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Ionic Compounds in Water - Solubility Guidelines

Guidelines or solubility rules to predict whether or not a given ionic compound is soluble in water at room temperature.

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See also Solutions, molarity and dilution and Solubility product constants

Usually Soluble             Exceptions
Acetates CH3COO-   Moderately soluble: CH3COOAg
Ammonium NH4+
Chlorates ClO3-
Perchlorates ClO4-
Group 1 cations Li+
Halides F-   Insoluble: MgF2, CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, PbF2
Cl-   Insoluble: AgCl, Hg2Cl2, PbCl2,
Br -   Insoluble: AgBr, Hg2Br2, PbBr2,
I-   Insoluble: AgI, Hg2I2, PbI2,
Nitrates NO3-
Nitrites NO2-   Moderately soluble: AgNO2
Sulfates SO42-

  Moderate soluble: CaSO4, SrSO4, Ag2SO4

  Insoluble: BaSO4, PbSO4, HgSO4

Usually Insoluble             Exceptions
Carbonates CO32-   Soluble: (NH4)2CO3, Na2CO3, K2CO3
Hydroxides OH-

  Soluble: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2

  Moderately soluble: Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2

Phosphates PO43-   Soluble: (NH4)3PO4, Na3PO4, K3PO4
Sulfides S2-   Soluble: (NH4)2S, Na2S, K2S, MgS, CaS
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