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Acetone - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of acetone, also called 2-propanone, dimethyl ketone and pyroacetic acid. Phase diagram included.

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Acetone (2-propanone), CH3-CO-CH3, is a clear colorless liquid with a characteristic fruity and sweetish odor. It is flammable and vapors are heavier than air. Acetone is toxic in high doses.

Acetone occurs naturally in plants, trees, forest fires, vehicle exhaust and as a breakdown product of animal fat metabolism. The substance may be normally present in very small quantities in urine and blood; larger amounts may be found in the urine and blood of diabetics. Acetone is used as a solvent in paint and nail polish removers.

The phase diagram of acetone is shown below the table.

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of acetone:
Values are given for liquid at 25oC /77oF / 298 K and 1 bara, if not other phase, temperature or pressure given.

For full table with Imperial units - rotate the screen!

Property Value Unit Value Unit Value Unit Value Unit
Acidity (pKa1) 20
Autoignition temperature 738 K 465 °C 869 °F
Boiling Point 329.2 K 56.08 °C 132.9 °F
Critical density 4.70 mol/dm3 273 kg/m3 0.530 slug/ft3 17.0 lb/ft3
Critical pressure 4.69 MPa=MN/m2 46.9 bar 46.3 atm 681 psi=lbf/in2
Critical temperature 508.1 K 235.0 °C 454.9 °F
Critical volume 213 cm3/mol 0.00366 m3/kg 1.89 ft3/slug 0.0587 ft3/lb
Density 13507 mol/m3 784.5 kg/m3 1.522 slug/ft3 48.97 lb/ft3
Flammable, gas and liquid yes
Flash point 256 K -17 °C 1 °F
Gas constant, individual - R 143.2 J/kg K 0.03977 Wh/(kg K) 856.1 [ft lbf/slug °R] 26.61 [ft lbf/lb °R]
Gibbs free energy of formation (gas) -153 kJ/mol -2634 kJ/kg -1133 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of combustion (gas) -1821 kJ/mol -31354 kJ/kg -13.5 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of combustion (liquid) -1789 kJ/mol -30803 kJ/kg -13.2 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of formation (gas) -218.0 kJ/mol -3753 kJ/kg -1614 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of formation (liquid) -249 kJ/mol -4287 kJ/kg -1843 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of fusion at -142 °F/-97°C 5.7 kJ/mol 98 kJ/kg 42.19 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of evaporation 31.0 kJ/mol 534 kJ/kg 229 Btu/lb
Specific Heat capacity, Cp (gas) 75.0 J/mol K 1.29 kJ/kg K 0.308 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Specific Heat capacity, Cp (liquid) 124.5 J/mol K 2.14 kJ/kg K 0.512 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Specific Heat capacity, Cv (liquid) 90.0 J/mol K 1.55 kJ/kg K 0.370 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Ionization potential 9.69 eV
log KOW (Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient) -0.24
Melting point 178.25 K -94.9 °C -138.8 °F
Molecular Weight 58.079 g/mol 0.12804 lb/mol
Solubility in water, at 25°C 1000 mg/ml Miscible with water
Sound velocity 1164 m/s 3818 ft/s 2607 mi/h
Specific Gravity (gas) (relativ to air) 2.0
Specific Gravity (liquid) (relativ to water) 0.79
Specific Heat Ratio (liquid) - CP/CV 1.38
Specific Volume 0.0000740 m3/mol 0.00127 m3/kg 0.657 ft3/slug 0.0204 ft3/lb
Standard molar entropy, S° (gas) 295 J/mol K 5.08 kJ/kg K 1.21 Btu/lb °F
Surface tension 23.1 dynes/cm 0.02308 N/m
Thermal Conductivity 0.18 W/m °C 0.104002 Btu/hr ft °F
Triple point pressure 2.33*10-6 MPa=MN/m2 2.33*10-5 bar 2.30*10-5 atm 3.38*10-4 psi=lbf/in2
Triple point temperature 178.5 K -94.7 °C -138.37 °F
Vapor (saturation) pressure 0.0308 MPa=MN/m2 231.0 mm Hg 0.3039 atm 4.47 psi=lbf/in2
Viscosity, dynamic (absolute) 0.309 cP 207.6 [lbm /ft s*10-6] 6.45 [lbf s/ft2 *10-6]
Viscosity, kinematic 0.394 cSt 4.2 [ft2/s*10-6]

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Density and specific weight of acetone at varying pressure and temperature.

See also more about atmospheric pressure, and STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure & NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure,
as well as Thermophysical properties of: Acetylene, Air, Ammonia, Argon, Benzene, Butane, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Ethane, Ethanol, Ethylene, Helium, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Methane, Methanol, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Pentane, Propane, Toluene, Water and Heavy water, D2O.

Acetone is a liquid at standard conditions. However, at low temperature and/or very high pressures it becomes a solid.

The phase diagram for acetone shows the phase behavior with changes in temperature and pressure. The curve between the critical point and the triple point shows the acetone boiling point with changes in pressure. It also shows the saturation pressure with changes in temperature.

Acetone phase diagram C

At the critical point there is no change of state when pressure is increased or if heat is added.

The triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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