Water - Enthalpy (H) and Entropy (S)

Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units

Follow the links for definitions of the terms specific enthalpy and entropy.

The figures and tables below shows how water enthalpy and entropy changes with temperature (°C and °F) at water saturation pressure (which for practicle use, gives the same result as atmospheric pressure at temperatures < 100 °C (212°F)).

See Water and Heavy Water - thermodynamic properties.
See also Water Density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient, Dynamic and kinematic viscosity, Heat of VaporizationIonization Constant, pKw, of normal and heavy water, Pressure and Boiling Points, Saturation pressure, Specific gravitySpecific heat (heat capacity) and Specific volume for online calculatores, and similar figures and tables as shown below.

water_enthalpy_entropy_C

water_enthalpy_entropy_F

Specific enthalpy and entropy for liquid water at saturation pressure at temperatures from 0 to 374 °C:

Temperature Enthalpy, H Entropy, S
[°C] [kJ/kmol] [kJ/kg] [kWh/kg] [kcal/kg] [Btu(IT)/lb] [kJ/(kmol K)] [kJ/(kg K)] [kWh/(kg K)] [Btu(IT)/lbm*R]
[kcal/(kg K)]
0.01 0 0.000612 0.00000017 0.00015 0.00026 0.00000 0.00000 0.0000000 0.00000
10 757.1 42.021 0.01167 10.04 18.1 2.722 0.15109 0.0000420 0.03609
20 1511.8 83.914 0.02331 20.04 36.1 5.341 0.29648 0.0000824 0.07081
25 1888.6 104.83 0.02912 25.04 45.1 6.616 0.36722 0.000102 0.08771
30 2265.2 125.73 0.03493 30.03 54.1 7.868 0.43675 0.000121 0.10432
40 3018.2 167.53 0.04654 40.01 72.0 10.31 0.57240 0.000159 0.13672
50 3771.5 209.34 0.05815 50.00 90.0 12.68 0.70381 0.000196 0.16810
60 4525.3 251.18 0.06977 59.99 108.0 14.98 0.83129 0.000231 0.19855
70 5279.9 293.07 0.08141 70.00 126.0 17.21 0.95513 0.000265 0.22813
80 6035.5 335.01 0.09306 80.02 144.0 19.38 1.0756 0.000299 0.25690
90 6792.8 377.04 0.10473 90.05 162.1 21.49 1.1929 0.000331 0.28492
100 7551.8 419.17 0.11644 100.1 180.2 23.55 1.3072 0.000363 0.31222
110 8312.9 461.42 0.12817 110.2 198.4 25.56 1.4188 0.000394 0.33887
120 9076.6 503.81 0.13995 120.3 216.6 27.53 1.5279 0.000424 0.36493
140 10614 589.16 0.16366 140.7 253.3 31.33 1.7392 0.000483 0.41540
160 12169 675.47 0.18763 161.3 290.4 35.00 1.9426 0.000540 0.46398
180 13747 763.05 0.21196 182.3 328.1 38.54 2.1392 0.000594 0.51094
200 15354 852.27 0.23674 203.6 366.4 41.99 2.3305 0.000647 0.55663
220 17000 943.58 0.26211 225.4 405.7 45.36 2.5177 0.000699 0.60134
240 18693 1037.6 0.28822 247.8 446.1 48.68 2.7020 0.000751 0.64536
260 20448 1135.0 0.31528 271.1 488.0 51.97 2.8849 0.000801 0.68905
280 22284 1236.9 0.34359 295.4 531.8 55.28 3.0685 0.000852 0.73290
300 24232 1345.0 0.37361 321.2 578.2 58.65 3.2552 0.000904 0.77749
320 26343 1462.2 0.40617 349.2 628.6 62.14 3.4494 0.000958 0.82388
340 28727 1594.5 0.44292 380.8 685.5 65.94 3.6601 0.001017 0.87420
360 31739 1761.7 0.48937 420.8 757.4 70.56 3.9167 0.001088 0.93549
373.946 37551 2084.3 0.57898 497.8 896.1 79.40 4.4070 0.001224 1.05259


Specific enthalpy and entropy for liquid water at temperatures from 32 to 675 °F:

Temperature Specific enthalpy, H Specific entropy, S
[°F] [Btu(IT)/mol] [Btu(IT)/lb] [kJ/kg] [kcal/kg] [Btu(IT)/(kmol °R)] [Btu(IT)/lb °R]
[kcal/(kg K)]
[kJ/(kg K)]
32.2 0.00 0.0003 0.0006 0.000 0.00 0.0000 0.0000
40 0.32 8.11 18.9 4.50 0.65 0.0163 0.0681
50 0.72 18.1 42.0 10.0 1.43 0.036 0.151
60 1.11 27.8 64.7 15.5 2.20 0.055 0.232
80 1.90 47.8 111 26.6 3.70 0.093 0.390
100 2.70 68.0 158 37.8 5.15 0.130 0.542
120 3.50 88.1 205 48.9 6.54 0.165 0.690
140 4.29 108 251 60.0 7.89 0.199 0.831
160 5.09 128 298 71.3 9.20 0.232 0.970
180 5.89 148 345 82.4 10.5 0.263 1.10
200 6.68 168 391 93.5 11.7 0.294 1.23
212 7.16 180 419 100 12.4 0.312 1.31
220 7.48 188 438 105 12.9 0.324 1.36
240 8.27 208 485 116 14.0 0.353 1.48
260 9.08 229 532 127 15.2 0.382 1.60
280 9.88 249 579 138 16.3 0.410 1.72
300 10.70 269 627 150 17.4 0.437 1.83
350 12.77 322 748 179 20.0 0.503 2.11
400 14.91 375 873 209 22.5 0.567 2.38
450 17.11 431 1002 239 25.0 0.630 2.64
500 19.38 488 1135 271 27.4 0.689 2.88
550 21.80 549 1277 305 30.0 0.754 3.16
600 24.49 617 1434 343 32.6 0.821 3.44
625 26.01 655 1523 364 34.1 0.858 3.59
650 27.70 698 1622 388 35.7 0.898 3.76
675 29.64 746 1736 415 37.5 0.944 3.95

Energy per unit mass   (Specific energy - mass)

british thermal unit(international table)/pound [Btu(IT)/lb], gigajoule/tonne [GJ/t], kilocalorie/kilogram [kcal/kg] = calorie/gram[cal/g], kilojoule/kilogram [kJ/kg] = joule/gram [J/g], kilowatt hour/kilogram [kWh/kg]

  • 1 Btu(IT)/lb = 0.002326 GJ/t = 2.326 kJ/kg = 0.5559 kcal/kg = 0.000646 kWh/kg
  • 1 cal/g = 1 kcal/kg = 0.0041868 GJ/t = 4.1868 kJ/kg = 1.8 Btu(IT)/lb = 0.001162 kWh/kg
  • 1 GJ/t = 1000 kJ/kg  = 429.923 Btu(IT)/lb = 238.846 kcal/kg = 0.278 kWh/kg
  • 1 J/g = 1 kJ/kg = 10-3 GJ/t  = 0.23885 kcal/kg = 0.4299 Btu(IT)/lb = 0.0002778 kWh/kg
  • 1 kcal/kg = 1 cal/g = 0.0041868 GJ/t = 4.1868 kJ/kg = 1.8 Btu(IT)/lb = 0.001162 kWh/kg
  • 1 kJ/kg = 1 J/g = 10-3 GJ/t  = 0.23885 kcal/kg = 0.4299 Btu(IT)/lb = 0.0002778 kWh/kg
  • 1 kWh/kg = 1547.7 Btu(IT)/lb = 3.597 GJ/t = 3597.1 kJ/kg = 860.421 kcal/kg

Temperature

  • T°C = (T°F - 32)/1.8
  • T°C = TK - 273.15
  • T°F = T°C*1.8 + 32
  • T°F = (TK - 273.15)*1.8 + 32
  • TK = T°C + 273.15
  • TK = T°R/1.8
  • T°R= T°F + 459.67
  • T°R = 1.8 K 

Temperature difference:

  • ΔT°C = ΔTK = 1.8*ΔT°F  = 1.8*ΔT°R 
  • ΔT°F = ΔT°R = ΔT°C/1.8 = ΔTK/1.8
  • ΔTK = ΔT°C = 1.8*ΔT°F  = 1.8*ΔT°R
  • ΔT°R = ΔT°F = ΔT°C/1.8 = ΔTK/1.8

Related Topics

  • Material Properties - Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more
  • Thermodynamics - Effects of work, heat and energy on systems
  • Steam and Condensate - Steam & condensate systems- properties, capacities, pipe sizing, systems configuration and more
  • Water Systems - Hot and cold water service systems - design properties, capacities, sizing and more

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