Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

Material Properties

Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more

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Density

Density of different solid materials, liquids and gases. Definitions and convertion calculators.

Boiling point

Documents giving boiling point of elements and different kind of chemical species at varying conditions

Melting point - freezing point

Documents giving melting or freezing point of elements and different kind of chemical species at varying conditions

Viscosity

Documents giving viscosity of different kind of chemical species at varying conditions

Absolute, Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Dynamic, absolute and kinematic viscosities - convert between CentiStokes (cSt), centipoises (cP), Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU) and degree Engler

Acetone - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of acetone at temperatures ranging from -95 to 275 °C (-138 to 530 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Acetone - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of acetone, also called 2-propanone, dimethyl ketone and pyroacetic acid. Phase diagram included.

Acetylene - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Acetylene

Acid and base pH indicators

Colors and pH range for color change of acid base indicators is given together with pKa and structures of the indicators

Acid-base properties of aqueous solutions of salts with ions from both acids and bases

Many salts contains ions that affect the pH in an aqueous solution in both acidic and basic direction

Acids - pH Values

pH of common acids like sulfuric, acetic and more

Air - Altitude, Density and Specific Volume

Density and the specific volume of air vary with elevation above sea level

Air - Composition and Molecular Weight

Dry air is a mechanical mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, argon and several other gases in minor amounts

Air - Density at varying pressure and constant temperatures

Figures and tables showing changes in air density at pressure varying from 1 to 10 000 bara (14.5 - 145000 psi) and constant, selected temperatures. Figures are given in different scales.

Air - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient at Varying Temperature and Constant Pressures

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient of air at temperatures ranging -100 to 1600 °C (-140 to 2900 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Air - Diffusion Coefficients of Gases in Excess of Air

Diffusion coefficients, D12, for gases in large excess of air at temperature varying from 0 - 400 °C

Air - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic (absolute) and kinematic viscosity of air at temperatures ranging from -100 to 1600°C (-150 to 2900°F) at pressure ranging from 1 to 10 000 bara (14.5 - 145000 psia) - SI and Imperial Units

Air - Molecular Weight and Composition

Dry air is a mixture of gases where the average molecular weight (or molar mass) can be calculated by adding the weight of each component

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Air - Prandtl Number

Figures and table showing changes in Prandtl number for air with changes in temperature and pressure

Air - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of air changes along the boiling and condensation curves (temperature and pressure between triple point and critical point conditions). An air phase diagram are also given.

Air - Specific Heat at Constant Pressure and Varying Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables showing how specific heat (Cp and Cv) of dry air vary with temperature at different pressures, SI and imperial units

Air - Specific Heat at Constant Temperature and Varying Pressure

Figures and table showing isobaric (Cp) and isochoric (Cv) specific heat of air at constant temperature and varying pressure ranging 0.01 to 10000 bara

Air - Thermal Conductivity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing air thermal conductivity at varying temperature and pressure, SI and imperial units.

Air - Thermal Diffusivity

Figures and tables showing dry air thermal diffusivity at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Air - Thermophysical Properties

Thermal properties of air - density, viscosity, critical temperature and pressure, triple point, enthalpi and entropi, thermal conductivity and diffusicity, and more

Air Properties - Imperial Units

Thermodynamic properties of air at low pressures - imperial units

Air Properties - SI Units

Ideal gas properties of air at low pressures - in SI units

Air Solubility in Water

Amount of air that can be dissolved in water - decreases with temperature and increases with pressure

AISI/SAE Steel - Numbering System

AISI/SAE steel numbers

Alcohols and carboxylic acids - physical data

Molweight, melting and boiling point, density, pKa-values, as well as number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in each molecule are given for 150 different alcohols and acids

Alloy Steels

An alloy steel has properties due to elements other than carbon

Alloys of Metals - Melting Points

Alloys of metals and their melting points

Alternative Fuels - Properties

Properties of alternative fuels like Biodiesel, E85, CNG and more

Aluminum - Melting Points of Binary Eutectic Alloys

Al - Aluminum - binary eutectic alloys and melting points

Aluminum Alloys - Mechanical Properties

Mechanical properties of some common aluminum alloys

Aluminum Alloys - Mechanical Properties

Mechanical properties of aluminum alloys - tensile strength, yield strength and more

Amines, diamines and cyclic organic nitrogen compounds - pKa values

Values for the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant, pKa, of the conjugated acid of amines, diamines and cyclic organic nitrogen compounds, shown together with the molecular structure of the acids.

Ammonia - Density at Varying Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ammonia at temperatures ranging -50 to 425 °C (-50 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Ammonia - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic (absolute) and kinematic viscosity of gasous and liquid ammonia at temperatures ranging from -73 to 425°C (-100 to 800°F) at pressure ranging from 1 to 1000 bara (14.5 - 14500 psia) - SI and Imperial Units

Ammonia - Prandtl Number

Figures and table showing changes in Prandtl number for ammonia with changes in temperature and pressure

Ammonia - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of liquid and gaseous ammonia changes along the boiling/condensation curve (temperature and pressure between triple point and critical point conditions). An ammonia phase diagram are included.

Ammonia - Specific heat (heat capacity) at varying temperature and pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat (heat capacity), CP and CV, of gasous and liquid ammonia at temperatures ranging from -73 to 425°C (-100 to 800°F) at pressure ranging from 1 to 100 bara (14.5 - 1450 psia) - SI and Imperial Units

Ammonia - Thermal Conductivity at Varying Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of liquid and gaseous ammonia at temperatures ranging -70 to 425 °C (-100 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Ammonia - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Ammonia. Phase diagram included.

Ammonia - Vapour Pressure at gas-liquid equilibrium

Figures and table showing ammonia saturation pressure at boiling point, SI and Imperial units

Antifreeze and Required Amount

Protected cooling system temperature and required amount of antifreeze

Antifreeze Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol

Comparing ethylene glycol and propylene glycol properties as antifreeze

API Gravity

API gravity express the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products. Conversion calculator API - specific gravity

Argon - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of argon, Ar, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Argon - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Argon

Arsenic - Melting Points of Binary Eutectic Alloys

As - Arsenic - binary eutectic alloys and melting points

Autoignition temperature and flash point of different hydrocarbons

Autoignition temperature and flash point ( °C and °F) of different types of hydrocarbons with varying carbon number up to C12

Average boiling point

Definition, explanation and examples of calculation of various types of average boiling point of petroleum products and other mixtures of hydrocarbons: VABP, MABP, WABP, CABP and MeABP

Average boiling point from gravity and molecular weight

Formulas and examples of calculation of boiling point of hydrocarbon mixtures from gravity and molecular weight

Bases - pH Values

Some common bases as sodium hydroxide, ammonia and more

Benzene - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and table showing density and specific weight of benzene, C6H6, at temperatures ranging from 5 to 325 °C (42 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Benzene - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and table showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of benzene, C6H6, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Benzene - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of benzene, also called benzol. Phase diagram included.

Benzene Gas - Specific Heat

Specific heat of Benzene Gas - C6H6 - at temperatures ranging 250 - 900 K

Benzene Liquid - Thermal Properties

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity ...

BHN - Brinell Hardness Number

The Brinell hardness test of metals and alloys

Boiling Point of Water and Altitude

Elevation and boiling point of water

Boiling Points for common Liquids and Gases

Boiling points of some common liquids and gases - acetone, butane, propane ..

Brick Densities

Densities of common types of bricks

Brix Scale

Brix vs. Specific Gravity and Plato - content of sucrose - used in the sugar, fruit juice and wine making industry

Bulk Modulus and Fluid Elasticity

Introduction to - and definition of - Bulk Modulus Elasticity commonly used to characterize compressibility of fluids

Butane - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculators, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of liquid and gaseous butane, C4H10, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Butane - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculators, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of liquid and gaseous butane, C4H10, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Butane - Specific Heat (Heat Capacity)

Online calculators, figures and tables showing specific heat (heat capacity), Cp and Cv, of gasous and liquid butane, C4H10, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Butane - Thermal Conductivity

Online calculators, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of liquid and gaseous butane, C4H10, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Butane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of n-Butane

Calcium Chloride and Water

Freezing point, density, specific heat and dynamic viscosity of Calcium Chloride Water coolant

Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Classifications

Steel is considered to be carbon steel when no minimum content is specified or required for chromium, cobalt, columbium (niobium), molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, vanadium or zirconium

Carbon dioxide - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of carbon dioxide, CO2, at temperatures ranging from -50 to 775 °C (-50 to 1400 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Carbon Dioxide - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and table showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of carbon dioxide, CO2, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Carbon dioxide - Prandtl Number

Figures and table showing changes in Prandtl number for carbon dioxide with changes in temperature and pressure

Carbon dioxide - Thermal Conductivity

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of carbon dioxide, CO2, at temperatures ranging from -50 to 775 °C (-50 to 1400 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Carbon Dioxide - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of carbon dioxide. Phase diagram included.

Carbon Dioxide Gas - Specific Heat

Specific heat of Carbon Dioxide gas - CO2 - temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K

Carbon Dioxide Properties

Properties of saturated liquid Carbon Dioxide - CO2 - density, specific heat, kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number

Carbon Dioxide Properties - Imperial Units

Properties of saturated liquid Carbon Dioxide - CO2 - density, specific heat, kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number

Carbon Monoxide - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of carbon monoxide, CO, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Carbon Monoxide - Specific Heat

Carbon Monoxide Gas - CO - specific heat of at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K

Carbon Monoxide - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Carbon Monoxide - CO

Ceramic Materials Properties

Physical properties of ceramics

Chemical Resistance of Rubbers and Elastomers

Rsistance to chemicals - solvents and softeners - swelling properties

Coefficients of Linear Thermal Expansion

Linear temperature expansion coefficients for aluminum, copper, glass, iron and other common materials

Combustion from Fuels - Carbon Dioxide Emission

Environmental emission of carbon dioxide CO2 when combustion fuels like coal, oil, natural gas, LPG and bio energy

Combustion of Wood - Heat Values

Firewood and combustion of wood heat values - for species like Pine, Elm, Hickory and more

Composition of Steels

Typical composition of steels

Compressed Water Properties

Specific volume, enthalpy and entropy of compressed water

Compression and Tension Strength of some common Materials

Common materials and average ultimate compression and tension strength

Concrete - Properties

Properties of normal strength Portland cement concrete

Concrete Mixtures

Cement, sand and gravel mixtures

Copper Alloys and Typical Applications

Typical use of copper alloys in architecture, automotive, electrical, building wire, energy, tube, pipe fittings, fuel gas, industrial and marine applications

Copper Binary Eutectic Alloys - Melting Points

Cu - Copper - binary eutectic alloys and melting points

Copper, Zinc and Tin Alloys

Strength of Copper, Zinc and Tin alloys

CPVC - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of CPVC - Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) - pipes

Crude oil metal (Ni, V) content as function of gravity

Content of nickel and vanadium in more than 120 crudes is shown as function of specific gravity@15°C/60°F

Crude oil viscosity as function of gravity

Viscosity at 20°C/68°F and 50°C/122°F for more than 120 crudes is shown as function of specific gravity@15°C/60°F

Cryogenic Fluids - or Liquefied Gas Properties

Cryogenic properties as density, boiling points and heat of evaporation for fluids like hydrogen, methane, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine and helium

Densities of Common Materials

Densities of common products in both Imperial and SI-units

Densities of Solids

Densities of common solids

Densities of Wood Species

Densities of wood species like apple, ash, cedar, elm and more

Density Converter

Online density converter with commonly used units

Density of aqueous solutions of inorganic chlorides

Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of inorganic chlorides in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.

Density of aqueous solutions of inorganic potassium salts

Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of potassium salts in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.

Density of aqueous solutions of inorganic sodium salts

Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of inorganic sodium salts in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.

Density of aqueous solutions of organic acids

Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, D-lactic acid, oxalic acid and trichloroacetic acid in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.

Density of aqueous solutions of organic substances as sugars and alcohols

Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of some sugars, alcohols and other organic substances in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.

Density of aqueous solutions of some inorganic substances

Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of inorganic substances in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.

Density of crude oil as function of temperature

Variations in crude oil density are shown as function of temperatur, together with volume correction factors.

Density of fuel oils as function of temperature

Variations in fuel oils density are shown as function of temperatur, together with volume correction factors

Density of jet fuel as function of temperature

Variations in jet fuel density are shown as function of temperatur, together with volume correction factors.

Density of lubricating oil as function of temperature

Variations in lubricating oil density are shown as function of temperatur, together with volume correction factors.

Density, Specific Weight and Specific Gravity

An introduction to density, specific gravity and specific weight - formulas with examples

Dichlorodifluoromethane Properties

Properties of saturated liquid Dichlorodifluoromethane R-12 - CCl2F2 - density, specific heat capacity, kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number

Dichlorodifluoromethane Properties - Imperial Units

Properties of saturated liquid Dichlorodifluoromethane - CCl2F2 - density, specific heat, kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number

Dielectric Constants of common Liquids

Common fluids and dielectric constants or permittivities

Diffusion Coefficients of Gases in Water

Diffusion flux [kg/m2s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m2/s] are given for several gases in water

Dimethyl Propylmethane Gas - Specific Heat

Specific heat of Dimethyl Propylmethane Gas - C6H18 - at temperatures ranging 250 - 800 K

Dirt and Mud - Densities

Densities - pound per cubic foot and kilograms per cubic metre - for dirt and mud

Ditch Filling Materials - Densities

Weight or density of ditch filling materials

Dry Air Properties

Dry air properties at temperatures ranging 175 - 1900 K - specific heat, ratio of specific heats, dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, density and kinematic viscosity

Drying Temperatures and Time for common Products

Drying temperature and time for common products - like food, coffee, fruits, lumber and more

Dust Explosions - Critical Temperatures and Concentrations

Critical temperatures and concentration parameters for substances like coal, zinc, uranium and more

Dynamic Viscosity of common Liquids

Absolute - dynamic - viscosity for some common fluids

Elastomers

Natural and syntetic rubbers

Elements - Melting Points

Melting points of the elements

Elements of the Periodic System

The elements of the periodic system with names, symbols, atomic numbers and weights, melting and boiling points, density, electronegativity and electron affinity, and electron configuration

Emissivity Coefficients for some common Materials

Radiation emissivities of some common materials like water, ice, snow, grass and more

Emissivity Coefficients Materials

The radiation heat transfer emissivity coefficient of some common materials as aluminum, brass, glass and many more

Engineering Materials

Typical properties of engineering materials like steel, plastics, ceramics and composites

Epoxy - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of Epoxy to common products as Acetic acid, Alcohol, Diesel oil and more

Ethane - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ethane, C2H6, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Ethane - Thermal Conductivity

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of ethane, C2H6, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Ethane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Ethane - C2H6

Ethane Gas - Specific Heat

Specific heat of Ethane Gas - C2H6 - for temperatures ranging 250 - 900 K

Ethane Liquid - Thermal Properties

Density, specific heat and more of liquid ethane

Ethanol - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of ethanol, C2H5OH, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Ethanol - Specific Heat (Heat Capacity), Cp and Cv

Online calculators, figures and tables showing specific heat (heat capacity), Cp and Cv, of gasous and liquid ethanol at temperatures ranging from -25 to 325 °C (-10 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Ethanol - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethanol (also called alcohol or ethyl alcohol). Phase diagram included.

Ethanol Freeze Protected Water Solutions

Freezing and flash points of ethanol based water solutions or brines

Ethylene - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ethylene, C2H4, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Ethylene - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of ethylene, C2H4, also called ethene or acetene, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Ethylene - Thermal Conductivity

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of ethylene, also called ethene or acetene, C2H4, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Ethylene - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethylene, also called ethene, acetene and olefiant gas. Phase diagram included.

Ethylene Gas - Specific Heat

Specific heat of Ethylene Gas - C2H4 - temperatures ranging 175 - 900 K

Ethylene Glycol Heat-Transfer Fluid

Freezing point, viscosity, specific gravity and specific heat of ethylene glycol based heat-transfer fluids, or brines

Fibre-reinforced Polymer Composites

Mechanical properties of fibers used to reinforce polymer composites

Flash Point

A flash point indicates how easy a chemical may ignite and burn

Float Glass - Weight

Weight of float glass

Fluids - Latent Heat of Evaporation

Latent heat of vaporization of fluids - alcohol, ether, nitrogen, water and more

Fluids - Specific Gravities

Specific gravities for some common fluids like acetone, alcohol, turpentine, oil and more ..

Food and Foodstuff - pH Values

pH in common food products - like apples, butter, wines and more ..

Food Products - Bulk Densities

Bulk densities of some common food products

Food Products - Viscosities

Absolute or dynamic viscosity for some common food products

Fossil and Alternative Fuels - Energy Content

Listing of net (low) and gross (high) energy content in fossil and alternative fuels, together with a description of energy content measurement

Freezing and Melting Points for common Liquids

Common fluids and their freezing and melting points

Fuels - Density and Specific Volume

Densities and specific volumes of some common fuels - anthracite, butane, gasoil, diesel, coke, oil, wood and more

Fuels Properties Database

Online petroleum-based fuels properties database

Fusion and Evaporation Heat of common Materials

Melting points, heat of fusions, boiling points and heat to evaporate common substances - like hydrogen, water, gold and more ..

Gas Data

Online database with gas properties

Gases - Density

Densities and molecular weights of some common gases - acetylene, air, methane, nitrogen, oxygen and others ..

Gases - Dynamic Viscosity

Absolute viscosities of gases

Gases - Molar Specific Heat

Molar specific heats of gases at constant volume

Gases - Specific Gravities

Specific gravity of air, ammonia, butadiene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and some other common gases

Glycerine - Boiling and Freezing Points

Boiling and freezing points of glycerine aqueous solutions

Gold - Melting Points of Binary Eutectic Alloys

Au - Gold - binary eutectic alloys and melting points

Heat Capacity

The heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat required to change its temperature by one degree, and has units of energy per degree

Heat of combustion

Tabulated values of heat of combustion (= energy content) of common substances, together with examples showing how to calculate the heat of combustion

Heavy Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D2O) - density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more

Helium - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of helium, He, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Helium - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Helium - He

Human Body and Specific Heat

Specific heat of the human body - compared to substances like protein and wood

Hydrocarbones - Vapor Pressure

Vapor pressure versus temperature for propane, n-butane, n-heptane and n-pentane

Hydrocarbons - physical data

Molweight, melting and boiling point, density, flash point and autoignition temperature, as well as number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in each molecule are given for 200 different hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons, alcohols and acids - boiling points

Boiling temperature (°C and °F) with varying carbon number up to C33

Hydrocarbons, linear alcohols and acids - density

Density of different types of hydrocarbons, alcohols and acids as function of carbon number, at 20°C / 68°F

Hydrogen - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of hydrogen, H2, at temperatures ranging from -260 to 325 °C (-435 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Hydrogen - Specific Heat

Specific heat of Hydrogen Gas - H2 - at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K

Hydrogen - Thermal Conductivity

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of hydrogen, H2, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Hydrogen - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Hydrogen - H2

Hydrogen sulfide - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of hydrogen sulfide, H2S, also called hydrosulfuric acid, sewer gas and stink damp. Phase diagram included.

Ice - Thermal Properties

Thermal and thermodynamic properties of ice - density, thermal conductivity and specific heat at temperatures from 0 to -100 oC

Ice - Thickness and Safe Load

Safe loads for clear and solid ice

Identification Tests for Stainless Steels

Magnetic, spark, hardness and acid identification tests of austenitic, martensitic and ferritic stainless steels

Industrial Lubricants - Viscosities equivalent ISO-VG Grade

ISO-VG viscosity grades for industrial lubricants

Inorganic acids and bases - pKa values

Values for the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant, pKa, of inorganic acids and bases, as well as hydrated metal ions

Iron - Melting Points of Binary Eutectic Alloys

Fe - Iron - binary eutectic alloys and melting points

ISO Grade Oils - Viscosities and Densities

Viscosities and densities of ISO - and equivalent SAE grade oils

Isopropanol (2-Propanol) based Freeze Protected Water Solutions

Freezing and flash points of isopropanol (2-Propanol) based water solutions or brines

Latent Heat of Melting for some common Materials

Latent heat of fusion when changing between solid or liquid state for common materials like aluminum, ammonia, glycerin, water and more

Lead - Melting Points of Binary Eutectic Alloys

Pb - Lead (Plumbum) - binary eutectic alloys and melting points

Liquid ammonia - Thermal Properties at saturation pressure

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity and Prandtls no. of liquid ammonia at its saturation pressure

Liquid Densities

Densities of common liquids like acetone, beer, oil, water and more

Liquid Water - Properties at various Temperature and Pressure

Liquid water properties at temperatures between melting point and boiling point and pressures of 14.7 psia, 1000 psia and 10000 psia (1 atm, 68.1atm and 681 atm)

Liquids - Kinematic Viscosities

Kinematic viscosities of common liquids like motor oil, diesel fuel, peanut oil and many more

Liquids - Specific Gravities

Specific gravity of common liquids and fluids like alcohol, oils, benzene, water and many more

Lumber - Weights

Weights of green, kiln dried and pressure treated lumber boards

Magnesium - Melting Points of Binary Eutectic Alloys

Mg - Magnesium - binary eutectic alloys and melting points

Malleability, Brittlenes and Ductility

Plastic deformation properties

Melting and Boiling Point, Density and Solubility in Water for Inorganic Compounds

Physical constants for more than 280 common inorganic compounds. Density is given for the actual state at 25°C and for liquid phase at melting point temperature.

Melting and Boiling Temperatures - Evaporation and Melting Heats of common Materials

Melting and boiling point temperatures, latent heat of evaporation, and melting heat of common substances like copper, gold, lead and more - SI units

Melting point from molecular weight

Calculation of melting point of hydrocarbons from molecular weight (molar mass)

Melting points of hydrocarbons, alcohols and acids

Melting temperature (°C and °F) with varying carbon number up to C33

Melting points of oils

Common oils from animals or plants and their melting points

Mercury Properties

Properties of saturated liquid Mercury - Hg - density, specific heat capacity, kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number

Metal Alloys - Specific Heats

Specific heat of metal alloys like brass, bronze and more

Metals - as Liquids

Boiling points and specific heat of liquid metals

Metals - Boiling Temperatures

Metals and their boiling temperatures

Metals - Galvanic Series in Seawater

Galvanic series of metals in seawater

Metals - Latent Heat of Fusion

Metals and their latent heat of fusion

Metals - Melting Temperatures

Melting temperatures of some common metals and alloys

Metals and Alloys - Bulk Modulus

Bulk modulus of some common metals and alloys

Metals and Alloys - Densities

Density of some common metals and alloys - aluminum, bronze, copper, iron and more ..

Metals and Corrosion Resistance

Common metals and their corrosion resistance to aggressive fluids like acids, bases and more

Metals Machinability

Machinability of metals

Methane - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of methane, CH4, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Methane - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of methane, CH4, at temperatures ranging from -160 to 725 °C (-260 to 1300 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Methane - Prandtl number

Figures and table showing changes in Prandtl number for methane with changes in temperature and pressure

Methane - Thermal Conductivity

Online calculator, figures and table showing thermal conductivity of methane, CH4, at temperatures ranging from -160 to 725 °C (-260 to 1300 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Methane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Methane - CH4. Phase diagram included.

Methane Gas - Specific Heat

Specific heat of Methane Gas - CH4 - at temperatures ranging 200 - 1100 K

Methanol - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of methanol,CH3OH, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Methanol - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of liquid methanol,CH3OH, at varying temperature - Imperial and SI Units

Methanol - Freeze Protected Heat Transfer Liquid

Freezing and flash points for methanol or methyl based heat-transfer fluids or brines

Methanol - Specific Heat (Heat Capacity)

Online calculator, figures and tables showing isobaric and isochoric heat capacity (specific heat) of methanol, CH3OH, at varying temperature - Imperial and SI Units

Methanol - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of methanol, CH3OH (also called carbinol, wood alcohol, hydroxy methyl and methyl alcohol). Phase diagram included.

Methanol - Thermophysical Properties at varying temperature

Thermophysical properties of methanol

Minerals - Density

Densities of minerals

Minerals and some other materials - Specific Gravities

Specific gravity of some common minerals and other materials

Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness

Qualitative ordinal scale that characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals

Molecular Weight - Common Substances

Definition and molecular weight (molar mass) of some common substances

Molecular weight from average boiling point and gravity

Formula and examples of calculation of average molecular weight of hydrocarbon mixtures from gravity and average boiling point, achieved from distillation data.

Molybdenum - Melting Points of Binary Eutectic Alloys

Mo - Molybdenum - binary eutectic alloys and melting points

Nickel - Melting Points of Binary Eutectic Alloys

Ni - Nickel - binary eutectic alloys and melting points

Nitrogen - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of nitrogen, N2, at temperatures ranging from -175 to 1325 °C (-280 to 2400 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Nitrogen - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of nitrogen, N2, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Nitrogen - Prandtl number

Figures and tables showing Prandtl number of nitrogen at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Nitrogen - Specific Heat

Specific heat of Nitrogen Gas - N2 - at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K

Nitrogen - Thermal Conductivity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of nitrogen, N2, at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Nitrogen - Thermal Diffusivity

Figures and tables showing thermal diffusivity of nitrogen at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Nitrogen - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Nitrogen - N2

Octane Liquid - Thermal Properties

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and more

Organic nitrogen compounds - physical data

Boiling and melting points of amines, diamines, pyrroles, pyridines, piperidines and quinolines shown together with their molecular structures, as well as molweights and density.

Organic sulfur compounds - density

Liquid density of different kinds of organic sulfur compounds with varying carbon number (20°C/68°F). Comparison of thiols, sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes.

Organic sulfur compounds - physical data

Boiling and melting points of thoils, sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes shown together with molecular structures, as well as molweights and density.

Oxygen - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of oxygen, O2, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Oxygen - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of oxygen, O2, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Oxygen - Solubility in Fresh Water and Sea Water

Solubility of oxygen in equilibration with air in fresh water and sea (salt) water - pressures ranging 1 - 4 bar abs

Oxygen - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Oxygen - O2

Oxygen Gas - Specific Heat

Specific heat of Oxygen Gas - O2 - at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K

Particle Sizes

Sizes of airborne particles as dust, pollen bacteria, virus and many more

PE Polyethylene - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of polyethylene - PEH - pipes

Pentane - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and table showing density and specific weight of pentane, C5H12, at temperatures ranging from -130 to 325 °C (-200 to 620 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Pentane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of pentane, also called n-pentane. Phase diagram included.

Permeability

Electromagnetism and formation of magnetic fields

Phenols, alcohols and carboxylic acids - pKa values

For oxygen containing organic compounds this is given: pKa (the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant), molecular structures, molar weights, density and melting and boiling points.

Plastic Materials Used in Valves

An introduction to plastic materials commonly used in valves

Plastics - Abbreviations

Commonly used plastic abbreviations

Plastics - Recycling Codes and Labels

Symbols used for recycling plastic products like bottles, containers and packaging

Plastics - Thermal Conductivity Coefficients

Thermal conductivity of plastics

Plato and Brix to SG - Converting Chart

Convert between Plato, Brix and SG - Specific Gravity

Polyester - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of Polyester to products like Acetic acid, Diesel oil and others

Polymers - Physical Properties

Densities, tensile strength, elongation, Youngs modulus and Brinell hardiness

Polymers - Specific Heats

Specific heat of polymers like epoxy, PET, polycarbonate and more

Polypropylene PP - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of PolyPropylene - PP - to acids, bases, organic substances and solvents

Polyurethane - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of polyurethane - PUR

Porosity

Volume not occupied by solid material

Products - Moisture Content

The content of moisture in products - wet and dry basis

Propane - Density and Specific Weight

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of propane, C3H8, at temperatures ranging from -187 to 725 °C (-305 to 1300 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Propane - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculators, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of liquid and gaseous propane at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Propane - Prandtl Number

Figures and tables showing Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous propane at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Propane - Specific Heat (Heat Capacity)

Online calculators, figures and tables showing specific heat (heat capacity), Cp and Cv, of gasous and liquid propane, C3H8, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Propane - Thermal Conductivity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of liquid and gaseous propane at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Propane - Thermal Diffusivity

Figures and tables showing thermal diffusivity of liquid and gaseous propane at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Propane - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Propane Gas - C3H8

Propane Butane Mixures - Evaporation Pressures

Evaporation pressures of propane butane mixtures

Propylene Glycol based Heat-Transfer Fluids

Freezing points of propylene glycol based heat-transfer fluids - suitable for the food processing industry

Refractive Index for some common Liquids, Solids and Gases

Some common fluids and their refractive index

Refrigerant R22 - Properties

Properties of Refrigerant R22 Dichlorodifluoromethane - saturated liquid and saturated vapor - imperial and metric units

Refrigerants - Environmental Properties

Physical and environmental properties of some common refrigerants

Refrigerants - Physical Properties

Physical properties of refrigerants - molecular weight, boiling, freezing and critical points

SAE Multigrade Oils - Viscosities and Densities

Viscosity and density of SAE Grade oil

Saturated Ice and Steam

Thermodynamic properties of saturated ice and steam - specific volume, enthalpy and entropy

Saturated Salt Solutions and Air Humidity

A salt solutions can be used maintain a particular value of relative humidity

Sea Water Properties

Sea water - specific volume, specific heat and absolute viscosity

Shrinkage and estimation of density of a liquid-liquid solution

It is possible to estimate the density of a liquid-liquid solution from the density of the solute and the solvent. However, due to shrinkage, the estimate will be a bit too low.

Silicone - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of silicone

Silver - Melting Points of Binary Eutectic Alloys

Ag - Silver - binary eutectic alloys and melting points

Slurries - Densities

Calculate density of a slurry

Sodium Chloride and Water

Freezing point, density, specific heat and dynamic viscosity of Sodium Chloride and Water coolant

Soft and Hard Water

Carbonates dissolved in water

Softwood Lumber - Standard Sizes

Nominal and minimum-dressed lumber sizes

Soil - Weight and Composition of Earth

Typical weight and composition of soil

Solids - Melting and Boiling Temperatures

Melting and boiling temperatures of some products

Solids and Metals - Specific Gravities

Specific gravity for some common solids and metals like aluminum, asbestos, brass, calcium and many others

Solubility guidelines for ionic compounds in water

Guidelines or solubility rules to predict whether or not a given ionic compound is soluble in water at room temperature

Solubility of Gases in Water

Solubility of Ammonia, Argon, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Chlorine, Ethane, Ethylene, Helium, Hydrogen, Hydrogen Sulfide, Methane, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Sulfur Dioxide in water

Solubility product constants

The equilibrium constant, Ksp, for aqueous solutions of ionic compounds at 25°C.

Solutions, molarity and dilution

Definitions and examples of how to calculate wt%, molarity and prepare dilutions

Specific Heat - Online Unit Converter

Online specific heat converter with the most commonly used units

Specific Heat and Individual Gas Constant of Gases

Specific heat at constant volume, specific heat at constant pressure, specific heat ratio and individual gas constant - R - common gases as argon, air, ether, nitrogen and many more ..

Specific Heat of common Substances

Specific heat of materials like wet mud, granite, sandy clay, quartz sand and more

Specific Heat of Food and Foodstuff

Specific heat of common food and foodstuff like apples, bass, beef, pork and many more

Specific Heat of Liquids and Fluids

Common liquids and fluids - acetone, oil, paraffin, water and many more - and their specific heats

Specific Heat of Solids

Common solids - like brick, cement, glass and many more - and their specific heats - in Imperial and SI units

Specific Heat Ratio of Air

Specific Heat Ratio of air at temperatures from -40 - 1000oC (-40 - 1500oF) at standard atmospheric pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Specific Heats for Metals

Commonly used metals - aluminum, iron, mercury and many more - and their specific heats - imperial and SI units

Speed of Sound in Air

Speed of sound in air at temperatures from -40 to 1000oC (-40 to 1500oF) at standard atmospheric pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Speed of Sound in Water

Speed of sound in water at temperatures ranging 32 - 212oF (0 - 100oC) - Imperial and SI units

Stainless Steels Classifications

Stainless steels are commonly grouped into martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels

Standard enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, entropy and molar heat capacity of organic substances

The standard enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, entropy and molar heat capacity are tabulated for more than hundred organic substances.

Standard state and enthalpy of formation, Gibbs free energy of formation, entropy and heat capacity

Definition and explanation of the terms standard state and standard enthalpy of formation, with listing of values for standard enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation, as well as standard entropy and molar heat capacity, of 370 inorganic compounds

Standard test methods (ASTM and others) and specifications for petroleum products

An overview of common test methods and specifications of petroleum fuels. What, why and how do the different test?

Standard test methods (ASTM and others) for crude oil properties

An overview of common test methods and typical ranges of variation of petroleum quality parameters. What, why and how do the different test?

Steel Tempering Colors

The tempering process of hardening steel

Stone - Weight and Strength

Weight and strength of sandstone, granite, limestone, marble and slate

Stone Masonry

Typical strength of stone masonry constructions

STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure & NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure

The definition of STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure and NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure

Strong and weak acids and bases

The most common strong acids and bases, and some examples of weak acids and bases, together with definition of strong and weak acids and bases

Sugar Solutions - Viscosities

Dynamic viscosities of sucrose solutions at different temperatures

Sulfur Dioxide Liquid - Thermal Properties

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and more

Supercooled Water - Vapor Pressure

Undercooled water and vapor pressure

Surface Tension of Water in contact with Air

Surface tension of water in contact with air for temperatures ranging 0 to 100oC (32 to 212oF) - in imperial units (BG units) and SI units

Temperature and Strength of Metals

Influence of temperature on strength of metals

Thermal Conductivities for some common Liquids

Some fluids and their thermal conductivities

Thermal Conductivity of common Materials and Gases

Thermal conductivity of gases, insulation products, aluminum, asphalt, brass, copper, steel and other common materials

Thermal Conductivity of Metals

Thermal conductivity of common metals

Thermal Expansion of Metals

Thermal expansion of some common metals

Thermodynamics key values internationally agreed

Internationally agreed, internally consistent, values for the thermodynamic properties (standard enthalpy of formation, entropy and [H°(298)-H°(0)]) of key chemical substances

Thermoplastic Pipes - Temperature and Strength Derating

Increased temperature derates strength of thermoplastic piping materials

Thermoplastics - Physical Properties

Physical properties of some thermoplastics like ABS, PVC, CPVC, PE, PEX, PB and PVDF

Timber - Structural Lumber Section Sizes

Basic size, area, moments of inertia and section modulus for timber - metric units

Toluene - Density and Specific Weight

Linear temperature expansion coefficients for aluminum, copper, glass, iron and other common materials

Toluene - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of toluene, also called methylbenzene, toluol and phenylmethane. Phase diagram included.

Toluene Liquid - Thermal Properties

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and more

Triple Point

Triple points for some common substances

U.S. Standard Atmosphere

Properties of US standard atmosphere ranging -5000 to 250000 ft altitude

Universal and Individual Gas Constants

The Universal and Individual Gas Constants in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. Individual gas constant is given for the most common gases.

UNS - Unified Numbering System

The Unified Numbering System - UNS - used for metals and alloys

Vapor Pressure common Liquids

Vapor and saturation pressure for some common liquids

Vinyl Ester - Chemical Resistance

Chemical resistance of Vinyl Ester to products as Acetone, Alcohol, Diesel oil and more

Viscosity Converting Chart

Convert between the viscosity units Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU

Water - Boiling Points at High Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

Water - Boiling Points at Vacuum Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.

Water - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expantion Coefficient

Definitions, online calculator, figures and tables giving Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging from 0 to 360 °C and 32 to 680°F - in Imperial and SI Units

Water - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing viscosity of water at temperatures ranging from 0 to 360 °C (32 to 675 °F) - Imperial and SI Units

Water - Enthalpy (H) and Entropy (S)

Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units

Water - Heat Capacity (Specific Heat)

Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units

Water - Heat of Vaporization

Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units

Water - Ionization Constant, pKw, of normal and heavy water

Ionization constant (= dissociation constant = self-ionization constant = ion product = autoprotolysis constant ) of water and heavy water, given as function of temperature (°C and °F) in figures and tables

Water - Melting Points at High Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing melting points of water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

Water - Prandtl Number

Figures and tables showing Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Water - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).

Water - Saturation Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging from 0 to 370 °C and from 32 to 700°F - in Imperial and SI Units

Water - Saturation Pressure and Specific Weight

Vapor pressure and specific weight of water at temperatures ranging 32 to 212 oF - Imperial Units

Water - Specific Gravity

Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference

Water - Specific Volume

Online calculator, figures and tables showing Specific Volume of water at temperatures ranging from 0-370 °C and 32 - 700 °F - Imperial and IS Units

Water - Thermal Conductivity

Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Water - Thermal Diffusivity

Figures and tables showing thermal diffusivity of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermal properties of water - density, freezing temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of melting, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more

Water Content in Food and other Products

Water content before and after drying in food and other products cork, grain, soap, peat, wood and more

Water Steam - the Critical Point and the Triple Point

Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium

Water Vapor - Specific Heat

Specific heat of Water Vapor - H2O - at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K

Wood Density and Moisture Content

Density of wood versus moisture content

Wood Hardness

Soft and hardwood - Janka Hardness

Wood Species - Moisture Content and Weight

Weight of green and air-dried fire wood

Wrought and Cast Copper Alloys - Properties Database

A searchable database of properties for wrought and cast copper alloys

Yield structure of crude oils with increasing density of crude

Yields of different crude oil distillation cuts are plotted as function of whole crude specific gravity. Fractions based on European and North American markeds, and the typical differences in crude oil fractionation in the two markeds are also shown.

Young's Modulus - Tensile and Yield Strength for common Materials

Young's Modulus or Tensile Modulus alt. Modulus of Elasticity - and Ultimate Tensile and Yield Strength for steel, glass, wood and other common materials

Young's Modulus of Elasticity for Metals and Alloys

Elastic properties and Young's modulus for metals and alloys like cast iron, carbon steel and more

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