bases and more.

Metals - Latent Heat of Fusion

Metals and their latent heat of fusion.

Metals - Machinability

The machinability of some common metals.

Metals - Specific Heats

Specific heat of commonly used metals like aluminum, iron, mercury and many more - imperial and SI units.

Metals - Strength vs. Temperature

The influence of temperature on the strength of metals.

Metals - Temperature Expansion Coefficients

Thermal expansion coefficients metals.

Metals and Alloys - Bulk Modulus Elasticity

The Bulk Modulus - resistance to uniform compression - for some common metals and alloys.

Metals and Alloys - Densities

Densities of some common metals, metallic elements and alloys - aluminum, bronze, copper, iron and more.

Metals and Alloys - Melting Temperatures

The melting temperatures for some common metals and alloys.

Metals and Alloys - Young's Modulus of Elasticity

Elastic properties and Young's modulus for metals and alloys like cast iron, carbon steel and more.

Metals in Seawater - Galvanic Series

Galvanic series of metals in seawater.

Metals, Metallic Elements and Alloys - Thermal Conductivities

Thermal conductivities of common metals, metallic elements aand alloys.

Methane - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of methane, CH4, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Methane - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of methane, CH4, at temperatures ranging from -160 to 725 °C (-260 to 1300 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Methane - Prandtl number vs. Temperature

Figures and table showing changes in Prandtl number for methane with changes in temperature and pressure.

Methane - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of methane, CH4, at temperatures ranging from -160 to 725 °C (-260 to 1300 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Methane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Methane - CH4. Phase diagram included.

Methane Gas - Specific Heat vs. Temperature

Specific heat of Methane Gas - CH4 - at temperatures ranging 200 - 1100 K.

Methanol - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of methanol,CH3OH, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Methanol - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of liquid methanol,CH3OH, at varying temperature - Imperial and SI Units.

Methanol - Specific Heat vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing isobaric and isochoric specific heat of methanol, CH3OH, at varying temperature - Imperial and SI Units.

Methanol - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of methanol, CH3OH (also called carbinol, wood alcohol, hydroxy methyl and methyl alcohol). Phase diagram included.

Methanol - Thermophysical Properties vs. Temperature

Thermophysical properties of methanol.

Methanol Freeze Protected Heat Transfer Liquids

Freezing and flash points for methanol or methyl based heat-transfer fluids or brines.

Mineral Hardness - Mohs Scale

The Mohs qualitative ordinal scale characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals.

Minerals - Densities

Densities of minerals.

Minerals and other Materials - Specific Gravities

Specific gravities for minerals and other materials.

Moisture Content Calculation

Calculate the moisture content in products like wood on wet and dry basis.

Molecular Weight of Substances

Definition and molecular weight (molar mass) of some common substances.

Molybdenum Binary Eutectic Alloys - Melting Points

Mo - Molybdenum - binary eutectic alloys and melting points.

Nickel Binary Eutectic Alloys - Melting Points

Ni - Nickel - binary eutectic alloys and melting points.

Nitrogen - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of nitrogen, N2, at temperatures ranging from -175 to 1325 °C (-280 to 2400 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Nitrogen - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of nitrogen, N2, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Nitrogen - Prandtl number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables showing Prandtl number of nitrogen at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Nitrogen - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of nitrogen, N2, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Nitrogen - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables showing thermal diffusivity of nitrogen at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Nitrogen - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Nitrogen - N2.

Nitrogen Gas - Specific Heat vs. Temperature

Specific heat of Nitrogen Gas - N2 - at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K

Octane Liquid - Thermal Properties

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and more.

Oils - Melting points

Common oils from animals or plants and their melting points.

Organic Nitrogen Compounds - Physical Data

Boiling and melting points of amines, diamines, pyrroles, pyridines, piperidines and quinolines shown together with their molecular structures, as well as molweights and density.

Organic Sulfur Compounds - Densities

Liquid density of different kinds of organic sulfur compounds with varying carbon number (20°C/68°F). Comparison of thiols, sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes.

Organic Sulfur Compounds - Physical Data

Boiling and melting points of thoils, sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes shown together with molecular structures, as well as molweights and density.

Oxygen - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of oxygen, O2, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Oxygen - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of oxygen, O2, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Oxygen - Solubility in Fresh and Sea Water vs. Temperature

Solubility of oxygen in equilibration with air in fresh water and seawater (salt water) - pressures ranging 1 - 4 bar abs.

Oxygen - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Oxygen - O2.

Oxygen Gas - Specific Heat vs. Temperature

Specific heat of Oxygen Gas - O2 - at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K.

Particle Size

The size of dust particles, pollen, bacteria, virus and many more.

PE Polyethylene - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of Polyethylene - PEH - to common products.

Pentane - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and table showing density and specific weight of pentane, C5H12, at temperatures ranging from -130 to 325 °C (-200 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Pentane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of pentane, also called n-pentane. Phase diagram included.

Permeability

Electromagnetism and formation of magnetic fields.

Petroleum Products - Average Boiling Points

Definition, explanation and examples of calculation of various types of average boiling point of petroleum products and other mixtures of hydrocarbons: VABP, MABP, WABP, CABP and MeABP.

Petroleum Products - Standard Test Methods (ASTM and others) and Specifications

An overview of common test methods and specifications of petroleum fuels. What, why and how do the different test?

pH in Human Biological Material

pH in human materials like blood, salvia and more.

Phenols, alcohols and carboxylic acids - pKa values

For oxygen containing organic compounds this is given: pKa (the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant), molecular structures, molar weights, density and melting and boiling points.

Plastics - Abbreviations

Commonly used plastic abbreviations.

Plastics - Recycling Codes and Labeling

Symbol codes and labeling used for recycling plastic products like bottles, containers and packagin.

Plastics - Thermal Conductivity Coefficients

Thermal conductivity of plastics.

Plato and Brix vs. Specific Gravity

Convert between units like Plato, Brix and SG (Specific Gravity) used to measure sucrose dissolved in water.

Polyester - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of Polyester to products like Acetic acid, Diesel oil and others.

Polymers - Physical Properties

Densities, tensile strength, elongation, Youngs modulus and Brinell hardness.

Polymers - Specific Heats

Specific heat of polymers like epoxy, PET, polycarbonate and more.

Polyurethane - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of Polyurethane (PUR).

Porosity

Volume not occupied by solid material.

Potassium - Thermophysical Properties vs. Temperature

Thermophysical properties of potassium.

PP Polypropylene - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of Polypropylene - PP - to acids, bases, organic substances and solvents.

Propane - Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of propane, C3H8, at temperatures ranging from -187 to 725 °C (-305 to 1300 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Propane - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of liquid and gaseous propane at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Propane - Prandtl Number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables with Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous propane at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Propane - Specific Heat vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculators, figures and tables with specific heat, Cp and Cv, of gasous and liquid propane, C3H8 vs. temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units .

Propane - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of liquid and gaseous propane at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Propane - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables showing thermal diffusivity of liquid and gaseous propane at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Propane - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of propane gas - C3H8.

Propane Butane Mixture - Evaporation Pressure

Evaporation pressure of propane butane mixture vs. temperature.

Propylene Glycol based Heat-Transfer Fluids

Freezing points of propylene glycol based heat-transfer fluids suitable for the food processing industry.

PVC Polyvinyl Chloride - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of Polyvinyl Chloride PVC.

R22 Refrigerant - Properties

Properties of Refrigerant R22 Dichlorodifluoromethane - saturated liquid and saturated vapor - imperial and metric units.

Radiation Emissivity Coefficients

Radiation emissivity of common materials like water, ice, snow, grass and more.

Refractive Index common Liquids, Solids and Gases

Some common fluids and their refractive index.

Refrigerants - Environmental Properties

Physical and environmental properties of some common refrigerants.

Refrigerants - Physical Properties

Physical properties of refrigerants - molecular weight, boiling, freezing and critical points.

Rubbers and Elastomers - Chemical Resistance

Rsistance to chemicals - solvents and softeners - swelling properties.

SAE Multigrade Oils - Viscosities and Densities

Viscosities and densities of SAE Grade oils.

Saturated Ice and Steam - Thermodynamic Properties

Thermodynamic properties of saturated ice and steam - specific volume, enthalpy and entropy.

Saturated Salt Solutions and control of Air Humidity

A salt solutions can be used maintain a particular value of relative humidity.

Seawater - Properties

Seawater properties like density, saturation pressure, specific heat, electrical conductivity and absolute viscosity.

Silicone - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of silicone.

Silver Binary Eutectic Alloys - Melting Points

Ag - Silver - binary eutectic alloys and melting points.

Slurry - Density

Calculate density of a slurry.

Sodium Chloride Water Solutions

Freezing point, density, specific heat and dynamic viscosity of Sodium Chloride and Water coolant.

Soft or Hard Water

Carbonates dissolved in water.

Softwood Lumber - Standard Sizes

Nominal and minimum-dressed lumber sizes.

Soil - Earth Weight and Composition

Typical weight and composition of soil.

Solids - Densities

Densities of selected solids.

Solids - Melting and Boiling Temperatures

Melting and boiling temperatures of some products.

Solids - Specific Heats

Common solids - like brick, cement, glass and many more - and their specific heats - in Imperial and SI units.

Solids and Metals - Specific Gravities

Specific gravity for common solids and metals like aluminum, asbestos, brass, calcium and many others.

Solids, Liquids and Gases - Thermal Conductivities

Thermal conductivity coefficients for insulation materials, aluminum, asphalt, brass, copper, steel, gases and more.

Solubility of Air in Water

The amount of air that can be dissolved in water decreases with temperature and increases with pressure.

Solubility of Gases in Water

Solubility of Ammonia, Argon, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Chlorine, Ethane, Ethylene, Helium, Hydrogen, Hydrogen Sulfide, Methane, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Sulfur Dioxide in water.

Solubility product constants

The equilibrium constant, Ksp, for aqueous solutions of ionic compounds at 25°C.

Solutions, Molarity and Dilution

Definitions and examples of how to calculate wt%, molarity and how to prepare dilutions.

Specific Heat - Online Unit Converter

Online specific heat converter with the most commonly used units.

Specific Heat of common Substances

Specific heat of products like wet mud, granite, sandy clay, quartz sand and more.

Stainless Steel Classifications

Stainless steels are commonly grouped into martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels.

Stainless Steels - Identification Tests

Magnetic, spark, hardness and acid identification tests for austenitic, martensitic and ferritic stainless steels.

Standard enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, entropy and molar heat capacity of organic substances

The standard enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, entropy and molar heat capacity are tabulated for more than hundred organic substances.

Standard State and Enthalpy of Formation, Gibbs Free Energy of Formation, Entropy and Heat Capacity

Definition and explanation of the terms standard state and standard enthalpy of formation, with listing of values for standard enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation, as well as standard entropy and molar heat capacity, of 370 inorganic compounds.

Steel Tempering Colors

The tempering process of hardening steel.

Stone - Weight and Strength

Weight and strength of sandstone, granite, limestone, marble and slate.

Stone Masonry

Typical strength of stone masonry constructions.

STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure and NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure

The definition of STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure and NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure.

Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

The most common strong acids and bases, and some examples of weak acids and bases, together with definition of strong and weak acids and bases.

Structural Lumber - Section Sizes

Basic size, area, moments of inertia and section modulus for timber - metric units.

Sugar Solubility in Water

Solubility of sugar in water.

Sugar Water Solutions - Viscosities

Dynamic viscosities of sucrose water solutions vs. temperature.

Sulfur Dioxide Liquid - Thermal Properties

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and more.

Sulfuric Acid - Density

Density of sulfuric acid at various temperatures and concentrations.

Supercooled Water - Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature

Undercooled water and vapor pressure.

Surface Tension of Water in contact with Air

Surface tension of water in contact with air for temperatures ranging 0 to 100oC (32 to 212oF) - in imperial units (BG units) and SI units.

Thermal Expansion - Linear Expansion Coefficients

Linear temperature expansion coefficients for common materials like aluminum, copper, glass, iron and many more.

Thermodynamics Key Values Internationally Agreed

Internationally agreed, internally consistent, values for the thermodynamic properties (standard enthalpy of formation, entropy and [H°(298)-H°(0)]) of key chemical substances.

Thermoplastic Pipes - Strength Derating vs. Temperature

Increased temperatures derates the strength of thermoplastic piping materials.

Thermoplastics - Physical Properties

Physical properties of thermoplastics like ABS, PVC, CPVC, PE, PEX, PB and PVDF.

Toluene - Density and Specific Weight vs. Teemperature and Pressure

Density and specific weight of liquid toluene.

Toluene - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of toluene, also called methylbenzene, toluol and phenylmethane. Phase diagram included.

Toluene Liquid - Thermal Properties vs- Temperature

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and more.

Triple Point

Triple points for common substances.

U.S. Standard Atmosphere vs. Altitude

Properties of the US standard atmosphere ranging -5000 to 250000 ft altitude.

Universal and Individual Gas Constants

The Universal and Individual Gas Constants in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. Individual gas constants for the most common gases.

UNS - Unified Numbering System

The Unified Numbering System - UNS - used for metals and alloys.

Valves - Plastic Materials

An introduction to plastic materials used in valves.

Vinyl Ester - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of Vinyl Ester to products as Acetone, Alcohol, Diesel oil and more.

Viscosity - Absolute (Dynamic) vs. Kinematic

Vicosity is a fluid's resistance to flow and can be valued as dynamic (absolute) or kinematic.

Viscosity - Converter Chart

Convert between viscosity units like Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU.

Water - Boiling Points at Vacuum Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.

Water - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficients

Definitions, online calculator and figures and tables with water properties like density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 680°F).

Water - Dynamic (Absolute) and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Free online calculator - figures and tables with viscosity of water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 675°F) - Imperial and SI Units.

Water - Enthalpy (H) and Entropy (S) vs. Temperature

Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units.

Water - Heat of Vaporization vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.

Water - Ionization Constant, pKw, of Normal and Heavy water

Ionization constant (= dissociation constant = self-ionization constant = ion product = autoprotolysis constant ) of water and heavy water, given as function of temperature (°C and °F) in figures and tables.

Water - Prandtl Number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables with Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Water - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).

Water - Properties vs. Temperature and Pressure

Liquid water properties at temperatures between melting point and boiling point and pressures of 14.7 psia, 1000 psia and 10000 psia (1 atm, 68.1atm and 681 atm).

Water - Saturation Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables with water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging 0 to 370 °C (32 to 700°F) - in Imperial and SI Units.

Water - Saturation Pressure and Specific Weight vs. Temperature

Vapor pressure and specific weight of water at temperatures ranging 32 to 212 oF - Imperial Units.

Water - Specific Gravity vs. Temperature

Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference.

Water - Specific Heat vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.

Water - Specific Volume vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables showing Specific Volume of water at temperatures ranging from 0-370 °C and 32 - 700 °F - Imperial and IS Units.

Water - Speed of Sound vs. Temperature

Speed of sound in water at temperatures ranging 32 - 212oF (0 - 100oC) - Imperial and SI units.

Water - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature

Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Water - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables with thermal diffusivity of liquids and gaseous water at varying temperarures and pressures - SI and Imperial units.

Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermal properties of water at different temperatures like density, freezing temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of melting, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.

Water Boiling Point vs. Altitude

Elevation above sea level and the boiling point of water.

Water Boiling Points at Higher Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

Water Content in Food and other Products

Water content before and after drying - in food and other products cork, grain, soap, peat, wood and more.

Water Vapor - Specific Heat vs. Temperature

Specific heat of Water Vapor - H2O - at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K.

Water vs. Steam - Critical and Triple Points

Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

Wood - Combustion Heat Values

Combustion of wood and firewood heat values for species like Pine, Elm, Hickory and more.

Wood - Densities of Various Species

Densities of various wood species - apple, ash, cedar, elm and more.

Wood - Density vs. Moisture Content

The density of wood versus moisture content.

Wood Hardness

Soft and hardwood - the Janka Hardness scale.

Wood Species - Moisture Content and Weight

Weight of green and air-dried fire wood.

Wrought and Cast Copper Alloys - Properties Database

A searchable database of properties for wrought and cast copper alloys.

Yield structure of crude oils with increasing density of crude

Yields of different crude oil distillation cuts are plotted as function of whole crude specific gravity. Fractions based on European and North American markets, and the typical differences in crude oil fractionation in the two markets are also shown.

Young's Modulus, Tensile Strength and Yield Strength Values for some Materials

Young's Modulus (or Tensile Modulus alt. Modulus of Elasticity) and Ultimate Tensile Strength and Yield Strength for materials like steel, glass, wood and many more.

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