# Electrical

## Electrical units, amps and electrical wiring, wire gauge and AWG, electrical formulas and motors

### 12 Volt Current and Maximum Wire Length

Maximum copper wire length with 2% voltage drop

### Abbreviations According the International Electrotechnical Commission

Conforming abbreviations according IEC

### AC - Active, Reactive and Apparent Power

Real, imaginary and apparent power consumption in AC circuits

### AC Circuit - Voltage, Current and Power

In an AC circuit - alternating current is generated from a sinusoidal voltage source

### Aluminum Conductor Characteristics

Characteristics of all-aluminum conductor (AAC)

### Amps and Wire Gauge in 12V Electrical Circuits

Maximum current - amps - through a 12V circuit - related to size (AWG) and length of wire

### Asynchronous Induction Motors - Electrical Data

Electrical motor data - nominal current, fuse, start ampere, contactor and circuit breaker of asynchronous induction motors

### Automotive 12 Volt Electric Wiring

Car - 12 V currents and maximum wire lengths

### AWG - American Wire Gauge and Circular Mils

AWG, diameter mil, circular mil, diameter in mm and area in mm^{2}

### AWG Wire Gauges Current Ratings

Common US AWG wire gauges and amps ratings

### Capacitor

Capacitors and capacitance - charge and unit of charge

### CE Marking

The European Machine Directive

### Charging Electrical Vehicles - Voltage, Amps and Power

EV - Electrical Vehicle - Charging Stations - Power vs. Amps and Voltage - AC vs. DS - Single Phase vs. Three Phase

### Circles within a Rectangle

The maximum number of circles possible within a rectangle - ex. numbers of pipes or wires in a conduit

### Circuit Wiring - Single Phase 230V Electrical Motors

Recommended copper wire gage and transformer size for single phase - 230 Volts - electrical motors

### CM - Circular Mil Area

The circular mil area - CM - is a unit denoting the cross-sectional size of a wire or a cable

### Color Temperatures

Light sources and color irradiation

### Copper and Aluminum Wire - Electrical Resistance

Electrical resistance in plain copper or aluminum wire

### Copper Wire - Electrical Resistance

Gauge, weight, circular mils and electrical resistance

### Coulomb's Law

The electric force acting on a point charge

### Current Divider - Online Calculator

Electric current divider

### DC Motors - Full-load Currents

Full load amps in 120 and 240 volts DC motors

### Dielectric Strength of Insulating Materials

Ability to act as an electrical insulator

### DIN VDE Standards

DIN VDE power installations

### Electric Cable Installations - Current Rating

Current ratings and cable sizes for fixed installations within buildings

### Electric Circuit Diagram - Template

Use Google Drive to make online shareable electric circuit diagrams

### Electric Heating of Mass

Electric heating of an object or mass - energy supply and temperature change

### Electric Motor Calculator

Calculate amps, hp and kVA

### Electric Motor Efficiency

Calculate electric motor efficiency

### Electric Motor Wiring - 480 Volt

Electrical motor wiring data - NEMA amps, starter size, HMCP size for motors ranging 1/2 to 500 hp

### Electric Motor Wiring - Three Phase 230 & 460V Circuits

Recommended dimensions of copper wire and transformers for tree phase 230 & 460V electrical motors

### Electric Motors - Torque vs. Power and rpm

Speed of electrical motors - output power and torque

### Electric Shocks

Physiological effects of electric shocks

### Electric Wire 240 Volts Single-Phase - Maximum Length

Maximum length of wire with 2% voltage drop

### Electric Wire Cross-Section Equations

Calculate single and bunched wire cross-sections and diameters

### Electric Wire Resistance Various Materials

Copper, Aluminum, Brass, Constantan, Nichrome, Platinum, Silver and Tungsten

### Electrical Conductivity of Elements and other Materials

Elements ability to conduct electric current

### Electrical Formulas

The most common used electrical formulas - Ohms Law and combinations

### Electrical Inductance - Serial and Parallel Connections

Serial and parallel inductance

### Electrical Induction Motors - Synchronous Speed

The speed at which an induction motor operates depends on the input power frequency and the number of electrical magnetic poles in the motor

### Electrical Metal Tubing - EMT - Conduits

Electrical Metal Tubing (EMT) conduits trade sizes and max distance between supports

### Electrical Motor - Locked Rotor Design Code Letters

Locked rotor indicating code letters electrical motors

### Electrical Motor Power and Maximum Cable Length

Maximum cable lengths for electrical motors

### Electrical Motor Shaft Power

Electrical motors are rated in horsepower or watt

### Electrical Motors - Frame Dimensions

NEMA electrical motor frame dimensions

### Electrical Motors - Full Load Amps

Full load currents for 460 volts, 230 volts and 115 volts motors - single and 3-phase

### Electrical Motors - Horsepower and Amps

Horsepower rating of electrical motors compared to their ampere rating

### Electrical Motors - Insulation Classes

Temperature and insulation classes for electrical motors

### Electrical Motors - Speed vs. Frequency

The speed of electrical motors with 2, 4, 6 or 8 poles at 50 Hz and 60 Hz

### Electrical Motors Efficiency Ratings

NEMA - electrical motor efficiency ratings

### Electrical Motors Speed at Operating Loads

Speed of an operating electrical motor with load is lower than the synchronous speed (no load) of the motor

### Electrical Resistance in Serial and Parallel Networks

Resistors in parallel and serial connections

### Electrical Units

Definition of common electrical units - like Ampere, Volt, Ohm, Siemens

### Electrode Potential and Galvanic Corrosion

Introduction to electro chemical series and corrosion of metals

### Electromotive Force - e.m.f

Change in electrical potential between two points

### Energy Stored in Capacitors

Potential power and energy stored in capacitors

### Energy Stored in Inductors

Energy stored in magnetic fields

### Extension Cords

Size of extension cords - full load ratings with 115 V

### Heat Loss from Electrical Motors

Heat loss from electrical motors to the surroundings

### IEC - NEMA Electric Motors Standard Torques

IEC and NEMA torque classifications of electrical motors

### IEC Duty Cycles

The eight - S1 - S8 - IEC duty cycles of operating electrical motors

### Inductance

Electro Magnetic Field - *EMF* - induced into a circuit

### Induction Motors - Synchronous and Full Load Speed

Synchronous and full load speed of amplitude current (AC) induction motors

### Intermediate Metal Conduit - IMC

Lighter and lower cost metal conduits

### IP - Ingress Protection Rating

IP - Ingress Protection rating is used to specify the environmental protection - or electrical enclosure - of electrical equipment

### Kirchhoff's Laws

Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws

### LENI - Lighting Energy Numeric Indicator

Energy consumption of lighting systems

### Lights and Power Installations

Lights power installations in common types of buildings and rooms

### Luminous Efficacy

The visible light produced by light sources

### Max Amps in Copper and Aluminum Wire

Maximum current in copper and aluminum wire

### NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association

National Electrical Manufacturers Association

### NEMA A, B, C and D Electrical Motor Design

NEMA has established four different designs - A, B, C and D for electrical induction motors

### NEMA and IEC Enclosure Classifications

NEMA enclosure classifications versus IEC enclosure classifications

### NEMA Enclosure Standards for Electric Motors

NEMA enclosure standard for electrical motors

### NEMA Insulation Classes

Electrical insulation systems rated by standard NEMA classifications to maximize allowable operating temperatures

### Nema Starters

Nema sized contactors or starters

### Nickel-Chromium Wire - Electrical Resistance vs. Temperature Rise

Electric resistance and temperature rise

### Ohm's Law

Voltage, current and resistance

### Online Wire Gauge - AWG - Calculator

Calculate AWG, mil, mm, CM or square mm

### Parallel and Serial Connected Capacitors

Capacitance in parallel and series connected circuits

### Parallel Circuits

Resistance, voltage and current in parallel networks

### Permeability

Electromagnetism and formation of magnetic fields

### Potential Divider - Online Calculator

Output voltage from a potential divider

### Power Factor - Inductive Load

Inductive loads and power factors for electrical three-phase motors

### Power Wiring - Color Codes

Color codes used in power wiring

### Rechargeable Batteries - Battery Life Calculator

Properties of rechargeable batteries and accumulators

### Relative Permittivity - the Dielectric Constant

Some common materials and their relative permittivity

### Relative vs. Absolute Voltage

Electric circuits and the voltage at any point

### Resistance and Conductance

The reciprocal of electrical resistance is conductance

### Resistance and Resistivity

Electrical resistance and resistivity

### Resistivity and Conductivity - Temperature Coefficients for Common Materials

Resistivity, conductivity and temperature coefficients for some common materials as silver, gold, platinum, iron and more

### Resistors - Color Codes Calculator

Color codes for fixed resistors - values and tolerances - online calculator

### Resistors - Letters and Digit Codes

Letter and digit codes to indicating resistor values

### Resistors - Standard Values

Preferred number series for resistors

### Rigid Aluminum Conduit - RAC

Rigid Aluminum Conduit dimensions

### Series Circuits

Voltage and current in series circuits

### Service Factor

Service factor - *SF* - is a measure of periodically overload capacity at which a motor can operate without damaging

### Single Phase Power Equations

Single phase electrical power equations

### Single vs. Three Phase AC - Amperage

Convert between single phase (120, 240 and 480 Voltage) and three phase (240 and 480 Voltage)

### Slip in Electrical Induction Motors

Slip is the differentiation between synchronous and asynchronous speed

### Smaller Circles within a Larger Circle

Estimate the number of small circles that fits into an outer larger circle - ex. how many pipes or wires fits in a larger pipe or conduit

### Soil - Resistivity

Types of soil and their mean value of resistivities

### SWG - Standard Wire Gauge

Imperial Standard Wire Gauge used for sheet metal and wire

### Three Phase Electrical Motors

Full load amps, wire and conduit sizes for three phase electrical motors

### Three-Phase Power Equations

Electrical 3-phase equations

### Torques in Electrical Induction Motors

Torques describes and classifies electrical motors

### Transformers

Alternating voltage and induced electro magnetic field - e.m.f. - in a transformer

### Transients

A transient is a high voltage spike caused by an external or internal transient source

### Types of NEMA Electrical Enclosures

Description of NEMA electrical enclosures types

### Voltage by Country

Typical voltages and frequencies used for domestic appliances

### Voltage Drop in Electric Circuits

Ohm's law and voltage drop in an electric circuit

### Voltage Imbalance - Derating Factor in Polyphase Motors

Efficiency of electrical polyphase motors decreases with increased voltage imbalance

### Wire - Convert from Square mm to Diameter mm

Convert from square mm to diameter mm

### Wire Gauge Converter - AWG versus square mm

American Wire Gauge (AWG) versus square mm cross sectional area