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Dielectric Constants of Liquids

Some fluids and their dielectric constants or permittivities

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The Dielectric Constant, or permittivity - ε - is a dimensionless constant that indicates how easy a material can be polarized by imposition of an electric field on an insulating material. The constant is

  • the ratio between the actual material ability to carry an alternating current to the ability of vacuum to carry the current

The dielectric constant can be expressed as

ε = εs / ε0                                                       (1)

where

ε = the dielectric constant

εs = the static permittivity of the material

ε0 = vacuum permittivity

The Dielectric Constant of common fluids are indicated in the table below. The Dielectric Constant is in general influenced by 

  • temperature
  • moisture levels
  • electrical frequency
  • part thickness
FluidTemperature
(oC)
Dielectric Constant
ε -
Acetal 25 3.8
Acetaldehyde 18 21.8
Acetamide 91 67.6
Acetic acid 20 6.2
Acetone 25 20.7
Acetonitrile 20 36.6
Acetophenone 18
Acetyl bromid 16.2
Acetyl chloride 22 15.8
Acetylacetone 23
Acetylene -78 2.48
Acetylene dibromide 7.2
Acetylene tetrabromide 5.6
Acrylonitrile 20 33
Aconite acid ester 6.3
Adipic Acid 1.8
Aerosile 1.0
Aether 4.0
Air (at STP, for 0.9 MHz)) 1.00058986 ± 0.00000050
Alcohol, allyl 20 19.7
Alcohol, benzyl 30 11.9
Alcohol, cetyl 60 3.6
Alcohol, diacetone 18.2
Alcohol, ethyl (ethanol) 20 25.3
Alcohol, methyl (methanol) 20 33.0
Alcohol, propyl 20 21.8
Allene -4 2.03
Allylbenzene 20 2.63
Allyl chloride 8.2
Allyl iodide 6.1
Allyll isocyanate 15 15.2
Aluminum bromide 100 3.38
Ammonia 20 16.61
Ammonia solution 25% 31.6
Amyl amine 4.5
Aniline 20 7.06
Anisole 21 4.3
Antimony hydride 1.8
Anthracene 229 2.65
Argon -133 1.32
Arsine 2.1
Arsole 2.3
Azoxybenzene 36 5.2
Benzaldehyde 20 17.9
Benzene 20 2.28
Benzil 95 13.04
Benzonitrile 20 25.9
Benzyl acetat 30 5.34
Benzyl formate 30 6.34
Benylamine 20 5.18
Biphenyl 75 2.35
Bromine 25 3.15
Bromine trifluoride 25 107
Bromoethane 25 9.01
Butane 22 1.77
Butanoic acid 3.0
1-Butanol 20 17.8
Butyl acetate 20 5.07
Butyl acrylate 28 5.25
Butylamine 20 4.71
Butylbenzene 20 2.36
Butyl nitrate 20 13.1
Caproic acid 71 2.6
Caprylic acid 2.5
Carbon dioxide 22 1.45
Carbon disulfide 20 2.63
Carbon tetrachloride 20 2.23
Castor Oil 15 4.7
Chlorine, chlor fluid -65 2.15
Chlorine pentafluoride -80 4.28
Chlorine trifluoride 20 4.39
Chlor benzene 5.7
Chloroacetic acid 65 12.4
Chlorocyclohexane 30 7.95
Chloroethane 20 9.45
Chloroform 20 4.8
Chlorodifluoromethane refrigerant R-22 25 2.0
Coconut oil, refined 2.9
Cotton seed oil   3.1
Cresol 17 10.6
Cumene 20 2.4
Cyanoacetic acid 4 33.4
Cyanoacetylene 19 72.3
Cycloheptane 20 2.08
Cycloheptene 22 2.27
Cyclohexane 20 2.02
Cyclohexene 20 2.22
Decane 20 2.0
Diacetone alcohol 25 18.2
Dichlorodifluoromethane refrigerant R-12 25 2.0
Diesel oil, fuel 2.1
Diethyl ether 20 4.27
Diethyl sulfide 25 5.7
Difluoromethane -121 53.7
Dimethyl ether -15 6.18
Docosane 20 2.08
Dodecane 20 2.01
Ethane -178 1.94
Ether 20 4.3
Ethylamine 21 6.3
Ethylene glycol 20 37.0
Ethoxybenzene 20 4.22
Ethylamine 0 8.7
Ethyl acrylate 30 6.05
Ethylbenzene 20 2.44
Ethylene -3 1.48
Ethyl isocyanate 20 19.7
Ethyl lactate 30 15.4
Ethyl salicylate 35 8.48
Ethyl silicate 20 2.5
Eucalyptol 25 4.57
Fish oil 2.6
Fluorbenzene 20 6.4
Fluorine -220 1.49
Fluoromethane -142 51.0
Formamide 20 111
Formic acid 25 51.1
Furan 25 2.94
Furfural 20 42.1
Furfuryl alcohol 25 16.9
Gasoline, gas 21 2.0
Glycerine   47-68
Glycerol 20 46.5
Glycerol water 37
Glycol 37
Helium -271 1.056
Heptadecane 20 2.06
Heptanal 22 9.07
Heptane 20 1.92
Heptanoic acid 15 3.04
1-Heptanol 20 11.75
Heptyl acetat 20 4.2
Heptylamine 20 3.81
Heptylbenzene 20 2.26
Hexadecane 20 2.05
Hexane 20 1.89
Hexanoic acid 25 2.6
1-Hexanol 20 13.03
1-Hexene 21 2.1
Hexyl acetate 20 4.42
Hexylamine 20 4.1
Hexylbenzene 20 2.3
Hydrazine 25 51.7
Hydrogen -260 1.279
Hydrogen bromide -86 8.23
Hydrogen chloride -114 14.3
Hydrogen cyanide 20 114.9
Hydrogen fluoride 0 83.6
Hydrogen peroxide 17 74.6
Hydrogen sulfide 10 5.93
Iodine 118 11.08
Iodine heptafluoride 25 1.75
Isobutane 22 1.75
Isobutyl acetat 20 5.1
Isobutylbenzene 20 2.3
Isopentane 20 1.85
Isopentyl acetat 20 4.72
Isopentyl lactate 0 11.2
Isopentyl salicylate 20 7.26
Isopropanol (2-Propanol, Isopropyl alcohol, propan-2-ol, (CH3)2CHOH) 18.2
Isopropylamine 20 5.6
Isopropylbenzene 20 2.38
Jet fuel 21 1.7
Kerosene 21 1.8
Krypton -153 1.66
Lead chloride 20 2.78
Linoleic Acid 0 2.6-2.9
Linseed Oil   3.2-3.5
Menthol 36 3.9
Mercury (vapor) 148 1.00074
Methane -182 1.68
Methyl acetate 15 7.07
Methyl acrylate 30 7.03
Methylamine -58 16.7
Methyl benzoate 30 6.64
Methylcyclohexane 20 2.02
Methyl nitrate 20 23.9
Methyl nitrite 27 27.8
Napthalene 20 2.5
Neon -247 1.19
Neopentane 23 1.77
L-Nicotine 20 8.9
Nitric oxide -149 2.0
Nitrobenzene 20 35.6
Nitroethane 15 29.1
Nitrogen -210 1.47
Nitrogen tetroxide 20 2.44
Nitromethane 20 37.3
Nonane 20 1.97
Nonanoic acid 22 2.48
1-Nonanol 20 8.83
Nonyl acetat 20 3.87
Octane 20 1.95
Octanoic acid 15 2.85
Octyl acetat 15 4.18
Oil 2
Olive Oil 20 3.1
Oxygen -219 1.57
Ozone -183 4.75
Palmitic Acid 71 2.3
Palm seed oil 1.8
Paraffin 1.6
Pentaborane 25 21.1
Pentadecane 20 2.04
Pentanal 20 10
Pentane 20 1.84
Pentanoic acid 21 2.66
Pentamethylbenzene 61 2.36
1-Pentanol 25 15.3
Pentyl acetat 20 4.79
Pentylamine 20 4.27
Pentyl nitrite 25 7.21
Pentyl salicylate 28 6.25
Phenol 30 12.4
Phenyl acetat 25 5.40
Phenylacetylene 25 2.98
Phosgene 0 4.7
Phosphorus liquid 3.9
Pinane 25 2.15
Pinene 20 2.7
Propane 20 1.67
Propanenitrile 20 29.7
Propanol (propyl alcohol, 1-Propanol, n-propanol, or propan-1-ol, CH3CH2CH2OH) 20.1
Propene -53 2.14
Propyl acetate 20 5.62
Propylamine 23 5.08
Propylbenzene 20 2.37
Propylene   11.9
Propylether 3.3
Pyrazine 50 2.80
Pyridine 20 1.12
Resorcinol   3.2
Stearic Acid 71 2.3
Styrene 20 2.47
Sulfur 134 3.5
Sulfur dioxide 20 14.3
Terpinene 17 2.7
Thymol 60 4.3
Toluene  23 2.38
Transformer oil 2.1
Trichlorofluoromethane refrigerant R-11 20 2.0
Turpentine (wood), white spirit 20 2.2
Vacuum (by definition) 1
Vinegar 24
Water 20 80.1
Water 360 10
Water, demineralised 29.3
Water, heavy 78.3
Water - oil emulsion 24
Wine 25
Xenon -112 1.88
o-Xylene 20 2.56
m-Xylene 20 2.36
p-Xylene 20 2.27
Xylitol 20 40.0

Typical dielectric values for some common plastic materials are indicated below:

Plastic MaterialDielectric Constant
ε -
Acetal 3.7 - 3.9
Acrylic 2.1 - 3.9
ABS 2.9 - 3.4
Nylon 6/6 3.1 - 8.3
Polycarbonate 2.9 - 3.8
Polyester, TP 3.0 - 4.5
Polypropylene 2.3 - 2.9
Polysulfone 2.7 - 3.8
PPO, Modified 2.4 - 3.1
Polyphenylene sulfide 2.9 - 4.5
Polyacrylate 2.6 - 3.1
Liquid Crystal 3.7 - 10
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