Air, LNG, LPG and other common gas properties, pipeline capacities, sizing of relief valves.
Dry air is a mechanical mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, argon and several other gases in minor amounts.
Density and specific volume of air varies with elevation above sea level.
Air density at pressure ranging 1 to 10 000 bara (14.5 - 145000 psi) and constant selected temperatures.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficients of air at temperatures ranging -100 to 1600 °C (-140 to 2900 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.
Diffusion coefficients (D12) for gases in large excess of air at temperatures ranging 0 - 400 °C.
Online calculator, figures and tables with dynamic (absolute) and kinematic viscosity for air at temperatures ranging -100 to 1600°C (-150 to 2900°F) and at pressures ranging 1 to 10 000 bara (14.5 - 145000 psia) - SI and Imperial Units.
Dry air is a mixture of gases where the average molecular weight (or molar mass) can be calculated by adding the weight of each component.
Prandtl number for air vs. temperature and pressure.
Properties of air change along the boiling and condensation curves (temperature and pressure between triple point and critical point conditions). An air phase diagram included.
Actual air compressor capacity (ACFM) vs. standard air capacity (SCFM) and inlet air capacity (ICFM).
Specific Heat Ratio of air at temperatures ranging -40 - 1000 degC (-40 - 1500 degF) at standard atmospheric pressure - Imperial and SI Units.
Figures and tables with isobaric (Cp) and isochoric (Cv) specific heat of air at constant temperature and pressure ranging 0.01 to 10000 bara.
Online calculator with figures and tables showing specific heat (Cp and Cv) of dry air vs. temperature and pressure. SI and imperial units.
Speed of sound in air at standard atmospheric pressure with temperatures ranging -40 to 1000 °C (-40 to 1500 °F) - Imperial and SI Units.
Online calculator with figures and tables showing air thermal conductivity vs. temperature and pressure. SI and imperial units.
Figures and tables withdry air thermal diffusivity vs. temperarure and pressure. SI and Imperial units.
Thermal properties of air at different temperatures - density, viscosity, critical temperature and pressure, triple point, enthalpi and entropi, thermal conductivity and diffusivity and more.
Air volume vs. temperature correction factor compared to Normal Air Conditions.
Yearly power cost for operating an air compressor.
Inlet pipe size and maximum air flow.
Thermodynamic properties of air at low pressures - imperial units.
Air consumption of air tools.
Online calculator with figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ammonia for temperatures ranging -50 to 425 °C (-50 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.
Dimensions of copper tubes used in medical gas systems.
The volume of an ideal gas vs. pressure.
Enthalpy, Entropy and Internal Energy of Carbon Dioxide gas.
Volume of an ideal gas vs. temperature.
Oxidizers vs. inert vs. flammable gases.
Pipe line sizing compressed air
Discharged air flow volume through hoses with pressure ranging 30 - 90 psi.
Friction loss in air hoses vs. operating pressure.
A glossary of terms commonly used for compressed air.
Compressed air supply to laboratories.
Calculate pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines with a nomograph diagram.
Calculate pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines - metric and imperial units.
Pressure loss in compressed air pipe lines.
Air pipe lines capacities at pressure 100 psi (6.9 bar).
Calculate the storage volume of compressed air or other gases.
Saturation pressure and maximum water content in compressed air.
Capacities of compressed air pipelines - pressure ranging 5 - 250 psi (0.5 - 17 bar).
Pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines.
Fittings in compressed air pipe lines and equivalent length pressure drop.
Pressure drop in compressed air pipelines with applied pressure 50, 100 and 150 psi.
Compressed air is used for power tools, instrumentation, processing, breathing and medical purposes.
Calculating air receivers capacity.
The ratio of compressed air pressure to free air pressure.
Critical temperatures and pressures for some common substances like air, alcohol, ether, oxygen and more.
Gibbs' Dalton's law of the total pressure of a mixture of gases.
Dimensions of EN 1057 Copper and copper alloys - Seamless, round copper tubes for water and gas in sanitary and heating applications.
Dimensions of seamless, round copper tubes for air conditioning and refrigeration piping systems.
Dimensions of seamless round copper and copper alloys tubes for medical gases or vacuum.
Gas marks on gas ovens and heat or temperature developed.
Online database with gas properties.
Gas mixtures and the ideal gas law, mass calculations, the individual gas constant and density.
Materials approved for gas pipes.
Sizing gas pipes for apartment service lines.
Clearance tolerance for gas vent terminations vs. roof slope.
An online control valve - Cv - calculator for gases.
Densities and molecular weights of common gases like acetylene, air, methane, nitrogen, oxygen and others.
Flame and explosion limits for gases like propane, methane, butane, acetylene and more.
Specific gravities of air, ammonia, butadiene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and some other common gases.
Calculate horsepower required by air compressors.
Carrying capacity of house gas pipes - in imperial and metric units.
Pascal's law and the hydraulic force acting in fluids.
Vapor and saturation pressure for some common liquids.
LNG or Liquefied Natural Gas.
Liquefied Petroleum - LP - gas properties.
LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas.
Required capacities of relief valves on LPG vaporizers and tanks.
Piping systems for medical gases.
Convert between liquid and gaseous LNG and Methane units.
Density of the mix of dry air and water vapor - moist humid air.
Natural gas consumption for equipment like boiling pans, ovens, cookers, kettles and more.
Types of natural gas meters and their capacities.
Calculate capacities and dimensions of natural gas pipe lines.
Multiple apartments and natural gas demand.
Natural gas is used extensively in residential, commercial and industrial applications.
Natural gas consumption in laboratory outlets.
Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Imperial units.
Burial dept and minimum cover of underground natural gas pipes.
Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Metric units.
Sizing natural gas pipes - pressures above 5 psi (35 kPa).
Enthalpy, internal energy and entropy of Nitrogen as an ideal gas.
The van der Waals constants for more than 200 gases used to correct for non-ideal behavior of gases caused by intermolecular forces and the volume occupied by the gas particles.
Nozzles discharging air volume.
Capacity of natural gas orifices.
Enthalpy, internal energy and entropy of oxygen as an ideal gas.
Calculate pneumatic cylinder acting velocity.
Force excerted by pneumatic air cylinders vs. air pressure cylinder size - online calculator.
Introduction to pressure - online pressure units converter.
Convert from kPa to psi and inches of Water and Mercury.
Latent heat with vaporized propane.
Energy content and specific gravity of propane air mixtures.
Evaporation pressure of propane butane mixture vs. temperature.
Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Metric units.
Sizing of propane gas pipe lines with pressures above 5 psig (35 kPa).
Sizing of low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Imperial units.
The difference between pumps, compressors, blowers and fans.
Common rating terms for air flow capacity are ICFM, FAD, ANR, SCFM or nl/min.
Calculate length of safety valves vent pipes.
Maximum safety valve free air relief capacity.
Calculating relief valves in gas and vapor systems.
Calculate air volume used by a single-acting piston.
Vapor and steam enthalpy, specific enthalpy of saturated liquid, saturated vapor and superheated vapor.
The relationship between volume, pressure, temperature and quantity of a gas, including definition of gas density.
Reciprocating, rotary screw and rotary centrifugal air compressors.
The Universal and Individual Gas Constants in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. Individual gas constants for the most common gases.
Vacuum is defined as air pressure below atmospheric pressure.
Convert vacuum air volume to standard air volume
Vacuum pumps - calculate flow rate and required evacuation time.
Measure air volume flow in vacuum.
Converting between vacuum units like % vacuum - mm Mercury - psi - torr - micron - kPa.
Air velocity diagrams for vacuum pipe lines.
Calculate pressure drops in vacuum pipe lines.
Capacities of vacuum pump exhaust pipes.
An introduction to vapor and steam.