# Steam and Condensate

## Steam & condensate systems- properties, capacities, pipe sizing, systems configuration and more

### • Steam - Heat Loss and Insulation

Steam and condensate pipes - heat loss uninsulated and insulated pipes, insulation thickness and more

### • Steam Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics of steam and condensate applications

### • Pipe Sizing

Sizing steam and condensate pipes - pressure loss, recommended velocity, capacity and more

### • Flash Steam

Flash steam generation - thermodynamic fundamentals, heat loss, energy recovery and more

### • Control Valves and Equipment

Sizing and dimensions of control valves & equipment in steam and condensate systems

### Air and Steam Mixture

Air in the steam will lower the surface temperatures in heat exchangers - and less heat will be transferred

### ASME - International Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

The International Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code establishes rules of safety governing the design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels, and nuclear power plant components during construction

### Boiler Blowdown

Suspended solids in the feed water will remain in the boiler when steam is generated

### Boiler Blowdown Rate

Calculating boiler blowdown rate

### Classification of Boilers

Classification of boilers according the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

### Classification of Steam Heating Systems

Steam systems carries heat through pipes from the boiler to consumers as heat exchangers, process equipment etc.

### Condensate Generated in Cold Steam Pipes and the Sizing of Steam Traps

When cold steam pipes are heated up they generate huge amounts of condensate that must be drained away from the pipe through steam traps - in Imperial Units

### Condensate Generated in Insulated Steam Pipes *(kg/h per 100m)*

Heat loss from steam pipes generates condensate which must be drained from the system

### Condensate Line Capacity in *kW*

Maximum capacities of condensate lines in *kW* steam consumption

### Condensate Pumping

High temperatures and danger of impeller cavitation is the major challenge of condensate pumping

### Design of Steam Heating Systems

An introduction to the basic design of steam heating systems

### Diffusion Coefficients Gases in Water

Diffusion flux [kg/m^{2}s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m^{2}/s] are given for several gases in water

### Entropy of Superheated Steam

Entropy of steam superheated to temperatures above saturation point

### Feed Water - Chemistry Limits

ABMA recommended feed water chemistry limits for steam boilers

### Feed Water Treatment to Avoid Corrosion

Make-up water to steam boilers should be treated with oxygen scavengers to avoid serious corrosion problems

### Feeding Pumps - Steam Systems and Suction Lift

Impeller cavitation increase with water temperature

### Flash Steam Generation - Imperial Units *(psig)*

When condensate passes steam traps - flash steam is generated

### Flash Steam Generation - SI-units

When condensate leaves the steam traps - flash steam is generated. Amount of flash steam generated at different pressures - *kN/m ^{2}*

### Flash Steam Generation *(bar)*

The amount of flash steam generated depends on steam pressure and pressure in the condensate lines

### Flow Coefficient - *C*_{v} - for Liquid, Steam and Gas - Formulas and Online Calculators

_{v}

Flow coefficient and proper design of control valves - Imperial Units

### Flow Coefficient *C*_{v} versus Flow Factor *K*_{v}

_{v}

_{v}

Comparing flow coefficient *C _{v}* and flow factor

*K*

_{v}

### Fluid Heat Transfer Coefficients - Heat Exchanger Surface Combinations

Average overall heat transmission coefficients for some common fluids and surface combinations as Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more

### Friction Resistance in Condensate Lines - Imperial Units

Friction or major resistance in condensate pipe lines

### Generation of Condensate in Cold Steam Pipes - SI Units

Huge amounts of condensate generated when cold steam pipes are heated up must be drained from the pipes

### Heat Emission from Pipes Submerged in Oil or Fat

Heat emission from steam or water heating pipes submerged in oil or fat - forced and natural circulation

### Heat Emission from Pipes Submerged in Water

Heat emision from steam or water heating pipes submerged in water - assisted (forced) or natural circulation

### Heat Loss from Oil Filled Tanks

Heat loss from insulated and uninsulated, sheltered and exposed heated oil tanks

### Heat Loss from Steam Pipes

Amount of condensate generated in steam pipes depends on the heat loss from the pipe to the surroundings

### Heating Capacity - Steam Radiators and Convectors

Steam radiators and steam convectors - heating capacities and temperature coefficients

### Heating Systems - Steam and Condensate Loads

Calculating steam and condensate loads in steam heated systems

### Heavy Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D_{2}O) - density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more

### Humidifying Air with Steam - Imperial Units

Amount of vapor (lb/h in 100 cfm) in humid air

### Humidifying Air with Steam - SI units

Use steam to humidify air

### Ice / Water - Melting Points at Higher Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

### Insulated Steam Pipes - Generated Condensate

Heat loss from steam pipes generates condensate which must be drained from the system - imperial units

### Moisture Holding Capacity of Air

Moisture holding capacity of air increases with temperature

### Mollier Diagram for Water-Steam

Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam

### NDT - Non Destructive Testing

Non-destructive testing of constructions

### Pipes and Tubes - Temperature Expansion

Pipes expands when heated and contracts when cooled and the expansion can be expressed with the expansion formula

### Properties of Saturated Steam - Imperial Units

Steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures

### Properties of Saturated Steam - Pressure in Bar

Saturated Steam Table with properties like boiling point, specific volume, density, specific enthalpy, specific heat and latent heat of vaporization

### Properties of Saturated Steam - SI Units

A Saturated Steam Table with steam properties as specific volume, density, specific enthalpy and specific entropy

### Safety Valve Capacities in Low Pressure Steam Systems

Sizing safety valves after boiler output power in low pressure systems *(kW and Btu/hr)*

### Sizing Condensate Pipe Lines - SI Units

Flow and pressure loss in condensate return lines

### Sizing Steam Pipes *(kg/h)*

Steam is a compressible gas where pipe line mass flow capacity depends on steam pressure.

### Sizing Steam Pipes *(lb/h)*

Steam is a compressible gas where the capacity of a pipe line depends on the size of the pipe and the steam pressure.

### Soft and Hard Water

Carbonates dissolved in water

### Steam Boiler Rating and Feed Water Temperature

Boiler output and feed water temperature

### Steam Consumption for some Typical Steam Heated Consumers

Steam consumption rates for typical steam heated consumers in industries like bakeries, breweries, paper factories etc.

### Steam Control Valves - *K*_{v} Calculation

_{v}

Design of steam control valves and their *K _{v}* values

### Steam Heating Process - Load Calculating

Calculating the amount of steam in non-flow batch and continuous flow heating processes

### Steam Pipe - Online Pressure drop Calculator

Calculate pressure drops in steam distribution pipe lines

### Steam Pipes - Heat Loss over a Year

Yearly heat loss in amount of coal or oil consumption for insulated and uninsulated steam pipes at different dimensions and operation times

### Steam Pipes - Heat Loss *(W/m)*

Heat loss from un-insulated steam pipes

### Steam Pipes - Installation of Drip Legs

Properly draining steam pipes for condensate

### Steam Pipes - Max Flow and Pressure Drop

Pressure drop and maximum allowable flow in steam pipes

### Steam Pipes - Sizing

Pipe sizing steam systems - major and minor loss in steam distribution systems

### Steam Pipes - Thermal Expansion

Thermal expansion of steam pipes heated from room temperature to operation temperature (mm pr. 100 m pipe)

### Steam Tracing Pipe Lines

Steam tracing of pipe lines to maintain appropriate product temperature

### Steam Trap Selection Guide

A steam trap selection guide - Float & Thermostatic, Inverted Bucket, Bimetal Thermostatic, Impulse and Thermodynamic Disc steam traps

### Thermal Expansion of Steam Pipes - *inches*

Steam pipes heated from room temperature to operation temperatures - expands

### Vapor and Steam

Introduction to vapor and steam

### Water - Boiling Points at Vacuum Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient

Definitions, online calculator, figures and tables giving Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging from 0 to 360 °C and 32 to 680°F - in Imperial and SI Units

### Water - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing viscosity of water at temperatures ranging from 0 to 360 °C (32 to 675 °F) - Imperial and SI Units

### Water - Enthalpy (H) and Entropy (S)

Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units

### Water - Heat of Vaporization

Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units

### Water - Ionization Constant, pK_{w}, of normal and heavy water

Ionization constant (= dissociation constant = self-ionization constant = ion product = autoprotolysis constant ) of water and heavy water, given as function of temperature (°C and °F) in figures and tables

### Water - Prandtl Number

Figures and tables showing Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

### Water - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).

### Water - Saturation Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging from 0 to 370 °C and from 32 to 700°F - in Imperial and SI Units

### Water - Specific Gravity

Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference

### Water - Specific Heat

Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units

### Water - Specific Volume

Online calculator, figures and tables showing Specific Volume of water at temperatures ranging from 0-370 °C and 32 - 700 °F - Imperial and IS Units

### Water - Thermal Conductivity

Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units

### Water - Thermal Diffusivity

Figures and tables showing thermal diffusivity of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

### Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermal properties of water - density, freezing temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of melting, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more

### Water Boiling Points at Higher Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

### Water vs Steam - Critical and Triple Point

Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium

### Wet Steam Quality and Dryness Fraction

Introduction and definition of steam quality and dryness fraction including calculating wet steam enthalpy and specific volume