Fluid Mechanics

The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involves velocity, pressure, density and temperature as functions of space and time

Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity Online Converter

Convert between dynamic or absolute viscosity units - Poiseuille, Poise, centPoise and more

Absolute, Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Dynamic, absolute and kinematic viscosities - convert between CentiStokes (cSt), centipoises (cP), Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU) and degree Engler

Air - Altitude, Density and Specific Volume

Density and the specific volume of air vary with elevation above sea level

Air - Temperature, Pressure and Density

Air density for pressure range 0 - 1000 psi and temperature range 30 - 600 deg F

Air Duct Components and Minor Loss Coefficients

Minor loss - pressure or head loss - coefficients for air duct distribution systems components

Archimedes' Law

Forces acting on a body submerged in a fluid

Average boiling point

Definition, explanation and examples of calculation of various types of average boiling point of petroleum products and other mixtures of hydrocarbons: VABP, MABP, WABP, CABP and MeABP

Average boiling point from gravity and molecular weight

Formulas and examples of calculation of boiling point of hydrocarbon mixtures from gravity and molecular weight

Baumé's Hydrometer

Degree Baumé converted to Specific Gravity

Bernoulli Equation

Conservation of energy - non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady flow

Bulk Modulus and Fluid Elasticity

Introduction to - and definition of - Bulk Modulus Elasticity commonly used to characterize compressibility of fluids


The resultant force acting on a submerged body


Capillarity - or capillary action - is the ability of a narrow tube to draw a liquid upwards against the force of gravity

Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Rooms with People

The carbon dioxide concentration in a room can indicate air quality and ventilation system efficiency

Cauchy Number

Introduction to the Cauchy Number

Cavitation - an Introduction

Cavitation occurs in fluid flow systems where the local static pressure is below vapor pressure

Cavitation Number

An introduction to and a definition of the Cavitation Number

Center of Gravity - Center of Buoyancy

Stability - center of gravity and center of buoyancy

Chezy Equation

Conduits flow and mean velocity - the Chezy equation

Colebrook Equation

Calculate friction loss coefficients in pipes, tubes and ducts

Compressible Gas Flow - Entropy

Calculating entropy in compressible gas flow

Compression and Expansion of Gases

Isothermal and isentropic gas compression and expansion processes

Conservation of Mass

The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass can neither be created or destroyed

Darcy-Weisbach Pressure and Head Loss Equation

The Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to calculate pressure or head loss due to friction in ducts, pipes or tubes

Density of Liquids versus change in Pressure and Temperature

Density and specific volume of a liquid versus change in pressure and temperature

Density, Specific Weight and Specific Gravity

An introduction to density, specific gravity and specific weight - formulas with examples

Drag Coefficient

The drag coefficient of an object in a moving fluid influence drag force

Dynamic or Absolute Viscosity Converting Chart

Dynamic viscosity converting chart with units like Poiseuille - Poise - centiPoise and more

Dynamic Pressure

Dynamic pressure is the kinetic energy per unit volume of a fluid

Dynamic Viscosity of common Liquids

Absolute - dynamic - viscosity for some common fluids

Energy and Hydraulic Grade Line

The hydraulic grade and the energy line are graphical presentations of the Bernoulli equation

Entrance Length and Developed Flow

The entrance length is the length in a tube or duct after an obstruction - until the flow velocity profile is fully developed

Equation of Continuity

The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation

Equations in Fluid Mechanics

Commonly used equations in fluid mechanics - Bernoulli, conservation of energy, conservation of mass, pressure, Navier-Stokes, ideal gas law, Euler equations, Laplace equations, Darcy-Weisbach Equation and more

Equivalent Diameter

Convert rectangular and oval duct geometry to a equivalent circular diameter - online calculator with imperial and SI-units

Euler Equations

The behavior of ideal compressible gas can be described with Euler equations

Euler Number

Introduction to the Euler Number used in fluid mechanics

Flow Coefficient Cv versus Flow Factor Kv

Comparing flow coefficient Cv and flow factor Kv

Flow of Liquids from Containers - Volume Flow and Emptying Time Calculator

Liquid velocity, volume flow and draining time when emptying containers

Flow Section Channels - Geometric Relationships

Geometric relationships in flow channels - area, wetted perimeter and hydraulic diameter

Fluid Mechanics - Imperial and SI Units Dimensions

Imperial (USCS) and SI dimensions and units terminology in fluid mechanics

Friction Coefficient with Laminar Flow

Laminar flow and friction coefficient

Froude Number

Introduction to the Froude Number

Gas Mixtures and Properties

Special care must be taken for gas mixtures when using the ideal gas law, calculating the mass, the individual gas constant or the density

Hazen-Williams Coefficients

Hazen-Williams coefficients for piping materials

Hazen-Williams Equation - calculate Head Loss in Water Pipes

Friction head loss (ftH2O per 100 ft pipe) in water pipes can be estimated with the empirical Hazen-Williams equation

Hot Water Heating Systems - Steel Pipes Pressure Loss Chart

Steel pipes in hot water heating systems - pressure loss diagram

Hydraulic Diameter

Hydraulic diameter of pipes and ducts

Hydrostatic Force acting on a Submerged Surface

A thrust force will act on a submerged surface

Hydrostatic Pressure

Depth and hydrostatic pressure

Ideal Gas Law

The relations between volume, pressure, temperature and quantity of a gas, including definition of density of a gas.

Isentropic Flow

Constant entropy flow is called isentropic flow

Jet Discharge Propulsion

Propulsive force or thrust induced by an incompressible jet flow

Kinematic Viscosity - Online Converter

Convert between different kinematic viscosity units - centistokes, poise, lentor and more

Kinematic Viscosity Conversion Diagram

Convert between Centistokes, Saybolt and Redwood seconds

Laminar, Transitional or Turbulent Flow

When calculating heat transfer or pressure and head loss it is important to know if a fluid flow is laminar, transitional or turbulent

Laplace Equation

The Laplace equation is important in fluid dynamics describing the behavior of gravitational and fluid potentials

Lift and Drag

Body - like an airfoil - in fluid flow

Liquids - Kinematic Viscosities

Kinematic viscosities of common liquids like motor oil, diesel fuel, peanut oil and many more

Mach Number

Introduction to the Mach Number

Major loss in Ducts, Tubes and Pipes

Major loss - head loss or pressure loss - due to friction in ducts, pipes and tubes

Major Loss Online Calculator - the Darcy-Weisbach Friction Loss Equation

An online major loss calculator based on the Darcy-Weisbach friction loss equation. Energy (or head) loss is expressed in length units

Manning's Formula for Gravity Flow

Open channel slope area flow metering

Manning's Roughness Coefficients

Manning's roughness coefficients for common materials

Mass and Weight

Mass and Weight - the Gravity Force

Mechanical Energy and Bernoulli Equation

The mechanical energy equation related to energy per unit mass, energy per unit volume and energy per unit weight involving head

Melting and Boiling Point, Density and Solubility in Water for Inorganic Compounds

Physical constants for more than 280 common inorganic compounds. Density is given for the actual state at 25°C and for liquid phase at melting point temperature.

Minor Loss Coefficients in Pipes and Tubes Components

Minor loss coefficients for common used components in pipe and tube systems

Minor Loss in Pipe or Duct Components

Minor loss, pressure or head loss in pipe, tube and duct system components

Mixing Fluids

Final mass and temperature when mixing fluids

Mixtures, Solutions and Suspensions

The difference between mixtures, solutions and suspensions

Molecular weight from average boiling point and gravity

Formula and examples of calculation of average molecular weight of hydrocarbon mixtures from gravity and average boiling point, achieved from distillation data.

Moody Diagram

A Moody diagram that can be used to estimate friction coefficients

Moody Friction Flow Factor

Online Moody friction flow factor calculator - as used in the Darcy-Weisbach major loss equation

Motor Oils - Dynamic Viscosity

Dynamic viscosities for motor oils SAE 10 to 50 - temperature range 0 - 100 deg C

Navier-Stokes Equations

The Navier-Stokes equations are the fundamental partial differentials equations used to describe incompressible fluid flows

Non-ideal gas - Van der Waals equation and constants

Listing of van der Waals constants for more than 200 gases, used to correct for non-ideal behavior of gases caused by intermolecular forces and the volume occupied by the gas particles


Gas flow through nozzles - sonic chokes

Oil Viscosity - Convert Values

Convert between common oil viscosity units

Orifice, Nozzle and Venturi Flow Rate Meters

The orifice, nozzle and venturi flow rate meters use the Bernoulli Equation to calculate fluid flow rate using pressure difference through obstructions in the flow

Pascal's Laws

Pascal's laws relates to pressures in fluids

Pipes - in Series or Parallel

Pressure loss in pipes connected in series or parallel

Pipes and Fluid Flow Velocities

Calculate fluid flow and pipe velocities in pipes and tubes

Poiseuille's Formula

The volume flow discharged through a smooth-walled circular pipe

Prandtl Number

The Prandtl Number is a dimensionless number approximating the ratio of momentum diffusivity to thermal diffusivity


Introduction to pressure - psi and Pa - online pressure units converter

Pressure Coefficient

The ratio of pressure forces to inertial forces

Pressure Energy

Pressure energy in a incompressible fluid

Pressure Gradient Diagrams

A pressure gradient diagram is a graphical presentation of the static pressure throughout a fluid flow system

Pressure Units - Online Converter

Convert between pressure units like Pa,  bar, atmosphere, pound square feet, psi and more

Pump Affinity Laws

Turbo machines affinity laws can be used to calculate volume capacity, head or power consumption in centrifugal pumps with changing speed or wheel diameters

Pumps, Compressors, Blowers and Fans

Comparing pumps, compressors, blowers and fans

Ratios of Specific Heat of Gases

Ratios of specific heat for gases in constant pressure and volume processes

Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - online calculators


A measure of the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a solvent

Solubility guidelines for ionic compounds in water

Guidelines or solubility rules to predict whether or not a given ionic compound is soluble in water at room temperature

Solubility product constants

The equilibrium constant, Ksp, for aqueous solutions of ionic compounds at 25°C.

Specific Work of Turbo Machines - Pumps, Compressors and Fans

Specific work from pumps, fans, compressors and turbines

Speed of Sound Formulas

Calculation formulas for velocity of sound - sonic velocity - in gases, fluids or solids

Speed of Sound in Water

Speed of sound in water at temperatures ranging 32 - 212oF (0 - 100oC) - Imperial and SI units

Static Pressure or Head in Fluids

Static pressure and pressure head

Stokes' Formula

The force of viscosity acting on a smooth sphere

Strouhal Number

Introduction to the Strouhal Number

Surface Tension

Surface tension of liquids like water, mercury, oils and more

Technical Terms in Fluid Mechanics

Some of the most commonly used technical terms in fluid mechanics

Total Pressure or Head Loss in Pipe or Duct Systems

Major and minor loss in pipe, tubes and duct systems

U-Tube Manometer

The inclined and vertical u-tube manometers are inexpensive and common in the differential pressure measurement with flow meters like pitot tubes, orifices and nozzles

Universal and Individual Gas Constants

The Universal and Individual Gas Constants in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics

Velocity Head

Dynamic pressure and velocity head

Viscosity Converting Chart

Convert between the viscosity units Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU

Viscous Liquids - Friction Loss

Friction loss in steel pipes - for fluids with viscosities ranging 32 - 80000 SSU

Water - Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity

Absolute or dynamic viscosity of water in centipoises for temperatures between 32 - 200oF

Water - Boiling Temperature at Vacuum Pressure

Figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Water - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Figures and tables showing viscosity of water at temperatures ranging from 0 to 360 °C (32 to 675 °F) - Imperial and SI Units

Water Flow in Tubes - Reynolds Number

Clean cold waterflow in pipes and the Reynolds number

Water Steam - the Critical Point and the Triple Point

Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium

Water Systems - Valves and Kv diagram

Kv diagram for sizing control valves

Weber Number

Introduction to the Weber Number

Wind Energy

Available wind energy

Wind Power

Power generated from the wind

Wind Shear

Wind slowed down at surface by trees and obstructions

Wind Turbine Power Calculator

Online wind turbine calculator

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