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Mineral Hardness - Mohs Scale

The Mohs qualitative ordinal scale characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals.

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The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals or materials through the ability of a harder materials to scratch softer materials.

Mohs hardnessTypical Material
1 Talc
2 Gypsum, Rock salt
2.5 Fingernail, pure gold, silver, aluminum
3 Calcspar (calcite), copper coin (penny)
4 Fluorspar (fluorite)
4.5 Platinum, iron
5 Apatite
6 Felspar, orthoclase, titanium, spectrolite
6.5 Steelfile, iron pyrite, glass, vitreous pure silica, streak plate
7 Quarts, amethyst, citrine, agate
7.5 Garnet
8 Topaz, hardened steel, beryl, emerald, aquamarine
8.94 Rock crystal quartz
9 African crystal corundum, ruby, sapphire
9.03 Fused alumina
9.06 Fused alumina (3.14% TiO2)
9.09 Tungsten carbid (13% cobalt)
9.15 Black silicon carbide
9.32 Boron carbide
9.5 Carborundum
9.95 Diamond, Congo clear white
9.96 Diamond, Congo yellow
9.99 Diamond, South American brown ballas
10 Diamond, South American brown bort
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