Electrical units, amps and electrical wiring, wire gauge and AWG, electrical formulas and motors.
12 Volt - Electric Automotive Wiring
Maximum wire lengths vs. currents in the 12 volt electrical system of a car.
12 Volt - Maximum Wire Length vs. Current
Maximum length of copper wire with 2% voltage drop.
12 Volt - Wire Gauge vs. Amps
Maximum current (amps) in a 12V electrical circuit vs. size (AWG) and length of wire.
AC - Active, Reactive and Apparent Power
Real, imaginary and apparent power in AC circuits.
AC Circuits - Power vs. Voltage and Current
The alternating current In an AC circuit is generated by a sinusoidal voltage source.
Aluminum and Copper Wires - Electrical Resistance vs. Cross-Sectional Area
Electrical resistance in plain copper or aluminum wires.
Aluminum Conductor Characteristics
Characteristics of all-aluminum conductors (AAC).
Asynchronous Induction Motors - Electrical Properties
Typical electrical motor data like nominal current, fuse, start ampere, size of contactor and circuit breaker - for asynchronous induction motors.
AWG - American Wire Gauge Converting Chart
American Wire Gauge (AWG) vs. cross sectional area converter.
AWG - American Wire Gauge Current Ratings
Amp ratings vs. US AWG wire gauges.
AWG - American Wire Gauge vs. Circular Mils
AWG vs. diameter mil, circular mil, diameter in mm and area in mm2.
Capacitors and capacitance - charge and unit of charge.
Capacitors - Parallel and Serial Connections
Parallel and serial connected capacitor circuits.
Capacitors - Stored Energy
Potential power and energy stored in capacitors.
Verifies that a product is designed to the appropriate standards according the European Machine Directive.
Circles within a Rectangle - Calculator
Calculate the maximum number of circles within a rectangle - can be used to calculate the numbers of pipes or wires in a conduit or similar.
CM - Circular Mil Area
The circular mil area (CM) unit denotes the cross-sectional size of a wire or a cable.
Copper and Aluminum Wire - Max Amps vs. Gauge
Maximum current in copper and aluminum wire.
Copper Wire - Electrical Resistance vs. Gauge
Gauge, weight, circular mils and electrical resistance in copper wire.
The electric force acting on a point charge.
Current Divider - Online Calculator
An electric current divider outputs a current that is a fraction of the input current.
Dielectric Strength of Insulating Materials
The dielectric strength of a material is the ability to the material to act as an insulator.
Electric Cable Size vs. Current Rating
Amps vs. cable size for fixed installations in buildings.
Electric Circuit Diagram - Drawing Template
Online shareable electric circuit diagram.
Electric Circuits Voltage Drop
Ohm's law and voltage drop in electric circuits.
Electric Current vs. Power - Single and Three Phase AC
Convert between single phase (120, 240 and 480 Voltage) and three phase (240 and 480 Voltage).
Electric Heating of Mass
Electric heating of an object or mass - temperature change vs. energy supplied.
Electric Motor Calculator
Calculate amps, hp and kVA for electrical motors.
Electric Motors - 230 & 460V Three Phase Circuits Wiring
Sizing of copper wire and transformers for three phase 230 & 460V electrical motors.
Electric Motors - 480 Volt Wiring
480V electrical motor wiring data - NEMA amps, starter size, HMCP size for motors ranging 1/2 to 500 hp.
Electric Motors - Efficiency
Calculate electric motor efficiency.
Electric Motors - IEC and NEMA Standard Torques
IEC and NEMA torque classifications of electrical motors.
Electric Motors - Torque vs. Power and Speed
Electric motor output power and torque vs. rotation speed.
The physiological effects of electric shocks.
Electric Wire - Calculating Cross-Section Areas
Calculate single and bunched electric wire cross-section area and diameter.
Electric Wire - Maximum Length with 240 Volts Single-Phase Power
Maximum length of 240 V single phase electric wire with max. 2% voltage drop.
Electric Wire - Resistance
Electric resistance in wire made of Copper, Aluminum, Brass, Constantan, Nichrome, Platinum, Silver or Tungsten.
Electrical Conductivity - Elements and other Materials
Electric conductance is the ability of a element to conduct an electric current.
Electrical DC Motors - Full-load Currents
Full load amps in 120 and 240 volts electrical DC motors.
Electrical Distribution Systems
Electrical distribution systems commonly used in Europe and USA
Electrical Enclosure Types by NEMA
Description of NEMA electrical enclosures types.
Commonly used electrical formulas like Ohms Law and more.
Electrical Inductance - Serial and Parallel Connections
Electrical inductance in serial and parallel connected inductors.
Electrical Induction Motors - Slip
Slip is the difference between an electrical induction motor's synchronous and asynchronous speed.
Electrical Induction Motors - Synchronous Speed
Operating speed of an induction motor depends on the input power frequency and the number of magnetic poles in the motor.
Electrical Induction Motors - Torque vs. Speed
Full load operating torque vs. break down, pull up and locked rotor torque.
Electrical Metal Tubing (EMT) - Conduits
Trade sizes and max. distance between conduit supports.
Electrical Motors - Frame Dimensions
Electrical motors NEMA frame dimensions.
Electrical Motors - Full Load Amps
Full load amps for single and 3-phase 460 volts, 230 volts and 115 volts electric motors.
Electrical Motors - Heat Loss
Heat loss from an electrical motor to the surroundings.
Electrical Motors - Horsepower vs. Voltage and Amps
Electrical motors horsepower rating vs. their ampere rating.
Electrical Motors - Insulation Classes
Electrical motors NEMA temperature and insulation classes.
Electrical Motors - Locked Rotor Design Code Letters
NEMA locked rotor indicating code letters for electrical motors.
Electrical Motors - Maximum Cable Size and Length vs. Power
Maximum electrical motor cable length vs. power.
Electrical Motors - NEMA Frame Assignments
NEMA frame assignments.
Electrical Motors - Shaft Power vs. Voltage and Current
Calculate electric motors shaft power.
Electrical Motors - Single Phase 230 V Circuit Wiring
Copper wire gage and transformer size for single phase 230 volts electrical motors.
Electrical Motors - Speed at Operating vs. Synchronous Load
Speed of an operating electrical motor with load is lower than the synchronous speed (no load) of the motor.
Electrical Motors - Speed vs. No. of Poles and Frequency
The speed of electrical motors with 2, 4, 6 or 8 poles at 50 Hz and 60 Hz.
Electrical Motors Efficiency Ratings
NEMA - electrical motor efficiency ratings.
Electrical Motors Service Factor
Service factor - SF - is a measure of periodically overload capacity at which a motor can operate without beeing damaged.
Electrical Parallel Circuits
Resistance, voltage and current in electrical parallel circuits.
Electrical Resistance in Serial and Parallel Networks
Resistors in parallel and serial connections.
Electrical Series Circuits
Voltage and current in electrical series circuits.
Definition of common electrical units - like Ampere, Volt, Ohm, Siemens.
Electrical Vehicle Charging - Power vs. Voltage and Amps
EV Charging - AC vs. DC, single phase vs. three phase and power vs. voltage and amps.
Electromotive Force - e.m.f
Change in electrical potential between two points.
Abbreviations according the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
Extension Cords - Load Rating vs. Wire Gauge and Length
Size of extension cords - full load ratings with 115 V.
Galvanic Corrosion vs. Electrode Potential
Introduction to electro chemical series and corrosion of metals.
IEC Electric Motor Duty Cycles
The eight - S1 - S8 - IEC duty cycles of operating electrical motors.
The Electro Magnetic Field - EMF - induced into a electric circuit.
Induction Motors - No. of Poles and Synchronous vs. Full Load Speed
Synchronous and full load speed of amplitude current (AC) induction motors.
Inductors - Stored Energy
Energy stored in a magnetic field.
Intermediate Metal Conduit - IMC
Lighter and lower cost metal conduits.
IP - Ingress Protection Ratings
IP - Ingress Protection rating is used to specify the environmental protection - or electrical enclosure - of electrical equipment.
Kirchhoff's Voltage and Current Laws
Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws.
LENI - Lighting Energy Numeric Indicator
Energy consumption of lighting systems
Lights vs. Power Installation
Lights vs. power installations in common types of buildings and rooms.
Ligths - Color Temperatures
Light sources and their color irradiation in degrees Kelvin.
The visible light produced by light sources.
NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association
National Electrical Manufacturers Association.
NEMA A, B, C and D Electrical Motor Design
NEMA has established the four different designs A, B, C and D for electrical induction motors.
NEMA and IEC Enclosure Classifications
NEMA enclosure classifications versus IEC enclosure classifications.
NEMA Enclosure Standards for Electric Motors
NEMA enclosure standard for electrical motors.
NEMA Insulation Classes
Electrical insulation systems rated by standard NEMA classifications to maximize allowable operating temperatures.
Nema sized contactors or starters.
Nickel-Chromium Heater Wire - Temperature Rise vs. Amps
Electric resistance vs. temperature rise for Nickel-Chromium electrical heater wire.
The relation between voltage, current and electrical resistance.
Online Wire Gauge - AWG - Calculator
Calculate AWG, mil, mm, CM or square mm.
Electromagnetism and formation of magnetic fields.
Polyphase Motors - Voltage Imbalance vs. Derating Factor
Increased voltage imbalance and decreased efficiency.
Potential Divider - Online Calculator
Output voltage with a potential divider.
Power Installations - DIN VDE Standards
DIN VDE power installation standards.
Power Wiring - Color Codes
Color codes used in power wiring.
Rechargeable Batteries Life Calculator
Properties of rechargeable batteries and accumulators.
Relative Permittivity - the Dielectric Constant
Common materials and their relative permittivity.
Relative vs. Absolute Voltage
Electric circuits and voltage at any point.
Resistance vs. Conductance
The reciprocal of electrical resistance is conductance.
Resistance vs. Resistivity
Electrical resistance and resistivity.
Resistivity and Conductivity - Temperature Coefficients Common Materials
Resistivity, conductivity and temperature coefficients for common materials like silver, gold, platinum, iron and more..
Resistors - Color Codes Calculator
Color codes for fixed resistors - values and tolerances - online calculator.
Resistors - Letters and Digit Codes
Letter and digit codes to indicating resistor values.
Resistors - Standard Values
Preferred number series for resistors.
Rigid Aluminum Conduit - RAC
Rigid Aluminum Conduit dimensions.
Single Phase Power Equations
Power equations for single phased electrical systems.
Smaller Circles within a Larger Circle - Calculator
Calculate the number of small circles that fits into an outer larger circle - ex. how many pipes or wires fits in a larger pipe or conduit.
Types of soil and resistivity.
SWG - Standard Wire Gauge
Imperial Standard Wire Gauge used with wire and sheet metal.
Three-Phase Electrical Motors - Power vs. Amps and Voltage
Full load amps, wire and conduit sizes for three phase electrical motors.
Three-Phase Electrtical Motors - Power Factor vs. Inductive Load
Inductive loads and power factors with electrical three-phase motors.
Three-Phase Power Equations
Electrical 3-phase equations.
Transformers - kVA Ratings vs. Volt and Amps
Alternating voltage and induced electro magnetic field - e.m.f. - in a transformer.
A transient is a high voltage spike caused by an external or internal transient source
Voltage Standards by Country
Typical voltages and frequencies used for domestic appliances in different countries.
Wire Size - Area to Diameter Converter
Convert wire area from square mm to diameter mm.