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Ionic Compounds in Water - Solubility Guidelines

Guidelines or solubility rules to predict whether or not a given ionic compound is soluble in water at room temperature.

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See also Solutions, molarity and dilution and Solubility product constants

Ionic Compounds in Water - Usually Soluble
Usually Soluble Exceptions
Acetates CH 3 COO - Moderately soluble: CH 3 COOAg
Ammonium NH 4 +
Chlorates ClO 3 -
Perchlorates ClO 4 -
Group 1 cations Li +
Na +
K +
Rb +
Cs +
Halides F - Insoluble: MgF 2 , CaF 2 , SrF 2 , BaF 2 , PbF 2
Cl - Insoluble: AgCl, Hg 2 Cl 2 , PbCl 2 ,
Br - Insoluble: AgBr, Hg 2 Br 2 , PbBr 2 ,
I - Insoluble: AgI, Hg 2 I 2 , PbI 2 ,
Nitrates NO 3 -
Nitrites NO 2 - Moderately soluble: AgNO 2
Sulfates SO 4 2-

Moderate soluble: CaSO 4 , SrSO 4 , Ag 2 SO 4

Insoluble: BaSO 4 , PbSO 4 , HgSO 4

Ionic Compounds in Water - Usually Insoluble
Usually Insoluble Exceptions
Carbonates CO 3 2- Soluble: (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , K 2 CO 3
Hydroxides OH -

Soluble: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH) 2

Moderately soluble: Ca(OH) 2 , Sr(OH) 2

Phosphates PO 4 3- Soluble: (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 , Na 3 PO 4 , K 3 PO 4
Sulfides S 2- Soluble: (NH 4 ) 2 S, Na 2 S, K 2 S, MgS, CaS
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Related Topics

  • Fluid Mechanics

    The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involving velocity, pressure, density and temperature as functions of space and time.
  • Material Properties

    Material properties of gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more.

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