# Metals and Alloys - Bulk Modulus

## Bulk modulus of some common metals and alloys

The Bulk Modulus Elasticity - or Volume Modulus - is a measure of the substance's resistance to uniform compression. Bulk Modulus of Elasticity is the ratio of stress to change in volume of a material subjected to axial loading.

Material | Bulk Modulus - K - | |
---|---|---|

(10^{6} psi) | (GPa) | |

Aluminum, various alloys | 9.9 - 10.2 | 68 - 70 |

Brass, 70-30 | 15.7 | 108 |

Brass, cast | 16.8 | 116 |

Copper | 17.9 | 123 |

Iron, cast | 8.4 - 15.5 | 58 - 107 |

Iron, malleable | 17.2 | 119 |

Magnesium alloy | 4.8 | 33.1 |

Monel metal | 22.5 | 155 |

Phosphor bronze | 16.3 | 112 |

Stainless Steels 18-8 | 23.6 | 163 |

Steel, cast | 20.2 | 139 |

Steel, cold rolled | 23.1 | 159 |

Steel, various | 22.6 - 24.0 | 156 - 165 |

*1 GPa = 10*^{9}Pa (N/m^{2})

Stainless steel with Bulk Modulus *163 10 ^{9} Pa* is approximate

*80 times*harder to compress than water with Bulk Modulus

*2.15 10*.

^{9}PaBulk Modulus is related to Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson's Ratio as

K = E / 3 (1 - 2 r) (1)

where

K = Bulk Modulus (Pa (N/m^{2}), psi (lb_{f}/in^{2})

E = Modulus of Elasticity(Pa (N/m^{2}), psi (lb_{f}/in^{2})

r = Poisson's Ratio

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