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Methanol - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of methanol, CH3OH (also called carbinol, wood alcohol, hydroxy methyl and methyl alcohol). Phase diagram included.

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Methanol, CH3-OH, is a colorless, fairly volatile liquid with a faintly sweet pungent odor, similar, but somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol

Methanol is toxic, and may cause blindness. The vapors are slightly heavier than air and may explode if ignited.

Methanol is used to make chemicals, to remove water from automotive and aviation fuels, as a solvent for paints and plastics, and as an ingredient in a wide variety of products.

The phase diagram of methanol is shown below the table.

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethanol:
Values are given for liquid at 25oC /77oF / 298 K and 1 bara, if not other phase, temperature or pressure given.

Property Value Unit Value Unit Value Unit Value Unit
Acidity (pKa1) 15.3
Autoignition temperature 737 K 464 °C 867 °F
Boiling Point 337.85 K 64.7 °C 148.5 °F
Critical density 8.7852 mol/dm3 281 kg/m3 0.546 slug/ft3 17.6 lb/ft3
Critical Pressure 8.22 MPa=MN/m2 82.2 bar 81.1 atm 1192 psi=lbf/in2
Critical temperature 513.4 K 240.2 °C 464.4 °F
Critical Volume 114 cm3/mol 0.003552456 m3/kg 1.831 ft3/slug 0.05690 ft3/lb
Density (gas) at 0.17 bar 6.87 mol/m3 0.220 kg/m3 0.00043 slug/ft3 0.0137 lb/ft3
Density (liquid) 24540 mol/m3 786.3 kg/m3 1.526 slug/ft3 49.09 lb/ft3
Flammable, gas and liquid yes
Flash point 284 K 11 °C 52 °F
Gas constant, individual - R 259.5 J/kg K 0.07208 Wh/(kg K) 1552 [ft lbf/slug °R] 48.23 [ft lbf/lb °R]
Gibbs free energy of formation (gas) -163 kJ/mol -5087 kJ/kg -2187 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of combustion (gas) 726.1 kJ/mol 22661 kJ/kg 9.7 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of combustion (liquid) -727 kJ/mol -22689 kJ/kg -9.8 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of formation (gas) -205 kJ/mol -6398 kJ/kg -2751 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of formation (liquid) -239 kJ/mol -7459 kJ/kg -3207 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of fusion at -143°F/-97°C 3.18 kJ/mol 99 kJ/kg 42.67 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of evaporation 37.34 kJ/mol 1165 kJ/kg 501.01 Btu/lb
Heat capacity, Cp (gas) at 0.17 bar 116 J/mol K 3.62 kJ/kg K 0.865 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Heat capacity, Cp (liquid) 81.2 J/mol K 21.95 kJ/kg K 5.242 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Heat capacity, Cp (solid) at -148°F/-100°C 105 J/mol K 28.38 kJ/kg K 6.778 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Heat capacity, Cv (gas) at 0.17 bar 94.5 J/mol K 2.95 kJ/kg K 0.704 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Heat capacity, Cv (liquid) 67.9 J/mol K 2.12 kJ/kg K 0.506 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Ionization potential 10.84 eV
log KOW (Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient) -0.77
Melting point 175.55 K -97.6 °C -143.7 °F
Molecular Weight 32.042 g/mol 0.07064 lb/mol
Solubility in water 1000 mg/ml (Miscible in water)
Sound velocity in gas, at 0.17 bar 297 m/s 974 ft/s 665 mi/h
Sound velocity in liquid 1100 m/s 3608 ft/s 2464 mi/h
Specific Gravity (gas) (relativ to air) 1.11
Specific Gravity (liquid) (relativ to water) 0.79
Specific Heat Ratio (gas) - cp/cv 1.23
Specific Heat Ratio (liquid) - cp/cv 1.20
Specific Volume (gas) 0.17 bar 0.146 m3/mol 4.55 m3/kg 2342.63 ft3/slug 72.81 ft3/lb
Specific Volume (liquid) 0.0000408 m3/mol 0.00127 m3/kg 0.655 ft3/slug 0.0204 ft3/lb
Standard molar entropy, S° (gas) 240 J/mol K 7.49 kJ/kg K 1.79 Btu/lb °F
Standard molar entropy, S° (liquid) 127 J/mol K 3.96 kJ/kg K 0.95 Btu/lb °F
Surface tension 22.07 dynes/cm 0.02207 N/m
Thermal Conductivity 0.202 W/m°C 0.116713 Btu/hr ft °F
Triple point pressure 1.86*10-7 MPa=MN/m2 1.86*10-6 bar 1.84*10-6 atm 2.70*10-5 psi=lbf/in2
Triple point temperature 175.50 K -97.7 °C -143.77 °F
Vapor (saturation) pressure 0.0169 MPa=MN/m2 127.0 mm Hg 0.1671 atm 2.46 psi=lbf/in2
Viscosity, dynamic (absolute) 0.544 cP 365.55 [lbm /ft s*10-6] 11.36 [lbf s/ft2 *10-6]
Viscosity, kinematic 0.692 cSt 7.4 [ft2/s*10-6]

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Methanol is a liquid at standard conditions. However, at low temperature and/or very high pressures it becomes a solid.

The phase diagram for methanol shows the phase behavior with changes in temperature and pressure. The curve between the critical point and the triple point shows the methanol boiling point with changes in pressure. It also shows the saturation pressure with changes in temperature.

Methanol phase diagram

At the critical point there is no change of state when pressure is increased or if heat is added.

The triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

See also more about atmospheric pressure, and STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure & NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure, as well as Thermophysical properties of:
, AcetyleneAir, Ammonia, Argon, Butane, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Ethane, Ethanol, Helium, Hydrogen, Methane, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Propane, Water and Heavy water, D2O.

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