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Toluene - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of toluene, also called methylbenzene, toluol and phenylmethane. Phase diagram included.

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Toluene, C6H5-CH3,  is a clear colorless liquid, highly flammable with a sweet, pungent aromatic odor.

Toluene is less dense than water and is slightly soluble in water. Hence it floats on water. Toluene vapor is heavier than air. Toluene may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact.

Toluene is present in crude oils and is a product of oil-refining processes, thus it is used in aviation and automotive fuels. It is also used as a solvent, and to make other chemicals. 

The phase diagram of toluene is shown below the table.

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of toluene:
Values are given for liquid at 25oC /77oF / 298 K and 1 bara, if not other phase, temperature or pressure given.

For full table with Imperial Units - rotate the screen!

Property Value Unit Value Unit Value Unit Value Unit
Autoignition temperature 753 K 480 °C 896 °F
Boiling Point 383.8 K 110.6 °C 231.1 °F
Critical density 3.16 mol/dm3 291 kg/m3 0.565 slug/ft3 18.2 lb/ft3
Critical pressure 4.13 MPa=MN/m2 41.3 bar 40.7 atm 598 psi=lbf/in2
Critical temperature 592 K 319 °C 605 °F
Critical volume 316 cm3/mol 0.00343 m3/kg 1.77 ft3/slug 0.0550 ft3/lb
Density 9355 mol/m3 862.0 kg/m3 1.673 slug/ft3 53.81 lb/ft3
Flammable, gas and liquid yes highly
Flash point 277 K 4 °C 39 °F
Gas constant, individual, R 90.2 J/kg K 0.02507 Wh/(kg K) 539.6 [ft lbf/slug °R] 16.77 [ft lbf/lb °R]
Gibbs free energy of formation (gas) 122 kJ/mol 1324 kJ/kg 569 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of combustion (liquid) -3920 kJ/mol -42545 kJ/kg -18.3 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of formation (gas) 50 kJ/mol 543 kJ/kg 233 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of formation (liquid) 12 kJ/mol 130 kJ/kg 56 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of fusion at -139.3°F/-95.2°C 6.6 kJ/mol 72 kJ/kg 30.80 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of evaporation 38.0 kJ/mol 413 kJ/kg 177 Btu/lb
Heat capacity, Cp (gas) 103.7 J/mol K 1.13 kJ/kg K 0.269 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Heat capacity, Cp (liquid) 157 J/mol K 1.70 kJ/kg K 0.407 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Heat capacity, Cv (liquid) 116.1 J/mol K 1.26 kJ/kg K 0.301 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Ionization potential 8.82 eV
log KOW (Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient) 2.73
Melting point 178.25 K -94.9 °C -138.8 °F
Molecular Weight 92.138 g/mol 0.20313 lb/mol
Solubility in water, at 25°C 0.526 mg/ml
Sound velocity 1305 m/s 4280 ft/s 2923 mi/h
Specific Gravity (gas) (relativ to air) 3.10
Specific Gravity (liquid) (relativ to water) 0.87
Specific Heat Ratio (liquid) - CP/CV 1.35
Specific Volume 0.0001069 m3/mol 0.00116 m3/kg 0.598 ft3/slug 0.0186 ft3/lb
Standard molar entropy, S° (gas) 321 J/mol K 3.48 kJ/kg K 0.83 Btu/lb °F
Standard molar entropy, S° (liquid) 220 J/mol K 2.39 kJ/kg K 0.57 Btu/lb °F
Surface tension 27.73 dynes/cm 0.02773 N/m
Thermal Conductivity 0.134 W/m°C 0.0774 Btu/hr ft °F
Triple point pressure 3.94E-08 MPa=MN/m2 3.94E-07 bar 3.89E-07 atm 5.71E-06 psi=lbf/in2
Triple point temperature 178.0 K -95.2 °C -139.36 °F
Vapor (saturation) pressure 0.0038 MPa=MN/m2 28.4 mm Hg 0.037 atm 0.55 psi=lbf/in2
Viscosity, dynamic (absolute) 0.560 cP 376.3 [lbm /ft s*10-6] 11.70 [lbf s/ft2 *10-6]
Viscosity, kinematic 0.650 cSt 7.0 [ft2/s*10-6]

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See the following document for changes in toluene properties with changes in pressure and temperature:

See also more about atmospheric pressure, and STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure & NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure,
as well as Thermophysical properties of: Acetone, Acetylene, Air, Ammonia, Argon, Benzene, Butane, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Ethane, Ethanol, Ethylene, Helium, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Methane, Methanol, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Pentane, Propane, Water and Heavy water, D2O.

Toluene is a liquid at standard conditions. However, if heated it becomes a gas, and when cooled it becomes a solid. The phase diagram for toluene shows the phase behavior with changes in temperature and pressure. The curve between the critical point and the triple point shows the toluene boiling point with changes in pressure. It also shows the saturation pressure with changes in temperature.



Toluene phase diagram

At the critical point there is no change of state when pressure is increased or if heat is added.

The triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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