Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

Miscellaneous

Engineering related topics like Beaufort Wind Scale, CE-marking, drawing standards and more.

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Acceleration of Gravity vs. Latitude and Elevation

Acceleration of gravity due to latitude and elevation above sea level.

Air Temperature, Pressure and Density vs. Altitude

Elevation above sea level and air temperature, pressure and density.

Angle of Repose

Tipping or dumping angles for common materials like ashes, sand, earth, shingles and more.

Animals in Laboratory Environments

Temperature and humidity environments for laboratory animals.

Antifreeze - Ethylene Glycol Volume vs. Temperature Rating

Freeze protecting of cooling systems - temperature rating vs. required amount of antifreeze.

Apothecaries' Weight System

Apothecaries' fluid and weight system with ounces, drachms, grains, scruples and more.

Area Survey App

Online app that can be used to make an exact plot of a surveyed area - like a room, a property or any 2D shape.

Atmospheric Pressure vs. Elevation above Sea Level

Elevation above sea level - in feet and meter - with barometric and atmospheric pressure - inches mercury, psia, kg/cm2 and kPa.

Barometer - Altitude Compensation

Elevation compensating manometer.

Barometric Pressure - Pressure in psi, psf and kPa

Convert between barometric pressure inches Hg, psi and psf.

Beaufort Wind Scale

The Beaufort description and observation scale for wind and wind speed.

Blueprint Letters

Letters commonly used to differentiate blueprint drawings.

Board Feet Chart and Calculator

Board feet is used as a volume measurement of lumber.

Bricks - Quantity and Mortar Consumption

Estimate required quantities of bricks and mortar.

Builder's to Surveyor's Measurements

Convert builder's measurements to surveyor's measurements.

Building Foundations - Loads

Typical loads on building foundations.

Building Tolerances

Typical tolerances for floors, walls, columns and more.

Car Fuel Consumption - liter/100 km

Calculate fuel consumption in liter per km - consumption chart and calculator.

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CE Marking

Verifies that a product is designed to the appropriate standards according the European Machine Directive.

Center of Gravity

A body and the center of gravity.

Chemicals - Formulas and Trading Names

Formulas and trading names for some common chemicals.

Clothing Sizes - US vs. UK and Europe

Comparing European, UK, US sizing in clothing, shoes, shirts and sweaters.

CO2 Calculator - Emissions from Trains

Calculator for CO2 emissions from trains, comparing with alternative forms of transportation (as plane, bus, conventional and electrical cars).

CO2 Calculator - Emissions from Airplanes

Calculator for CO2 emissions from planes, comparing with alternative forms of transportation (as train, bus, conventional and electrical cars).

CO2 Calculator - Emissions from Cars

Calculator for CO2 emissions from different kind of cars (gasoline, diesel, LPG, electrical), comparing with alternative forms of transportation (as airplane, bus and train).

Color Mixing Theory

Subtractive and additive color mixing.

Concentration Units Converter

Calculator and formulas for conversion between different units of concentration: Molarity, molality, mole fraction, weight percent of solute and grams of solute per liter of solution - descriptive terms for solubility.

Concrete - Calculating Cubic Volume

Calculating the concrete volume required for an operation.

Concrete - Water to Cement Ratios

Water vs. cement ratio when mixing concrete.

Concrete Columns

Estimate concrete volume required for concrete columns.

Concrete Footing

Estimating concrete continous footing.

Concrete Footings - Volume

Estimate required concrete footing volume.

Concrete Slabs - Load Capacity

Load capacity of simply supported concrete slabs.

Concrete Slabs - Required Thickness

Required thickness of concrete slabs.

Concrete Slabs - Volume Estimates

Estimate required concrete volume per sq. ft.

Concrete Walls - Volume

Estimate concrete wall volume.

Consanguinity

Relationship between persons decending from the same anchestor.

Constants of e

The mathematical e constants.

Constants of PI

The mathematical π constants.

Contract Types

Commonly used engineering and construction contracts.

Conveyors - Belt Speed

Maximum conveyor belt speed.

Conveyors - Capacities

Calculate conveyor capacities.

Conveyors - Load & Power Consumption

Conveyor required power consumption vs. load.

Conveyors - Maximum Inclination vs. Product

Maximum conveyor inclination slopes for typical products.

Cooking - Volume Converter

Convert between different liquid cooking volume units.

Cooking Volume Converter - US and Metric Units

Convert between cooking liquid and dry measuring US and metric volume units.

Crude Oil Properties - Standard test methods (ASTM and others)

An overview of common test methods and typical ranges of variation of petroleum quality parameters. What, why and how do the different test?

CSI MasterFormat Specifications

Construction Specifications Institute's 2004 Master-Format Edition.

Cylindrical Tanks - Volume

Volume in US gallons and liters.

Decibel

Logarithmic unit used to describe ratios of signal levels - like power or intensity - to a reference level.

DFA - Design for Assembly index

Design for Assembly Index indicates how easy it is to assembly a component.

Dimensionless Numbers

Physical and chemical dimensionless quantities - Reynolds number, Euler, Nusselt, and Prandtl number - and many more.

Distance Traveled vs. Speed and Time - Calculator and Chart

Velocity plotted in time used diagram.

Distances between Cities

Flight distances between selected cities in different countries and continents, to be used to calculate CO2 emissions from long distance flights.

Drawings - Sheet Layouts

Standard drawing sheets layouts.

Drawings - Standard Metric Sizes

Standard metric drawing sheet sizes.

Drill Bit Speed - Hardwood and Softwood

Hardwood and softwood drill speed chart.

Driving Distance between European Cities

Driving distance between some major European cities.

Dust Explosions - Critical Temperatures and Concentrations

Critical temperatures and concentration parameters for substances like coal, zinc, uranium and more.

Electrical Equipment typical Power Consumption

Typical power consumption and running time for common electrical equipment.

Electrical Motors - Starting Devices

Direct-on-line starters, star-delta starters, frequency drives and soft starters.

Electrotechnical Abbreviations

Abbreviations according the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

Elevation - Temperature, Pressure and Speed of Sound

Altitude and speed of sound, temperature and pressure.

Engine & Gear Oil - Recommended Viscosity vs. Outside Temperature

Oil viscosity vs. temperature.

EV - Electric Vehicles Energy Consumption - miles/kWh vs. kWh/100 km

Convert between energy consumption units like miles/kWh and kWh/100 km.

EV - Electric Vehicles Range vs. State of Charge (SOC) Calculator

Electric vehicle range vs. battery size, SOC - state of charge and energy consumption.

EV - Electrical Vehicles Charging Speed (km/h and mph)

Electrical vehicle charging speed vs. power supply and energy consumption.

Excavation Slope

Calculating excavation slope.

Factors of Safety

Factors of Safety - FOS - are important in engineering designs.

Fasteners - Type Chart

Wood screws, machine screws, sheet metal screws, self drilling SMS and more.

Feet vs. Inches Converting Chart

Convert from feet and inches to inches.

Fire-Stop Ratings

F-rated, T-rated and L-rated fire-stop systems.

Food Products - Osmotic Pressure

Osmotic pressure in food products.

Food-borne Infections and Diseases

Common bacteria and viruses found in food.

Friction - Friction Coefficients and Calculator

Friction theory with calculator and friction coefficients for combinations of materials like ice, aluminum, steel, graphite and many more.

Frozen Food Storage Life

Practical storage life for common frozen food products.

Fruits and Vegetables - Optimal Storage Conditions

Optimal temperature and humidity conditions for common fruits and vegetables.

Fuel Consumption - mpg

Calculate fuel consumption in miles per gallon - mpg - calculator and consumption charts.

Fuel Consumption Converter

Convert between fuel consumption units like US MPG, Imperial MPG, litre/nm, litre/100 km and km/litre

Galvanic Corrosion vs. Electrode Potential

Introduction to electro chemical series and corrosion of metals.

Glue-Laminated Timber - Dimensions

Common sizing of glue-laminated timber.

Golden Section

Golden Section also called the Golden Mean.

Gravel - Cover Area

Gravel aggregate covering area.

Grease - Temperature Limits

Temperature limits for grease - a combination of oil and thickener.

Greek Alphabet

The Greek alphabet is essential expressing formulas and in technical language.

Grit Size vs. Surface Roughness

Comparing sandpaper grit size and surface roughness.

Hardwood Lumber - Dimensions

Sizing of hardwood lumber.

Hazardous Areas - European Classification Standard

European hazardous area classification with zones, protection types, temperature codes and codes.

Hazardous Areas - North America Classification

North American hazardous locations classification with classes, divisions and groups

HTML Color Codes

Safe html color codes.

Inches - Fractional vs. Decimal Equivalents

The decimal equivalents of eights, sixteenths, thirty-seconds and sixty-fourths of an inch.

International Standard Atmosphere

International standard atmosphere in elevation -2000 to 30000 metre - pressure, temperature, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and velocity of sound.

ISO 724 - Metric Threads

Dimensions of metric threads according ISO 724.

Latitude and Longitude Converter

Convert between Degrees, Minutes and Seconds and Decimal Units (or vice versa).

Lead-Acid Batteries

Specific gravity and charge of lead acid batteries - temperature and efficiency.

Length Units Converter

Convert between units like metre, feet, inches, yards, kilometers and miles.

Low-Frequency Vibrations Effects on Building Constructions

Effects of low-frequency vibrations on building constructions.

Lumber - Surface Finishing

Lumber and surface finishing abbreviations.

Machine Processing vs. Tolerances

Machine processing and tolerance grades.

Manila Rope - Strength

Minimum breaking strength and safe load of manila 3-strand rope.

Mapping Scales vs. Lengths and Areas

Convert lengths areas between different mapping scales.

Masonry Blocks - Dimensions

Concrete Masonry Unit Blocks (CMU) - dimensions.

Materials - Light Reflecting Factors

Light reflecting factor materials.

Mesh Size vs. Particle Diameter

Strainers and filters - mesh size vs. particle diameter opening size.

Metal Content in Minerals

Content of metals in minerals.

Metric Bolt Head and Wrench Size

ANSI/SO, DIN and JIS bolts.

Mild Steel - Round Bar

Weight of round bars.

Mild Steel - Square Bars

Typical weights of mild steel square bars.

Minutes to Decimal Hours

Convert minutes to descimal hours.

Miter Saw - Calculate Sawing Angle

Calculate miter saw protractor angles for skirting and decorative mouldings work.

Morse Code

The morse code alphabet.

Mortar Types

ASTM mortar types.

Nails and Spikes - Withdrawal Force

Allowable withdrawal load for nail and spikes.

Numerical Constants

Some numerical constants.

Nylon Rope - Strength

Nylon 3-strand and 8-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load.

Oil Lubrication - Temperature Limits

Temperature limits for lubricating oils.

Paper Drafting Sizes - Comparing ISO and U.S. Drawing Sheets

ISO vs. U.S. and Canadian drawing sheets.

Paper Drafting Sizes - ISO 216 series A, B and C

ISO 216 A, B and C drawing series - dimensions of regular, oversized and envelope sheets.

Paper Sizes - commonly used in U.S. Offices

Office paper sizes as Letter, Legal, Tabloid and more.

Paper Sizes - Imperial

Printing and drawing papers sizes.

Pasteurization - Time and Temperature

Pasteurization methods, time and temperatures.

Petroleum Products - Standard Test Methods (ASTM and others) and Specifications

An overview of common test methods and specifications of petroleum fuels. What, why and how do the different test?

pH - Basic (alkaline) vs. Acidic

Introduction to pH - the acidic and basic (alkaline) definition.

Phonetic Alphabet

The phonetic alphabet used in international aircraft communications.

Piston Engines - Compression Ratios

Cylinder volume and compression ratios in piston engines.

Piston Engines - Displacement

Calculate piston engine displacement.

Poisson's Ratio

When a material is stretched in one direction it tends to get thinner in the other two directions.

Polyester Polyolefin Rope - Strength

Polyester Polyolefin dual fiber 3-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load.

Polyester Rope - Strength

Polyester 3-strand and 8-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load.

Polypropylene Fiber Rope - Strength

Polypropylene fiber 3-strand and 8 strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load.

Precious Metals - Karat Unit of Fineness

Units of fineness - Karat.

Rebar - Metric Reinforcing Bar

Reinforcing bar - European metric dimensions.

Rebar - U.S. Imperial Reinforcing Bar

U.S. imperial dimensions of rebar

Rebar - Weights

Weights of rebar rods - size ranging 1/4.

Rectangular Tanks - Volume

Tank volume per foot depth.

Reduced Torque with Lubricated Bolts

Lubrication effect on bolt tension and torque.

Roman Numerals

Roman numerals are a combinations of seven letters.

Roof Framing

Run, roof slope, gable height and gable area.

Roofing Materials - Weights

Weight calculator for roofing materials.

Safety Signals - Recommended Colors

American National Standards Institutes schedule for safety colors marking physical hazards.

Sandpaper - Grit Sizes

Grit sizes ranging 12 - 600.

Satellites in Orbit

Orbital and escape velocity for geostationary satellites.

Scales of Objects

The relative scale of objects.

Scientific and Engineering Terms - ANSI Abbreviations

Abbreviations for Use on Drawings and in Text - ANSI Y1.1.

Shackles - Safe Loads

Safe loads of shackles.

Shipping Measuring Units

Vessel and cargo capacities.

Shrink-Fits Assembly

Assembly temperatures for shrink-fits.

Sieve Size vs. Mesh Designation

US commercial sieve sizes vs. mesh designations.

Sisal Rope - Strength

Sisal rope 3-strand, minimum breaking strength and safe load.

Slope - Degree, Gradient and Grade Calculator

Convert slopes pitch between degrees, gradients and grades.

Softwood Lumber - Dimensions

Commercial softwood lumber dimension chart - nominal and actual sizes.

Softwood Lumber - Grading

Rough lumber, surfaced lumber (dressed), worked lumber, shop and factory lumber and yard lumber.

Soil and Rock - Bulk Factors

Soil and rock expansion - or swell - after mining.

Stair Calculator

Calculate steps, unit rise and run in a stair.

Standard Gauges

Standard gauges for wire and sheet - American, Birmingham, Washburn, Music, Stubs ..

Steel Flats - Weight

Typically weight of mild steel flats.

Steel Plates - Size & Weight

Size & weight of steel plates - Imperial and Metric units.

Steel Tempering Colors

The tempering process of hardening steel.

Steel Wool - Grades

Steel wool grades vs. fiber thickness.

Stockpile Volumes

Volume of natural stockpiles - cubic feet, yard, metre and decimetre.

Stone - Weight and Strength

Weight and strength of sandstone, granite, limestone, marble and slate.

Surface Roughness vs. Abrasive Grain Size

U.S. mesh size vs. surface roughness.

Surface Roughness vs. Mechanical Processing

Mechanical production methods and their surface roughness.

Symbols Used to Denote a Chemical Reactions and Process or Condition

Explanation of symbols used as subscripts or superscripts to tell more about the type of chemical reaction, process or condition.

Threaded Bolts - Stress Area

Threaded bolts tensile stress area.

Tree Species - Water Demand

Trees species and relative water demand.

Trench Excavation

Estimate trench excavation - online calculator.

Troy Weight

Weight unit for preciuos metals like gold and silver.

Underground Pipes - Earth Pressure

Pressure acting on underground pipes due to weight of soil and transport.

Uniformat

The ASTM E1557 UNIFORMAT II Standard.

Urban Tree Heights

Height of trees commonly used in towns and urban areas.

US and Metric Fasteners - Thread Sizes

Printable fastener chart.

US Bolts - Head and Wrench Sizes

Hex Bolt, Lag Bolt, Square Bolt and Heavy Hex Bolt.

US Machine Screws - Dimensions

Machine screw diameters.

US Standard Architectural Drawing Sizes

US architectural drawing sizes and formats.

US Standard Engineering Drawing Sizes

US engineering drawing sizes based on ANSI/ASME Y14.1.

US Wood Screws - Nominal Sizes

Wood screws - nominal sizes vs. diameters.

US Wood Screws - Pilot Holes

Hard wood and soft wood pilot holes, shank clearance holes and countersink diameters.

UTM to Latitude and Longitude Converter

Free online UTM to Latitude and Longitude coordinates converter.

Value Engineering

Improved value by enhanced function.

Variable Frequency Drives - Heat Loss and Required Air Cooling

Avoid overheated variable frequency drives with adequate ventilation.

Vehicle - Distance Traveled vs. Velcocity and Time Used (mph)

Speed (mph) and time (hours) and distance traveled (miles) chart.

Vehicle - Distance Traveled vs. Velocity and Time (km/h)

Speed (km/h) vs. time (hours) and distance traveled (km).

Vehicles Traffic Flow and Density

Traffic flow and density as used in highway design.

Velocity Converter

Convert between speed and velocity units like m/s, km/h, knots, mph and ft/s.

Walls - No. of Studs

Calculate required number of studs in a wall.

Water Sprinkler - Protection Area vs. Classification

Maximum fire sprinkler protection area vs. classification and construction.

Weight vs. Gauge Chart

Gauge and weight chart for sheet steel, galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum and strip & tubing.

Welding Temperatures

Melting and welding temperatures.

Wire Rope - Strength

6 strand x 19 wire (6x19) - minimum breaking strength, safe loads and weight.

Wood - Compressive Strength vs. Moisture Content

Red Spruce, Longleaf Pine and Douglas Fir - moisture content and their compressive strength.

Wood Screws - Withdrawal Force

Allowable withdrawal load force.

Wrench Spanners - Inches vs. mm

Convert between US Inches and metric mm wrench and spanner sizes.

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