Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!


Engineering related topics like Beaufort Wind Scale, CE-marking, drawing standards and more

Sponsored Links

Acceleration of Gravity vs. Latitude and Elevation

Variation of acceleration of gravity due to latitude and elevation above sea level

Altitude - Air Temperature, Pressure and Density

Elevation - air temperature, pressure and air density

Angle of Repose

Tipping or dumping angles for some common materials like ashes, sand, earth, shingles

Animals in Laboratory Environments

Typical temperature and humidity environments for animals in laboratories

Antifreeze - Ethylene Glycol Volume vs. Temperature Rating

Freeze protecting of cooling systems - temperature rating vs. required amount of antifreeze.

Apothecaries' Weight System

Apothecaries' fluid and weight system - ounce, drachms, grains, scruples ..

Area Survey App

Online app making an exact plot of a surveyed area - like a room, a property or any 2D shape.

Assembly of Shrink-Fits

Heating temperatures of shrink-fits

Atmospheric Pressure vs. Elevation above Sea Level

Elevation above sea level - in feet and meter - with barometric and atmospheric pressure - inches mercury, psia, kg/cm2 and kPa

Barometer - Altitude Compensation

Compensating manometer for elevation

Barometric Pressure - Pressure in psi, psf and kPa

Relation between barometric pressure (inches Hg) and pressure in psi and psf

Beaufort Wind Scale

The Beaufort description and observation of wind and wind speed

Blueprint Letters

The letters commonly used to differentiate blueprint drawings.

Board Feet Chart and Calculator

Board feet - volume measurement of lumber

Bricks - Quantity and Mortar Consumption

Estimating required quantity of bricks and mortar

Builder's to Surveyor's Measurements

Convert builder's measurements to surveyor's measurements

Building Foundations - Loads

Typical loads on building foundations

Building Tolerances

Tolerances for floors, walls, columns and more

Sponsored Links

CE Marking

Verifies that a product is designed to the appropriate standards according the European Machine Directive.

Center of Gravity

Bodies and their center of gravity

Chemicals - Formulas and Trading Names

Formulas and trading names for some common chemicals

Clothes - Comparing US, UK and European Sizing

Comparing European, UK, US sizing in clothing, shoes, shirts and sweaters

CO2 Calculator - Emissions from Trains

Calculator for CO2 emissions from trains, comparing with alternative forms of transportation (as plane, bus, conventional and electrical cars)

CO2 Calculator - Emissions from Airplanes

Calculator for CO2 emissions from planes, comparing with alternative forms of transportation (as train, bus, conventional and electrical cars)

CO2 Calculator - Emissions from Cars

Calculator for CO2 emissions from different kind of cars (gasoline, diesel, LPG, electrical), comparing with alternative forms of transportation (as airplane, bus and train)

Color Mixing Theory

Subtractive and additive color mixing theories

Compression Ratio - Piston Engines

Piston engine cylinder volume ratio

Concentration Units Converter

Calculator and formulas for conversion between different units of concentration: Molarity, molality, mole fraction, weight percent of solute and grams of solute per liter of solution - descriptive terms for solubility.

Concrete - Calculate Cubic Volume

Calculating required concrete volume

Concrete - Volume Estimate

Estimate required concrete volume per sq. ft. of slab

Concrete - Water to Cement Ratios

Concrete and water to cement ratios

Concrete Columns

Estimate concrete volume required for concrete columns

Concrete Footing

Estimating concrete continous footing

Concrete Footing Volume

Estimate required concrete footing volume

Concrete Slab Load Capacity

Load capacity of simply supported concrete slabs

Concrete Slab Thickness

Recommended thickness of concrete slabs

Concrete Walls

Estimate volume in concrete walls

Constants of e

e constants

Constants of PI

π constants

Conveyor Belt Speed

Recommended maximum belt speed

Conveyor Capacity

Calculate the capacity of conveyors

Conveyors - Load & Power Consumption

Load and conveyors required power consumption

Conveyors - Maximum Inclinations for typical Products

Maximum conveyor slopes for various materials

Cooking - Volume Converter

Convert liquid cooking volumes

Cooking Volume Converter - US and Metric Units

Convert common cooking liquid and dry measuring volumes between US and metric units

CSI MasterFormat Specifications

Construction Specifications Institute's 2004 Master-Format Edition.


Logarithmic unit used to describe ratios of signal levels - like power or intensity - to a reference level.

DFA - Design for Assembly index

Design for Assembly Index

Dimensionless Numbers

Physical and chemical dimensionless quantities - Reynolds number, Euler, Nusselt, and Prandtl number - and many more.

Distance Traveled vs. Speed and Time - Calculator and Chart

Velocity plotted in time used diagram.

Distances between Cities

Flight distances between selected cities in different countries and continents, to be used to calculate CO2 emissions from long distance flights

Drawings - Sheet Layouts

Standard drawing sheets layouts.

Drawings - Standard Metric Sizes

Standard metric drawing sheet sizes.

Drill Bit Speed - Hardwood and Softwood

Hardwood and softwood drill speed chart

Driving Distance between European Cities

Driving distance between some major European cities

Dust Explosions - Critical Temperatures and Concentrations

Critical temperatures and concentration parameters for substances like coal, zinc, uranium and more.

Earth Pressure acting on Underground Pipes

Pressure due to soil and transport

Electrical Equipment typical Power Consumption

Typical power consumption and running time for some common electrical equipment

Electrical Motor Starting Devices

Direct-on-line starters, star-delta starters, frequency drives and soft starters

Electrotechnical Abbreviations

Abbreviations according the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

Elevation - Temperature, Pressure and Speed of Sound

Speed of sound, temperature and pressure at different altitudes

Engine & Gear Oil - Outside Temperatures and Recommended Viscosities

Oil viscosity vs. temperature

EV - Electric Vehicle - miles per kWh vs. kWh per 100 km

Convert between miles/kWh and kWh/100 km

EV - Electric Vehicles - Range vs. State of Charge Calculator

Battery size, SOC - state of charge, energy consumption and electric vehicle range

EV - Electrical Vehicles Charging Speed

Power supply and electrical vehicle charging speed

Excavation Slope

Calculating excavation slope

Factors of Safety

Factors of Safety - FOS - are important for engineering design

Fasteners - Type Chart

Wood screws, machine screws, sheet metal screws, self drilling SMS and more

Feet to Inches Converting Chart

Convert from feet and inches to inches

Fire-Stop Ratings

F-rated, T-rated and L-rated fire-stop systems

Food Products Osmotic Pressure

Osmotic pressure of food products

Food-borne Infections and Diseases

Common bacteria and viruses found in food

Friction - Friction Coefficients and Calculator

Friction theory with calculator and friction coefficients for combinations of materials like ice, aluminum, steel, graphite and many more.

Frozen Food Storage Life

Practical storage life for some common frozen food products

Fruits and Vegetables - Optimal Storage Conditions

Optimal temperature and humidity conditions for common fruits and vegetables.

Fuel Consumption - liter/100 km

Estimate fuel consumption in liter per km - consumption chart and calculator

Fuel Consumption - mpg

Estimate fuel consumption in miles per gallon - mpg - calculator and consumption charts

Fuel Consumption Converter

Convert between fuel consumption units like US MPG, Imperial MPG, litre/nm, litre/100 km and km/litre

Galvanic Corrosion vs. Electrode Potential

Introduction to electro chemical series and corrosion of metals.

Gauge and Weight Chart

Gauge and weight chart for sheet steel, galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum and strip & tubing

Glue-Laminated Timber - Dimensions

Typical sizes of glue-laminated timber

Golden Section

Golden Section also called the Golden Mean.

Gravel - Cover Area

Gravel aggregate covering area

Grease Temperature Limits

Grease is a combination of oil and thickener

Grit Size vs. Surface Roughness

Comparison of sandpaper grit size and surface roughness

Hardwood Lumber - Dimensions

Size of hardwood lumber

Hazardous Area Classification - European Standard

European hazardous area classification in zones, protection types, temperature codes and codes

Hazardous Area Classification - North America

North American hazardous locations classification in classes, divisions and groups

HTML Color Codes

Safe html color codes

Inches - Fractional to Decimal Equivalents

The decimal equivalents of eights, sixteenths, thirty-seconds and sixty-fourths of an inch.

International Standard Atmosphere

International standard atmosphere in elevation -2000 to 30000 metre - pressure, temperature, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and velocity of sound

ISO 724 - Metric Threads

Dimensions of metric threads according ISO 724

Latitude and Longitude Converter

Convert between Degrees, Minutes and Seconds and Decimal Units (or vice versa)

Lead-Acid Batteries

Specific gravity and charge of lead acid batteries - temperature and efficiency

Length Units Converter

Convert between units like metre, feet, inches, yards, kilometers and miles

Low-Frequency Vibrations Effects on Building Constructions

Effects of low-frequency vibrations on building constructions

Machine Processing and Tolerance Grades

Machine processing and tolerances

Manila Rope Strength

Manila 3-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

Mapping Scales - Length and Area

Mapping scales vs. lengths and area.

Masonry Blocks - Dimensions

Concrete Masonry Unit Blocks (CMU) - dimensions

Materials - Light Reflecting Factors

Light reflecting factor materials

Mechanical Processing and Surface Roughness

Mechanical production methods and surface roughness

Mesh Size vs. Particle Diameter

Strainers and filters - mesh size vs. particle diameter opening size

Metric Bolt Head and Wrench Size

ANSI/SO, DIN and JIS bolts

Mild Steel - Round Bar

Round bar weights

Mild Steel Square Bars

Typical weight of mild steel square bars

Minutes to Decimal Hours

Converting minutes to descimal hours

Miter Saw - Calculate Sawing Angle

Free online tool to calculate miter saw protractor angles.

Mortar Types

ASTM Mortar Types

Nails and Spikes - Withdrawal Force

Allowable withdrawal load for nail and spikes

Numerical Constants

Some numerical constants

Nylon Rope - Strength

Nylon 3-strand and 8-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

Oil - Lubrication and Temperature Limits

Temperature limits for lubricating oils

Paper Drafting Sizes - Comparing ISO and U.S. Drawing Sheets

ISO vs. U.S. and Canadian drawing sheets.

Paper Drafting Sizes - ISO 216 series A, B and C

ISO 216 A, B and C drawing series - dimensions of regular, oversized and envelope sheets.

Paper Sizes - commonly used in U.S. Offices

Office paper sizes as Letter, Legal, Tabloid and more.

Paper Sizes - Imperial

Printing and drawing papers sizes.

Pasteurization Times and Temperatures

Pasteurization methods, time and temperatures

pH - Basic (alkaline) vs. Acidic

Introduction to pH - the acidic and basic (alkaline) definition.

Piston Engine Displacement

Calculate piston engine displacement

Poisson's Ratio

When a material is stretched in one direction it tends to get thinner in the other two directions

Polyester Polyolefin Rope - Strength

Polyester Polyolefin dual fiber 3-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

Polyester Rope - Strength

Polyester 3-strand and 8-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

Polypropylene Fiber Rope - Strength

Polypropylene fiber 3-strand and 8 strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

Precious Metals - Karat Unit of Fineness

Units of fineness - Karat

Rebar - Metric Reinforcing Bar

Reinforcing bar - European metric dimensions

Rebar - U.S. Imperial Reinforcing Bar

U.S. imperial dimensions of rebar

Rebar - Weights

Weights of rebar rods - size ranging 1/4

Reduced Torque with Lubricated Bolts

Lubrication effect on bolt tension and torque

Roman Numerals

Roman numerals are a combinations of seven letters

Roof Framing

Run, Roof Slope, Gable Height and Gable Area

Roofing Materials - Weights

Weight calculator for roofing materials

Safety Signals - recommended Colors

American National Standards Institutes schedule for safety colors marking physical hazards

Sandpaper - Grit Sizes

Grit sizes ranging 12 - 600

Satellites in Orbit

Orbital and escape velocity - geostationary satellites

Scale of Objects

The relative scale of objects

Scientific and Engineering Terms - ANSI Abbreviations

Abbreviations for Use on Drawings and in Text - ANSI Y1.1

Shackles - Safe Loads

Safe loads of shackles

Shipping Measuring Units

Vessel and cargo capacities

Sieve Size and Mesh Designation

US commercial sieve sizes and mesh designations

Sisal Rope - Strength

Sisal rope 3-strand, minimum breaking strength and safe load

Slope - Degree, Gradient and Grade Calculator

Converting slopes pitch between degrees, gradients and grades

Softwood Lumber - Dimensions

Commercial softwood lumber dimension chart - nominal and actual sizes

Softwood Lumber - Grading

Rough lumber, surfaced lumber (dressed), worked lumber, shop and factory lumber and yard lumber

Soil and Rock - Bulk Factors

Soil and rock expansion - or swell - after mining

Sprinkler Protection Area

Maximum fire sprinkler protection area

Stair Calculator

Calculate steps, unit rise and run in a stair

Standard Gauges

Standard gauges for wire and sheet - American, Birmingham, Washburn, Music, Stubs ..

Standard test methods (ASTM and others) and specifications for petroleum products

An overview of common test methods and specifications of petroleum fuels. What, why and how do the different test?

Standard test methods (ASTM and others) for crude oil properties

An overview of common test methods and typical ranges of variation of petroleum quality parameters. What, why and how do the different test?

Steel Flats - Weight

Typically weight of mild steel flats

Steel Plates - Size & Weight

Size & weight of steel plates - Imperial and Metric units

Steel Tempering Colors

The tempering process of hardening steel

Steel Wool - Grades

Steel wool grades and fiber thickness

Stockpile Volumes

Volume of natural stockpiles - cubic feet, yard, metre and decimetre

Stone - Weight and Strength

Weight and strength of sandstone, granite, limestone, marble and slate

Surface Finishing

Lumber and surface finishing abbreviations

Surface Roughness and Abrasive Grain Size

U.S. mesh size and surface roughness

Symbols Used to Denote a Chemical Reactions and Process or Condition

Explanation of symbols used as subscripts or superscripts to tell more about the type of chemical reaction, process or condition.

The Greek Alphabet

The Greek alphabet is essential when expressing formulas and technical language

The Phonetic Alphabet

The phonetic alphabet used in international aircraft communications

Threaded Bolt Stress Area

Threaded bolts tensile stress area

Tree Species - Water Demand

Trees species and relative water demand.

Trench Excavation

Estimate trench excavation - online calculator

Troy Weight

Weight of gold and silver

Types of Contracts

Commonly used engineering and construction contracts


The ASTM E1557 UNIFORMAT II Standard

Urban Tree Heights

Height of trees commonly used in towns and urban areas.

US and Metric Fasteners - Thread Sizes

Printable fastener chart

US Bolts - Head and Wrench Sizes

Hex Bolt, Lag Bolt, Square Bolt and Heavy Hex Bolt

US Machine Screws - Dimensions

Machine screw diameters

US Standard Architectural Drawing Sizes

US architectural drawing sizes and formats.

US Standard Engineering Drawing Sizes

US engineering drawing sizes based on ANSI/ASME Y14.1.

US Wood Screws - Nominal Sizes

Wood screws - nominal sizes vs. diameters

US Wood Screws - Pilot Holes

Hard wood and soft wood pilot holes, shank clearance holes and countersink diameters

UTM to Latitude and Longitude Converter

Free online UTM to Latitude and Longitude coordinates converter.

Value Engineering

Enhancing function and improving value

Variable Frequency Drives - Heat Loss and Required Air Cooling

A variable frequency drive develops heat during work and to avoid overheating ventilation is required

Vehicle - Distance Traveled vs. Velcocity and Time Used (mph)

Speed (miles per hour) and time (hours) and distance traveled (miles) chart

Vehicle - Distance Traveled vs. Velocity and Time (km/h)

Speed (km per hour) vs. time (hours) and distance traveled (km).

Vehicles Traffic - Flow and Density

Vehicles traffic flow and density as used in highway design

Velocity Converter

Convert speed and velocity units - m/s, km/h, knots, mph and ft/s

Volume of Cylindrical Tanks

Volume in US gallons and Liters

Volume of Rectangular Tanks

Tank volume per foot depth

Walls - No. of Studs

Calculate the number of studs in a wall

Welding Temperatures

Melting and welding temperatures

Wire Rope - Strength

6 strand x 19 wire (6x19) - minimum breaking strength, safe loads and weight

Wood - Compressive Strength vs. Moisture Content

Red Spruce, Longleaf Pine and Douglas Fir - moisture content and their compressive strength

Wood Screws - Withdrawal Forces

Allowable withdrawal load force

Wrench Spanner - Inches vs. mm

SAE to metric wrench or spanner converting chart.

Sponsored Links

Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - Online 3D modeling!

3D Engineering ToolBox Extension to SketchUp - add parametric components to your SketchUp model

Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro .Add the Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the SketchUp Pro Sketchup Extension Warehouse!

About the Engineering ToolBox!


We don't collect information from our users. Only emails and answers are saved in our archive. Cookies are only used in the browser to improve user experience.

Some of our calculators and applications let you save application data to your local computer. These applications will - due to browser restrictions - send data between your browser and our server. We don't save this data.

Google use cookies for serving our ads and handling visitor statistics. Please read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can control adserving and the information collected.

AddThis use cookies for handling links to social media. Please read AddThis Privacy for more information.


This page can be cited as

  • Engineering ToolBox, (2009). Miscellaneous. [online] Available at: [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Modify access date.

. .


3D Engineering ToolBox - draw and model technical applications! 2D Engineering ToolBox - create and share online diagram drawing templates! Engineering ToolBox Apps - mobile online and offline engineering applications!

Scientific Online Calculator

Scientific Calculator

12 3

Sponsored Links