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Water - Specific Gravity

Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference

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Specific Gravity (= Relative Density) - SG - is a dimensionless unit defined as the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance - at a specified temperature and pressure, and can be expressed as

SG = ρsubstance / ρreference                                           (3)

where

SG = Specific Gravity of the substance

ρsubstance = density of the fluid or substance [kg/m3]

ρreference = density of the reference [kg/m3]

It is most common to use the density of water at 4 oC (39oF) as a reference since water at this point has its highest density of 1000 kg/m3 or 1.940 sl/ft3. However, also the density at 60 °F (15.6°C) or 20 °C is often used as the reference temperature, e.g. related to crude oils and petroleum products.  Water is normally also used as reference when calculating the specific gravity for solids. For gases it is air at room temperature (25°C). Pressure is nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa). The temperature and pressure must always be specified for both the sample and the reference.

Specific Gravity - SG -  is dimensionless and has the same value in the SI system and the Imperial English system (BG).

Specific gravity of liquid water ranging 32 - 700 oF and 0 - 370 oC is given in figures and tables below:

See Water and Heavy Water - thermodynamic properties.
See also Water Boiling points at high pressure, Boiling points at vacuum pressure, Density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient, Dynamic and kinematic viscosity, Enthalpy and entropy, Heat of vaporization, Ionization Constant, pKw, of normal and heavy water, Melting points at high pressure, Saturation pressure, Specific heat (heat capacity) and Specific volume for online calculatores, and similar figures and tables as shown below.

 

Spec_gravity_C


Spec_gravity_F


Specific gravity (SG) for water is given for four different reference temperatures (4, 15, 15.6 and 20°C).
From 0 to 100°C the pressure is 1 atm, and for temperatures >100°C, the pressure is equal to water saturation pressure.

Temperature Pressure Density SG at reference temperature
[°C] [g/cm3] 4 °C 15 °C 15.6°C (60 °F)
20 °C
0.1

1 atm

14.7 psi

101.3 kPa

0.999850 0.99987 1.00075 1.00083 1.00165
1 0.999902 0.99993 1.00080 1.00089 1.00170
4 0.999975 1.00000 1.00087 1.00096 1.00177
10 0.999703 0.99973 1.00060 1.00069 1.00150
15 0.999103 0.99913 1.00000 1.00009 1.00090
20 0.998207 0.99823 0.99910 0.99919 1.00000
25 0.997047 0.99707 0.99794 0.99803 0.99884
30 0.995649 0.99567 0.99654 0.99663 0.99744
35 0.99403 0.9941 0.9949 0.9950 0.9958
40 0.99222 0.9922 0.9931 0.9932 0.9940
45 0.99021 0.9902 0.9911 0.9912 0.9920
50 0.98804 0.9881 0.9889 0.9890 0.9898
55 0.98569 0.9857 0.9866 0.9867 0.9875
60 0.98320 0.9832 0.9841 0.9842 0.9850
65 0.98055 0.9806 0.9814 0.9815 0.9823
70 0.97776 0.9778 0.9786 0.9787 0.9795
75 0.97484 0.9749 0.9757 0.9758 0.9766
80 0.97179 0.9718 0.9727 0.9727 0.9735
85 0.96861 0.9686 0.9695 0.9696 0.9704
90 0.96531 0.9653 0.9662 0.9663 0.9670
95 0.96189 0.9619 0.9628 0.9628 0.9636
99 0.95907 0.9591 0.9599 0.9600 0.9608
99.974 0.95837 0.9584 0.9592 0.9593 0.9601
[°C] Pressure =
saturation pressure
[kPa]
[g/cm3] 4 °C 15 °C 15.6°C  (60 °F)
20 °C
100 101.4 0.9584 0.9584 0.9592 0.9593 0.9601
110 143.4 0.9510 0.9510 0.9518 0.9519 0.9527
120 198.9 0.9431 0.9431 0.9440 0.9440 0.9448
140 362.3 0.9261 0.9262 0.9270 0.9270 0.9278
160 620.1 0.9075 0.9075 0.9083 0.9083 0.9091
180 1003 0.8870 0.8870 0.8878 0.8879 0.8886
200 1553 0.8647 0.8647 0.8654 0.8655 0.8662
220 2318 0.8402 0.8402 0.8410 0.8410 0.8417
240 3347 0.8134 0.8134 0.8141 0.8142 0.8148
260 4694 0.7836 0.7836 0.7843 0.7844 0.7850
280 6419 0.7503 0.7503 0.7510 0.7510 0.7516
300 8588 0.7121 0.7122 0.7128 0.7128 0.7134
320 11281 0.6671 0.6671 0.6677 0.6677 0.6683
340 14600 0.6107 0.6107 0.6112 0.6113 0.6118
360 18672 0.5276 0.5276 0.5281 0.5281 0.5285
374 22043 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.323



Specific gravity (SG) for water is given for four different reference temperatures (39.2, 59, 60 and 68°F).
From 32 to 212°F the pressure is 14.7 psi, and for temperatures >212°F, the pressure is equal to water saturation pressure.

Temperature Pressure Density SG at refence temperatures
[°F] [lbm/ft3] 39.2°F 59°F  (15°C )
60°F 68°F (20°C)
32.2

14.7 psi

101.3 kPa

1 atm
62.418 0.9999 1.0007 1.0008 1.0016
34 62.422 0.9999 1.0008 1.0009 1.0017
39.2 62.426 1.0000 1.0009 1.0010 1.0018
50 62.409 0.9997 1.0006 1.0007 1.0015
60 62.366 0.9990 0.9999 1.0000 1.0008
70 62.301 0.9980 0.9989 0.9990 0.9998
80 62.215 0.9966 0.9975 0.9976 0.9984
90 62.109 0.9949 0.9958 0.9959 0.9967
100 61.993 0.9931 0.9939 0.9940 0.9948
110 61.860 0.9909 0.9918 0.9919 0.9927
120 61.712 0.9886 0.9894 0.9895 0.9903
130 61.551 0.9860 0.9868 0.9869 0.9877
140 61.379 0.9832 0.9841 0.9842 0.9850
150 61.194 0.9803 0.9811 0.9812 0.9820
160 61.000 0.9772 0.9780 0.9781 0.9789
170 60.795 0.9739 0.9747 0.9748 0.9756
180 60.579 0.9704 0.9713 0.9713 0.9721
190 60.354 0.9668 0.9677 0.9677 0.9685
200 60.121 0.9631 0.9639 0.9640 0.9648
210 59.878 0.9592 0.9600 0.9601 0.9609
211.95 59.829 0.9584 0.9592 0.9593 0.9601
[°F] Pressure =
saturation pressure
[psi]
[lbm/ft3] 39.2°F 59°F (15°C) 60°F 68°F (20°C)
220 17.2 59.63 0.9552 0.9560 0.9561 0.9569
240 25.0 59.10 0.9467 0.9475 0.9476 0.9484
260 35.5 58.53 0.9375 0.9384 0.9384 0.9392
280 49.3 57.93 0.9279 0.9287 0.9288 0.9296
300 67.3 57.29 0.9177 0.9185 0.9186 0.9193
350 135 55.59 0.8905 0.8913 0.8914 0.8921
400 247 53.67 0.8598 0.8606 0.8606 0.8613
450 422 51.45 0.8242 0.8250 0.8250 0.8257
500 681 48.92 0.7837 0.7843 0.7844 0.7850
550 1045 45.95 0.7360 0.7367 0.7367 0.7373
600 1542 42.36 0.6786 0.6792 0.6793 0.6798
625 1851 40.12 0.6426 0.6432 0.6433 0.6438
650 2208 37.35 0.5982 0.5988 0.5988 0.5993
675 2619 33.79 0.5412 0.5417 0.5417 0.5422
700 3092 29.07 0.4657 0.4661 0.4662 0.4666
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