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Water - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).

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Water tends to evaporate or vaporize by projecting molecules into the space above its surface. If the space is confined the partial pressure exerted by the molecules increases until the rate at which molecules reenter the liquid is equal to the rate at which they leave. The vapor pressure of water is the pressure at which water vapor is in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed state. At higher pressures water would condense. At this equilibrium condition the vapor pressure is the saturation pressure.

The figures and tables below summarize the thermophysical properties of water and steam at equilibrium. The figures show liquid and gaseous states at equilibrium as a function of temperature, starting at the triple point and ending at the critical temperature.
Tabulated values are given below the figures, in SI and Imperial units.

Figures:
Density
Dynamic (= absolute) viscosity
Enthalpy
Entropy
Heat capacity (= specific heat)
Prandtl number
Thermal conductivity
Thermal diffusivity
Vapor pressure

Links to Unit converters

See Water and Heavy Water  for thermodynamic properties at standard condtions.
See also these and other properties of Water at varying temperature and pressure: Boiling points at high pressure, Boiling points at vacuum pressure, Density and specific weightDynamic and kinematic viscosity, Enthalpy and entropy, Heat of vaporization, Ionization Constant, pKw, of normal and heavy water, Melting points at high pressure, Prandtl numberProperties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions, Saturation pressure, Specific gravity, Specific heat (heat capacity), Specific volume, Thermal conductivity, Thermal diffusivity and Vapour pressure at gas-liquid equilibrium.

Vapor pressure of water as function of temperature (°C and °F):

Water equilibrium vapor pressure C

Water equilibrium vapor pressure F
See Water - Saturation pressure for calculator of equilibrium pressure at varying temperature.
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Dynamic viscosity of water (liquid and vapor) as function of temperature (°C and °F):

Water equilibrium dynamic viscosity C


Water equilibrium dynamic viscosity F
See Water - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity for calculator and variations at constant pressures.
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Density of water (liquid and vapor) as function of temperature (°C and °F):

Water equilibrium density C

Water equilibrium density F
See Water - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expantion Coefficient for calculator and variations at constant pressures.
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Specific heat (heat capacity) of water (liquid and vapor) as function of temperature (°C and °F):

Water equilibrium heat capacity C

Water equilibrium heat capacity F
See Water - Specific heat (heat capacity) for calculator of heat capacity at given temperatures.
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Thermal conductivity of water (liquid and vapor) as function of temperature (°C and °F):

Water equilibrium Thermal conductivity C

Water equilibrium Thermal conductivity FSee Water - Thermal Conductivity for variations at constant pressures.
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Prandtl number of water (liquid and vapor) as function of temperature (°C and °F):

Water equilibrium Prandtl no C

Water equilibrium Prandtl no F
See Water - Prandtl Number for variations at constant pressures.
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Thermal diffusivity of water (liquid and vapor) as function of temperature (°C and °F):

Water equilibrium Thermal diffusivity C

Water equilibrium Thermal diffusivity F

See Water - Thermal Diffusivity for variations at constant pressures.
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Specific entropy of water (liquid and vapor) as function of temperature (°C and °F):

Water equilibrium specific entropy C

Water equilibrium specific entropy FSee Water - Enthalpy and Entropy for tabulated values in different units.
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Enthalpy of water (liquid and vapor) as function of temperature (°C and °F):

Water equilibrium enthalpy C

Water equilibrium enthalpy FSee Water - Enthalpy and Entropy for tabulated values in different units.
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Tabulated values for water properties at gas-liquid equilibrium pressure, given in SI units:

For full table with Thermal Conductivity, Dynamic Viscosity, Enthalpy, Specific Entropy, Prandtl Number and Thermal Diffusivity - rotate the screen!

State Temperature Pressure Density Heat Capacity
CV
Heat Capacity
CP
CP/CV Thermal
Conductivity
Dynamic
Viscosity
Enthalpy Specific
Entropy
Prandtl
Number
Thermal
Diffusivity
[K] [°C] [bara] [g/l],
[kg/m3]
[kJ/kg K] [kJ/kg K] [-] [mW/m K] [μPa s] [kJ/kg] [kJ/(kg K)] [-] [x10-6 m2/s]
Liquid 273.16 0.01 6.1E-03 999.8 4.217 4.231 1.003 561.4 1791 6.11E-04 0 13.50 0.1327
280 6.9 0.0099 999.9 4.200 4.201 1.000 574.0 1434 28.80 0.1041 10.49 0.1367
300 26.9 0.0354 996.5 4.130 4.181 1.012 610.3 853.8 112.6 0.3931 5.849 0.1465
320 46.9 0.105 989.4 4.042 4.181 1.034 639.7 577.0 196.2 0.6628 3.771 0.1547
340 66.9 0.272 979.5 3.942 4.188 1.063 660.6 422.0 279.9 0.9165 2.676 0.1610
360 86.9 0.622 967.4 3.837 4.202 1.095 673.8 326.1 363.8 1.156 2.034 0.1657
380 107 1.29 953.3 3.733 4.224 1.132 681.0 262.7 448.1 1.384 1.629 0.1691
400 127 2.46 937.5 3.632 4.255 1.172 683.6 218.6 533.0 1.601 1.361 0.1714
420 147 4.37 919.9 3.538 4.299 1.215 682.5 186.7 618.6 1.810 1.176 0.1726
440 167 7.34 900.7 3.449 4.357 1.263 678.1 162.8 704.5 2.011 1.046 0.1728
460 187 11.7 879.6 3.368 4.433 1.316 670.3 144.3 793.4 2.205 0.955 0.1719
480 207 17.9 856.5 3.293 4.533 1.376 659.1 129.6 883.3 2.395 0.892 0.1697
500 227 26.4 831.3 3.226 4.663 1.446 644.1 117.7 975.4 2.581 0.852 0.1661
530 257 44.6 788.5 3.138 4.947 1.576 613.2 103.1 1119 2.856 0.831 0.1572
560 287 71.1 737.8 3.072 5.424 1.765 570.2 90.86 1273 3.132 0.864 0.1425
590 317 108 674.8 3.042 6.378 2.097 515.4 79.60 1443 3.418 0.985 0.1198
620 347 159 586.9 3.114 9.354 3.004 454.1 67.38 1646 3.740 1.388 0.08272
630 357 180 544.2 3.228 12.8269 3.974 432.5 62.24 1731 3.870 1.846 0.06196
640 367 203 481.5 3.581 25.9424 7.244 414.9 55.25 1842 4.038 3.454 0.03322
647.1 373.95 221 322.0 2084 4.407
Gas 273.16 0.01 6.1E-03 0.00485 1.418 1.884 1.328 17.07 9.216 2501 9.156 1.017 1869
280 6.9 0.0099 0.00767 1.424 1.891 1.328 17.44 9.382 2513 8.978 1.017 1202
300 26.9 0.0354 0.02558 1.442 1.914 1.327 18.67 9.920 2550 8.517 1.017 381.3
320 46.9 0.105 0.07166 1.463 1.942 1.328 20.12 10.52 2586 8.130 1.015 144.6
340 66.9 0.272 0.1744 1.489 1.979 1.329 21.78 11.16 2621 7.801 1.014 63.11
360 86.9 0.622 0.3786 1.525 2.033 1.333 23.70 11.82 2654 7.519 1.014 30.79
380 107 1.29 0.7483 1.575 2.110 1.339 25.88 12.50 2686 7.274 1.019 16.39
400 127 2.46 1.369 1.643 2.218 1.350 28.35 13.19 2716 7.058 1.032 9.332
420 147 4.37 2.352 1.734 2.367 1.365 31.13 13.88 2742 6.866 1.055 5.593
440 167 7.34 3.833 1.845 2.560 1.388 34.23 14.57 2765 6.691 1.090 3.489
460 187 11.7 5.983 1.974 2.801 1.419 37.66 15.26 2783 6.530 1.135 2.247
480 207 17.9 9.014 2.117 3.098 1.463 41.46 15.95 2796 6.380 1.192 1.485
500 227 26.4 13.20 2.271 3.463 1.525 45.67 16.65 2802 6.235 1.263 0.9991
530 257 44.6 22.47 2.527 4.209 1.666 53.13 17.76 2798 6.024 1.407 0.5618
560 287 71.1 37.15 2.822 5.410 1.917 63.34 19.01 2771 5.807 1.623 0.3152
590 317 108 61.24 3.184 7.768 2.440 81.11 20.63 2710 5.565 1.976 0.1705
620 347 159 106.3 3.674 14.94 4.067 126.7 23.37 2584 5.253 2.758 0.07973
630 357 180 132.8 3.911 22.66 5.793 163.4 25.02 2511 5.108 3.468 0.05430
640 367 203 177.1 4.306 52.59 12.21 250.0 27.94 2396 4.903 5.876 0.02684
647.1 373.95 221 322.0 2084 4.306

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Tabulated values for water properties at gas-liquid equilibrium pressure, given in Imperial units:

For full table with Thermal Conductivity, Dynamic Viscosity, Enthalpy, Specific Entropy, Prandtl Number and Thermal Diffusivity -- rotate the screen!

State Temperature Pressure Density Heat Capacity
CV
Heat Capacity
CP
CP/CV Thermal
Conductivity
Dynamic Viscosity Enthalpy Specific
Entropy
Prandtl
Number
Thermal
Diffusivity
[K] [°F] [psia] [lb/ft3] [Btu(IT)/lb °F] [Btu(IT)/lb °F] [-] [Btu(IT)/h ft °F] [x10-6 lbf s/ft2] [x10-6 lbm s/ft s] [Btu(IT)/lb] [Btu(IT)/(lb °F)] [-] [x10-5 ft2/s]
Liquid 273.16 32.018 0.0888 62.42 1.007 1.011 1.003 0.3244 37.41 1204 2.63E-04 0 13.50 0.1428
280 44.3 0.144 62.42 1.003 1.003 1.000 0.3317 29.94 963.4 12.38 0.02487 10.49 0.1471
300 80.3 0.513 62.21 0.9865 0.9986 1.012 0.3526 17.83 573.8 48.39 0.09389 5.849 0.1577
320 116 1.53 61.77 0.9653 0.9985 1.034 0.3696 12.05 387.7 84.34 0.1583 3.771 0.1665
340 152 3.94 61.15 0.9414 1.000 1.063 0.3817 8.813 283.6 120.3 0.2189 2.676 0.1733
360 188 9.02 60.39 0.9164 1.004 1.095 0.3893 6.811 219.1 156.4 0.2762 2.034 0.1784
380 224 18.7 59.51 0.8916 1.009 1.132 0.3935 5.486 176.5 192.6 0.3306 1.629 0.1820
400 260 35.6 58.52 0.8676 1.016 1.172 0.3950 4.566 146.9 229.1 0.3825 1.361 0.1845
420 296 63.4 57.43 0.8449 1.027 1.215 0.3944 3.899 125.4 265.9 0.4322 1.176 0.1858
440 332 106 56.23 0.8238 1.041 1.263 0.3918 3.400 109.4 302.9 0.4802 1.046 0.1860
460 368 170 54.91 0.8044 1.059 1.316 0.3873 3.014 96.97 341.1 0.5267 0.955 0.1850
480 404 260 53.47 0.7866 1.083 1.376 0.3808 2.708 87.11 379.8 0.5721 0.892 0.1827
500 440 383 51.90 0.7704 1.114 1.446 0.3721 2.457 79.06 419.4 0.6165 0.852 0.1788
530 494 646 49.23 0.7495 1.182 1.576 0.3543 2.152 69.25 481.2 0.6822 0.831 0.1692
560 548 1031 46.06 0.7338 1.295 1.765 0.3295 1.898 61.05 547.3 0.7481 0.864 0.1534
590 602 1569 42.13 0.7266 1.523 2.097 0.2978 1.662 53.49 620.4 0.8164 0.985 0.1289
620 656 2306 36.64 0.7438 2.234 3.004 0.2624 1.407 45.28 707.5 0.8932 1.388 0.08903
630 674 2606 33.98 0.7710 3.064 3.974 0.2499 1.300 41.83 744.1 0.9243 1.846 0.06669
640 692 2939 30.06 0.8554 6.196 7.244 0.2397 1.154 37.12 791.8 0.9644 3.454 0.03575
647.1 705.11 3200 20.10 896.1 1.053
Gas 273.16 32.018 0.0888 3.03E-04 0.3388 0.4501 1.328 0.00986 0.1925 6.193 1075 2.187 1.017 2012
280 44.3 0.144 4.79E-04 0.3402 0.4517 1.328 0.01008 0.1959 6.304 1081 2.144 1.017 1293
300 80.3 0.513 0.00160 0.3445 0.4572 1.327 0.01079 0.2072 6.666 1096 2.034 1.017 410.5
320 116 1.53 0.00447 0.3493 0.4638 1.328 0.01162 0.2197 7.068 1112 1.942 1.015 155.6
340 152 3.94 0.01089 0.3556 0.4727 1.329 0.01259 0.2330 7.497 1127 1.863 1.014 67.93
360 188 9.02 0.02363 0.3642 0.4855 1.333 0.01369 0.2469 7.945 1141 1.796 1.014 33.15
380 224 18.7 0.04671 0.3762 0.5039 1.339 0.01495 0.2612 8.402 1155 1.737 1.019 17.64
400 260 35.6 0.08549 0.3925 0.5298 1.350 0.01638 0.2755 8.865 1168 1.686 1.032 10.04
420 296 63.4 0.1468 0.4140 0.5652 1.365 0.01799 0.2900 9.329 1179 1.640 1.055 6.020
440 332 106 0.2393 0.4406 0.6114 1.388 0.01978 0.3044 9.793 1189 1.598 1.090 3.755
460 368 170 0.3735 0.4715 0.6691 1.419 0.02176 0.3187 10.25 1196 1.560 1.135 2.419
480 404 260 0.5627 0.5056 0.7399 1.463 0.02395 0.3332 10.72 1202 1.524 1.192 1.598
500 440 383 0.8240 0.5425 0.8271 1.525 0.02639 0.3478 11.19 1205 1.489 1.263 1.075
530 494 646 1.403 0.6035 1.005 1.666 0.03070 0.3708 11.93 1203 1.439 1.407 0.6047
560 548 1031 2.319 0.6741 1.292 1.917 0.03660 0.3970 12.77 1191 1.387 1.623 0.3393
590 602 1569 3.823 0.7605 1.855 2.440 0.04686 0.4310 13.87 1165 1.329 1.976 0.1835
620 656 2306 6.636 0.8776 3.569 4.067 0.07318 0.4882 15.71 1111 1.255 2.758 0.08582
630 674 2606 8.293 0.9342 5.412 5.793 0.09443 0.5225 16.81 1080 1.220 3.468 0.05845
640 692 2939 11.06 1.028 12.56 12.21 0.1445 0.5835 18.77 1030 1.171 5.876 0.02889
647.1 705.11 3200 20.10 896.1 1.029

Unit converters:

Density unit converter
Dynamic viscosity unit converter
Kinematic viscosity unit converter
Pressure unit converter
Specific heat (heat capacity) and entropy unit converter 
Temperature unit converter
Thermal conductivity unit converter

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