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Benzene - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of benzene, also called benzol. Phase diagram included.

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Benzene, C6H6,  is a clear colorless to light-yellow liquid, flammable with a petroleum-like, aromatic odor.

Benzene is less dense than water and is slightly soluble in water. Hence it floats on water. Benzene vapor is heavier than air. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.

Benzene is present in crude oils and is a product of oil-refining processes. There are limitations on the content of benzene in gasoline. In industry benzene is used as a solvent, as a chemical intermediate, and is used in the synthesis of numerous chemicals.

The phase diagram of benzene is shown below the table.

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of benzene:
Values are given for liquid at 25oC /77oF / 298 K and 1 bara, if not other phase, temperature or pressure given.

Property Value Unit Value Unit Value Unit Value Unit
Autoignition temperature 771 K 498 °C 928 °F
Boiling Point 353.2 K 80.08 °C 176.1 °F
Critical density 4.00 mol/dm3 312 kg/m3 0.606 slug/ft3 19.5 lb/ft3
Critical pressure 4.89 MPa=MN/m2 48.9 bar 48.3 atm 709 psi=lbf/in2
Critical temperature 562.0 K 288.9 °C 551.9 °F
Critical volume 250 cm3/mol 0.00320 m3/kg 1.65 ft3/slug 0.0513 ft3/lb
Density 11185 mol/m3 873.7 kg/m3 1.695 slug/ft3 54.54 lb/ft3
Flammable, gas and liquid yes
Flash point 262 K -11 °C 12 °F
Gas constant, individual, R 106.4 J/kg K 0.02957 Wh/(kg K) 636.5 [ft lbf/slug °R] 19.78 [ft lbf/lb °R]
Gibbs free energy of formation (gas) 130 kJ/mol 1664 kJ/kg 716 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of combustion (liquid) -3267.6 kJ/mol -41832 kJ/kg -18.0 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of formation (gas) 82.9 kJ/mol 1061 kJ/kg 456 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of formation (liquid) 49 kJ/mol 627 kJ/kg 270 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of fusion at 42°F/5.85°C 9.9 kJ/mol 127 kJ/kg 54.49 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of sublimation, at 42°F/5.85°C 45 kJ/mol 576 kJ/kg 248 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of evaporation 33.8 kJ/mol 433 kJ/kg 186 Btu/lb
Heat capacity, Cp (gas) 82.4 J/mol K 1.05 kJ/kg K 0.252 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Heat capacity, Cp (liquid) 133 J/mol K 1.70 kJ/kg K 0.407 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Heat capacity, Cp (solid) at 32°F/0°C 118 J/mol K 1.51 kJ/kg K 0.361 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Heat capacity, Cv (liquid) 92.8 J/mol K 1.19 kJ/kg K 0.284 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Ionization potential 9.24 eV
log KOW (Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient) 2.13
Melting point 278.708 K 5.6 °C 42.0 °F
Molecular Weight 78.112 g/mol 0.17221 lb/mol
Solubility in water, at 25°C 1.79 mg/ml
Sound velocity 1330 m/s 4362 ft/s 2979 mi/h
Specific Gravity (gas) (relativ to air) 2.77
Specific Gravity (liquid) (relativ to water) 0.88
Specific Heat Ratio (liquid) - CP/CV 1.43
Specific Volume 0.0000894 m3/mol 0.00114 m3/kg 0.590 ft3/slug 0.0183 ft3/lb
Standard molar entropy, S° (gas) 269 J/mol K 3.44 kJ/kg K 0.82 Btu/lb °F
Standard molar entropy, S° (liquid) 173 J/mol K 2.21 kJ/kg K 0.53 Btu/lb °F
Standard molar entropy, S° (solid), at 1 bara 45.56 J/mol K 0.58 kJ/kg K 0.14 Btu/lb °F
Surface tension 28.2 dynes/cm 0.02822 N/m
Thermal Conductivity 0.143 W/m°C 0.0826 Btu/hr ft °F
Triple point pressure 4.80E-03 MPa=MN/m2 4.80E-02 bar 4.74E-02 atm 6.96E-01 psi=lbf/in2
Triple point temperature 278.7 K 5.6 °C 41.99 °F
Vapor (saturation) pressure 0.0128 MPa=MN/m2 96 mm Hg 0.126 atm 1.86 psi=lbf/in2
Viscosity, dynamic (absolute) 0.6040 cP 405.9 [lbm /ft s*10-6] 12.61 [lbf s/ft2 *10-6]
Viscosity, kinematic 0.691 cSt 7.4 [ft2/s*10-6]

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See also the following documents for changes in benzene properties with changes in pressure and temperature:

See also more about atmospheric pressure, and STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure & NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure,
as well as Thermophysical properties of: Acetone, Acetylene, Air, Ammonia, Argon, Butane, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Ethane, Ethanol, Ethylene, Helium, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Methane, Methanol, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Pentane, Propane, Toluene, Water and Heavy water, D2O.

Benzene is a liquid at standard conditions. However, if heated it becomes a gas, and when cooled it becomes a solid. The phase diagram for benzene shows the phase behavior with changes in temperature and pressure. The curve between the critical point and the triple point shows the benzene boiling point with changes in pressure. It also shows the saturation pressure with changes in temperature.

Benzene phase diagram

At the critical point there is no change of state when pressure is increased or if heat is added.

The triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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