Water Systems

Hot and cold water service systems - design properties, capacities, sizing and more

California Pipe Flow Metering Method

Measure discharge from the open end of partially filled horizontal pipes

Capacities of Sewer Pipes

Carrying capacity of sewer and wastewater pipes - gpm and liter per second

Cast Iron Soil Pipes - Dimensions

Dimensions of cast iron soil pipes

Cold Water Storage Capacity

Required cold water storage capacity - commonly used fixtures and types of buildings

Cold Water Storage per Occupant

Cold water storage for occupants in common types of buildings as factories, hospitals, houses and more

Converting WSFU to GPM

Converting WSFU - Water Supply Fixture Units - to GPM

Copper Tubes - Dimensions and Working Pressures

Dimensions and working pressures of copper tubes according BS (British Standard) 2871:1972

Copper Tubes - Heat Loss

Heat loss from uninsulated copper tubes at various temperature differences between tube and air

Copper Tubes - Insulation and Heat Loss

Heat loss to surrounding air from insulated copper tubes

Copper Tubes - Maximum Water Velocites

Water velocity in a copper tube should not exceed certain limits to avoid erosion

Copper Tubes for Drain, Waste and Vent - DWV

Dimensions of copper tubes ASTM 306 DWV - Drain Waste and Vent

Cross-Contamination Control

It is fundamental to keep the potable water in the water supply systems uncontaminated

Design of Domestic Service Water Supply Systems

Introduction to general design of domestic service water supply systems - with pressurized or gravity tanks

Domestic Hot Water Service Systems - Design Procedure

Design procedure for domestic hot water service systems

Domestic Water Supply - Lime Deposits

Lime deposited vs. temperature and water consumption

Drain Pipes and Vent Stack

Drain pipes and vent stack sizing

Drain Waste and Vent Pipe Hanger Spacing

Support of Drain Waste and Vent - DWV - pipes

Drainage Fixture Unit Values - DFU

DFU are used to determine the drainage from fixtures and required capacity of sewer service systems

Drainage Fixtures - Unit Loads and Sanitary Piping

Maximum Drainage Fixture Unit - DFU - loads for sanitary piping

Drainage Pipe Pitch

Minimum pitch of drainage pipes

Drains and Sewers

Drainage Fixture Units (DFU) connected to building drains and sewers

Epoxy Pipes - Support Spacing

Support spacing for reinforced Epoxy fiberglass pipes

Farm Livestock - Water Consumption

Farming and animal required water supply

Fixture Units - Required Trap Sizes

No. of fixture units and required trap sizes

Fixture Water Requirements

Water outlets demand

Fixtures and Trap Sizes

Recommended drain trap sizes for different types of fixtures

Flow Coefficients - Cv - and Formulas for Liquids, Steam and Gases - Online Calculators

Flow coefficient and proper design of control valves - Imperial Units

Heat Loss from Uninsulated Copper Tubes

Heat loss from uninsulated copper pipes - dimensions ranging 1/2 - 4 inches

Heavy Water - Thermodynamic Properties

Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D2O) - density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more

Horizontal Pipes - Discharge Flow vs. Length of Discharge Flow

Volume flow from horizontal pipes

Horizontal Storm Drain Piping

Capacity of horizontal storm drain piping

Hot and Cold Water Pipes Sizing

Recommended dimensions of hot and cold water pipes

Hot Water - Return Piping

Return pipes are used when hot water is required available continuously at the fixtures

Hot Water Consumption of Fixtures

Design hot water consumption of fixtures - basins, showers, sinks and baths

Hot Water Consumption per Occupant

Consumption of hot water per person or occupant

Hot Water Content in Fixtures

Content of hot water in some common used fixtures - basins, sinks and baths

Hot Water Flow Rates to Fixtures

Hot water consumption of some common equipment as basins, sinks, baths and showers

Hot-Water Storage Tanks - Dimensions and Capacities

Dimensions and capacities of hot-water storage tanks

HVAC Diagram - Online Drawing

Draw HVAC diagrams - Online with the Google Drive drawing tool

Insulated Pipes - Heat Loss Diagrams

Heat loss (W/m) from insulated pipes - ranging 1/2 - 6 inches - insulation thickness 10 - 80 mm - temperature differences 20 - 180 deg C


Legionella pneumophila - bacterium that thrives in water supply systems and air conditioning systems - causing the Legionnairs disease

Maximum Flow Velocities in Water Systems

Water velocities in pipes and tubes should not exceed certain limits

Modulate Centrifugal Pump Capacity

Adapting pump capacity to variable process demand

Nozzles - Water Discharge Capacity

Discharge capacities of water nozzles

P&ID Diagram - Online Drawing Tool

Draw P&ID diagrams online in the browser with Google Docs

Plumbing Codes

Plumbing or sanitation codes are a set of rules and regulations imposed by cities, counties or states

Public Buildings - Water Supply

Required water supply to public buildings

PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagrams

Friction loss (psi/100 ft) and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40

Rainfall Draining of Roof Areas and Vertical Downspouts

Capacity of vertical downspouts when draining roof areas in rainfall

Rainfall on Roofs and Gutter Slopes

Draining of roof areas and recommended gutter slopes

Rainfall Units Converter

Convert between different rainfall units

Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - online calculators

Riser Diagrams

Plumbing sanitary and water riser diagram - example

Septic Systems

A septic system handles the waste from a drain system

Sizing and Selection Butterfly Valves

Selecting and sizing butterfly valves for water applications

Sizing Domestic Hot-Water Heaters

Domestic Hot-Water sizing equations - heating capacity, recovery rate and power supply

Sizing Water Supply Lines

Sizing water supply service and distribution lines based on Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU)

Stainless Steels Classifications

Stainless steels are commonly grouped into martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels

Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Services

Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Services according ANSI/AWWA C207-01

Stormwater Conductors

Capacities of roof drains

Vertical Pipes - Discharge Flow vs. Height of Discharge Flow

Volume flow from vertical water pipes

Volume Flow in Sanitary Drainage Systems

Calculate expected load in sanitary drainage systems

Volumetric - or Cubic Thermal Expansion

Volumetric temperature expansion with online calculator

Waste Water - Flow Capacity

In sewage piping and pumping systems the fluid flow rate must be kept within certain limits to avoid operating problems

Water - Activity and Consumption

Activity and average water consumption

Water - Boiling Temperature at Vacuum Pressure

Figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum pressure, SI and Imperial units.

Water - Delivery Flow Velocity

Required flow velocities in water transport systems - on the delivery side of the pump

Water - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expantion Coefficient

Definitions, online calculator, figures and tables giving Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging from 0 to 360 °C and 32 to 680°F - in Imperial and SI Units

Water - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Figures and tables showing viscosity of water at temperatures ranging from 0 to 360 °C (32 to 675 °F) - Imperial and SI Units

Water - Enthalpy (H) and Entropy (S)

Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units

Water - Heat Capacaty (Specific Heat)

Specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units

Water - Heat of Vaporization

Heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units, given in figures and tables.

Water - Ionization Constant, pKw, of normal and heavy water

Ionization constant (= dissociation constant = self-ionization constant = ion product = autoprotolysis constant ) of water and heavy water, given as function of temperature (°C and °F) in figures and tables

Water - Pressure and Boiling Points

Boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 0.5 to 1000 psia

Water - Saturation Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging from 0 to 370 °C and from 32 to 700°F - in Imperial and SI Units

Water - Specific Gravity

Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference

Water - Specific Volume

Online calculator, figures and tables showing Specific Volume of water at temperatures ranging from 0-370 °C and 32 - 700 °F - Imperial and IS Units

Water - Suction Flow Velocity

Recommended water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps

Water Control Valves - Calculating Kv Values

Design of water process control valves and their Kv values

Water Discharging through Hoses

Water flow discharging through hoses - pressure ranging 10 - 200psi

Water Distribution Pipes

Water distribution pipes is located inside a building

Water Hammers

Rapidly closing or opening valves may cause pressure transients in pipelines known as water hammers

Water Service Pipe Lines

Water service pipe lines extends from the potable water source to the interior of buildings

Water Steam - the Critical Point and the Triple Point

Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium

Water Supply - Calculating Demand

Calculating expected demand of water supply in service lines

Water Supply Fixture Units - WSFU

WSFU is used to calculate water supply service systems

Water Supply Pipe Lines - Sizing

Sizing of water supply pipe lines

Yard Fixtures - Water Consumption

Water consumption in garden fixtures

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