Physical data for alcohols and carboxylic acids

Molweight, melting and boiling point, density, pKa-values, as well as number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in each molecule are given for 150 different alcohols and acids

Below the table, examples of molecule structures for the different classes of alcohols and acids are given, together with a definition of the different classes of organic compounds.

For figures showing trends for the different classes with increasing chain lengths, as well as molecular structures, see also

For more tabulated values, see Physical data for hydrocarbons, Physical data for organic sulfur compounds and Physical data for organic nitrogen compounds

Class of compound IUPAC name Common name #C #H #O Molweight
g/mol
Melting point
°C
Boiling point
°C
Density @20°C*
g/ml
pKa(1) pKa(2)
1-alkanol Methanol Methyl alcohol 1 4 1 32.04 -98 65 0.791 15.5
1-alkanol Ethanol Ethyl alcohol 2 6 1 46.07 -114 78 0.789 15.5
1-alkanol 1-Propanol Propyl alcohol 3 8 1 60.09 -124 97 0.804 16.1
1-alkanol 1-Butanol Butyl alcohol 4 10 1 74.12 -89 118 0.810 16.1
1-alkanol 1-Pentanol Amyl alcohol 5 12 1 88.15 -78 138 0.814
1-alkanol 1-Hexanol Caproyl alcohol 6 14 1 102.17 -46 157 0.814
1-alkanol 1-Heptanol Heptyl alcohol 7 16 1 116.198 -33 178 0.822
1-alkanol 1-Octanol Capryl alcohol 8 18 1 130.22 -15 195 0.829
1-alkanol 1-Nonanol Nonyl alcohol 9 20 1 144.25 -5 214 0.828
1-alkanol 1-Decanol Capric alcohol 10 22 1 158.276 7 229 0.830
1-alkanol 1-Undecanol Undecyl alcohol 11 24 1 172.30 1 246 0.830
1-alkanol 1-Dodecanol Lauryl alcohol 12 26 1 186.33 24 264 0.833
1-alkanol 1-Tridecanol 13 28 1 200.35 31 287 0.82231
1-alkanol 1-Tetradecanol Tetra decylalcohol 14 30 1 214.38 38 296 0.82438
1-alkanol 1-Pentadecanol 15 32 1 228.41 44 318 0.83525
1-alkanol 1-Docosanol 22 46 1 326.59 71
2-alkanol 2-Propanol Isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol 3 8 1 60.09 -88 82 0.785 17.2
2-alkanol 2-Butanol sec-Butyl alcohol 4 10 1 74.12 -88 99 0.806 17.6
2-alkanol 2-Pentanol sec-Amyl alcohol 5 12 1 88.15 -73 119 0.809 17.8
2-alkanol 2-Hexanol 6 14 1 102.17 -23 138 0.816
2-alkanol 2-Heptanol 7 16 1 116.20 159 0.817
2-alkanol 2-Octanol sec-Caprylic alcohol 8 18 1 130.22 -31.6 179 0.819
2-alkanol 2-Nonanol 9 20 1 144.25 -35 194 0.83
2-alkanol 2-Decanol 10 22 1 158.28 -5 212 0.825
2-alkanol 2-Undecanol 11 24 1 172.30 0 231 0.825
2-alkanol 2-Dodecanol 12 26 1 186.33 19 249 0.829
3-alkanol 3-Pentanol Diethyl carbinol 5 12 1 88.15 -73 115 0.820 18.2
3-alkanol 3-Hexanol 6 14 1 102.17 -57 143 0.818
3-alkanol 3-Heptanol Ethylbutylcarbinol 7 16 1 116.20 -70 163 0.823
3-alkanol 3-Octanol 8 18 1 130.22 -45 175 0.826
3-alkanol 3-Nonanol 9 20 1 144.25 22 193 0.825
3-alkanol 3-Decanol 10 22 1 158.28 -5 212 0.827
3-alkanol 3-Undecanol 11 24 1 172.30 230 0.088
3-alkanol 3-Dodecanol 12 26 1 186.33 25 246 0.829
4-alkanol 4-Heptanol Dipropylcarbinol 7 16 1 116.12 -41 161 0.818
4-alkanol 4-Octanol 8 18 1 130.22 -41 176 0.819
4-alkanol 4-Decanol 9 20 1 144.25 -11 214 0.826
4-alkanol 4-Nonanol 10 22 1 158.28 -7 193 0.828
Branched alcohol 2-Methyl-2-propanol 4 10 1 74.12 25.7 83 0.789
Branched alcohol 2-Methyl-1-propanol Isobutanol, isobutyl alcohol 4 10 1 74.12 108 0.802
Branched alcohol 2-Methyl-2-butanol 5 12 1 88.15 -8 102 0.810
Branched alcohol 3-Methyl-2-butanol 5 12 1 88.15 114 0.818
Branched alcohol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 5 12 1 88.15 129 0.818
Branched alcohol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 5 12 1 88.15 -117 131 0.810
Cycloalcohol Cyclohexanol 6 12 1 100.16 25 161 0.962
Phenols Phenol Hydroxybenzene 6 6 1 94.11 41 181 1.05545 9.98
Phenols 2-Methylphenol o-Cresol, 2-methylhydroxybenzene 7 8 1 108.13 31 191 1.03335 10.29
Phenols 4-Methylphenol p-Cresol, 4-methylhydroxybenzene 7 8 1 108.13 35 202 1.01940 10.26
Phenols 3-Methylphenol m-Cresol, 3-methylhydroxybenzene 7 8 1 108.13 12 202 1.034 10.09
Phenols 2-Methoxyphenol Guaiacol 7 8 2 124.13 28 204 1.12921 9.98
Phenols 3-Methoxyphenol Resorcinol, monomethyl ether 7 8 2 124.13 -18 244 1.13125 9.65
Phenols 4-Methoxyphenol 7 8 2 124.13 55 253 10.21
Phenols 2-Ethylphenol 2-Ethylhydroxybenzene 8 10 1 122.16 -3 205 1.017 10.2
Phenols 4-Ethylphenol 4-Ethylhydroxybenzene 8 10 1 122.16 45 218 1.05025 10
Phenols 3-Ethylphenol 3- Ethylhydroxybenzene 8 10 1 122.16 -4 218 1.028 9.9
Phenols 2-Propylphenol o-Propylphenol 9 12 1 136.19 7 223 1.015 10.47
Phenols 4-Propylphenol p-Propylphenol 9 12 1 136.19 22 232 1.009 10.34
Diol 1,2-Ethanediol Ethylene glycol 2 6 2 62.07 -14 198 1.114
Diol 1,2-Benzenediol Catechol, pyrocatechol 6 6 2 110.11 102 245 1.34425 9.45 12.8
Diol 1,3-Benzenediol Resorcinol 6 6 2 110.11 110 277 1.278 9.2 11.3
Diol 1,4-Benzenediol Hydroquinone, ,4-Dihydroxybenzene 6 6 2 110.11 172 285 10.9 11.4
Diol 4-Methyl-1,2-benzenediol 4-Methylcatechol 7 8 2 124.13 68 251 1.12925 9.55
Triol 1,3,5-Benzenetriol Phloroglucinol,
1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene
6 6 3 126.11 216 sub 1.4625 8.45
Alkanoic acid Formic acid Methanoic acid 1 2 2 46.03 8 101 1.22 3.74
Alkanoic acid Acetic acid Ethanoic acid 2 4 2 60.05 17 118 1.048 4.76
Alkanoic acid Propanoic acid Propionic acid 3 6 2 74.08 -21 142 0.991 4.87
Alkanoic acid Butanoic acid Butyric acid 4 8 2 88.10 -5 164 0.956 4.82
Alkanoic acid Pentanoic acid Valeric acid 5 10 2 102.13 -34 186 0.937 4.86
Alkanoic acid Hexanoic acid Caproic acid 6 12 2 116.16 -4 202 0.924 4.87
Alkanoic acid Heptanoic acid Enanthic acid 7 14 2 130.18 -7 222 0.916 4.89
Alkanoic acid Octanoic acid Caprylic acid 8 16 2 144.21 17 240 0.911 4.89
Alkanoic acid Nonanoic acid Pelargonic acid 9 18 2 158.23 12 256 0.905 4.96
Alkanoic acid Dodecanoic acid Lauric acid 12 24 2 200.31 44 296 0.86850
Alkanoic acid Decanoic acid Capric acid 13 26 2 214.34 31 270 0.88640
Alkanoic acid Tridecanoic acid Tridecylic acid 14 28 2 228.36 42 308 0.84680
Alkanoic acid Undecanoic acid 15 30 2 242.39 28.5 280 0.891
Alkanoic acid Tetradecanoic acid Myristic acid 16 32 2 256.42 54 350** 0.86254
Alkanoic acid Pentacanoic acid Pentadecylic acid 17 34 2 270.44 52 360** 0.84280
Alkanoic acid Hexadecanoic acid Palmitic acid 16 32 2 256.42 63 351 0.85362
Alkanoic acid Octadecanoic acid Stearic acid 18 36 2 284.48 69 d361 0.941
Alkanoic acid Docosanoic acid Behenic acid 22 44 2 340.57 81 >400** 0.82290
Branched alkanoic acid 2-Methylpropanoic acid Isobutyric acid 4 8 2 88.104 -46 155 0.945 4.84
Branched alkanoic acid 2-Methylbutanoic acid 5 10 2 102.13 <-80 177 0.934 4.8
Branched alkanoic acid 3-Methylbutanoic acid Isovaleric acid 5 10 2 102.13 -30 176 0.925 4.77
Branched alkanoic acid 2,2-Dimethylpropanoic acid Trimethylacetic acid 5 10 2 102.13 35 164 0.90550 4.78
Branched alkanoic acid 2-Methylpentanoic acid 6 12 2 116.16 195 0.923
Branched alkanoic acid 3-Methylpentanoic acid 3-Methylvaleric acid 6 12 2 116.16 -42 197 0.926
Branched alkanoic acid 4-Methylpentanoic acid 4-Methylvaleric acid, Isocaproic acid 6 12 2 116.16 -33 200 0.923 4.84
Branched alkanoic acid 2-Methylhexanoic acid 7 14 2 130.18 209 0.92
Branched alkanoic acid 4-Methylhexanoic acid 7 14 2 130.18 11010 0.921
Branched alkanoic acid 2-Propylpentanoic acid Valproic acid 8 16 2 144.21 223 0.906 4.6
Benzoic acids Benzoic acid Benzenecarboxylic acid 7 6 2 122.12 122 249 1.26615 4.2
Benzoic acids 2-Methyl-benzoic acid o-Toluic acid 8 8 2 136.14 107 258 1.062115 3.91
Benzoic acids 3-Methyl-benzoic acid m-Toluic acid 8 8 2 136.14 111 1.054112 4.25
Benzoic acids 4-Methyl-benzoic acid p-Toluic acid 8 8 2 136.14 182 275 4.37
Benzoic acids 2-Phenylbenzoic acid 13 10 2 198.21 112 344 3.46
Benzoic acids 4-Phenylbenzoic acid 13 10 2 210 s
Cinnamic acid trans-o-Methylcinnamic acid 10 10 2 162.18 175 4.5
Cinnamic acid trans-p-Methylcinnamic acid 10 10 2 199 4.56
Phenyl-alkanoic acid Phenylethanoic acid α-Tolylic acid, Benzeneacetic 8 8 2 136.14 77 266 1.2286 4.31
Phenyl-alkanoic acid 2-Phenylbutyric acid a-Ethyl-a-toluic acid 10 12 2 47.5 4.66
Hydroxy acids Hydroxyethanoic acid Glycolic acid 2 4 3 76.05 80 d 3.88
Hydroxy acids Hydroxyethanoic acid Glycolic acid 2 4 3 76.05 80 d 3.88
Hydroxy acids 2-Hydroxy-benzoic acid Salicylic acid 7 6 3 138.12 159 1.443 2.97 13.59
Hydroxy acids 3-Hydroxy-benzoic acid 7 6 3 138.12 202 4.8 9.9
Hydroxy acids 4-Hydroxy-benzoic acid 7 6 3 138.12 215 4.58 9.4
Alkanedioic acid Ethanedioic acid Oxalic acid 2 2 4 90.04 d190 s157 1.917 1.25 4.29
Alkanedioic acid Propanedioic acid Malonic acid 3 4 4 104.06 136 d140 1.61916 2.85 5.69
Alkanedioic acid Butanedioic acid Succinic acid 4 6 4 118.09 185 d235 1.57225 4.21 5.64
Alkanedioic acid Pentanedioic acid Glutaric acid 5 8 4 132.11 96 302** 3.22 4.82
Alkanedioic acid Hexanedioic acid Adipic acid 6 10 4 146.14 153 265** 4.34 5.41
Alkanedioic acid Heptanedioic acid Pimelic acid 7 12 4 160.17 104 212** 4.71 5.58
Alkanedioic acid Octanedioic acid Suberic acid 8 14 4 174.19 142 230** 4.52 5.498
Alkanedioic acid Nonanedioic acid Azelaic acid 9 16 4 188.29 110 286** 4.53 5.33
Alkanedioic acid Decanedioic acid Sebacic acid 10 18 4 202.24 131 374** 1.271 4.59 5.59
Alkanedioic acid Undecanedioic acid 1,9-Nonanedicarboxylic acid 11 20 4 216.27 109 4.65
Alkanedioic acid Dodecanedioic acid Decane-1,10-dicarboxylic acid 12 22 4 230.30 128 245** 4.65
Alkanedioic acid Tridecanedioic acid Brassylic acid 13 24 4 244.32 113 4.65
Alkenedioic acids cis-Butenedioic acid Maleic 4 4 4 116.07 139 d 1.5925 1.92 6.22
Alkenedioic acids trans-Butenedioic acid Fumaric 4 4 4 116.07 s300 1.635 3.02 4.39
Alkenedioic acids 2-Octenedioic acid 8 12 4 172.18 4.15
Branched dioic acids 2-Methylpropanedioic acid Methylmalonic acid 4 6 4 118.09 129 1.455 3.07 5.76
Branched dioic acids 3-Methylpentanedioic acid 3-Methylglutaric acid 6 10 4 146.14 83 4.24
Aromatic dioic acids 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid o-Phthalic acid
8 6 4 166.13 d210 4.42 5.41
Aromatic dioic acids 2,6-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid 12 8 4 216.18 >300
Aromatic dioic acids 1,4-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid 12 8 4 216.18 >301
Aromatic dioic acids Biphenyl-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid 14 10 4 242.22 >300
* Note that some of the substances have a melting point above 20°C, and that the given densities then are given for solid state. Superscript notations give measurement temperature(in °C) different from 20°C.
** Boiling point is estimated from low pressure measurements. It is not known whether the substance is chemically stable at the given1 atm boiling temperature.
s = sublimates      d = decomposes



Molecular structure  alcohol acid



Definitions of organic compounds

Hydrocarbon: An organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

Main groups of hydrocarbons:

Alkane: An acyclic saturated hydrocarbon, with the general formula CnH2n+2. Also called paraffin.

Alkene: An unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond, with the general formula CnH2n. Also called olefine.

Cycloalkane: A one-ring (monocyclic) saturated hydrocarbon, with the general formula CnH2n. Also called naphthene.

Aromatic hydrocarbon: A cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms. The simplest of the aromatics have 6 carbon atoms and contains 3 double bounds.  A one ring aromatic without any substituents is called benzene, with the formula C6H6.

Some under-groups of hydrocarbons given in this document:

Alkyl: An alkane substituent missing one hydrogen, with general formula CnH2n+1

Branched alkyl: An alkyl with one or several side chains of carbon atoms connected to the main carbon atom chain.

Phenyl: An phenyl group is a benzene substituent missing one hydrogen, with general formula C6H5.

Classes of alcohols:

Alcohol: an organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom

Alkanol: An alcohol where the hydroxyl group is bound to an alkyl. If the hydroxyl group is bound to a carbon atom at the end of the alkyl, it is a 1-alkanol, if it is bound to the second carbon, it is a 2-alkanol, etc.

Branched alcohol: An alcohol where the hydroxyl group is bound to a branched alkyl.

Cyclo alcohol: An alcohol where the hydroxyl group is bound to a cycloalkane.

Phenol: An alcohol where the hydroxyl group is bound to a phenyl group, with the formula C6H5OH.

Phenols: A group of compounds consisting of a phenol molecule with one or more substiuents.

Diol: An organic compound containing two hydroxyl groups, R(-OH)2.

Triol: An organic compound containing three hydroxyl groups, R(-OH)3.

Classes of carboxylic acids:

Carboxylic acid: an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH). The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R–COOH, with R referring to the rest of the molecule.

Alkanoic acid: A carboxylic acid where the R is an alkyl.

Branched alkanoic acid: A carboxylic acid where the R is a branched alkyl.

Phenyl-alkanoic acid: An alkanoic acid bound to a phenyl.

Benzoic acid: A carboxylic acid where the acid group is substituted to one carbon of a benzene ring.

Hydroxy acid: A carboxylic acid containing an additional hydroxyl group.

Dioic acid: A carboxylic acid with two acid groups, R(-COOH)2

Related Topics

  • Material Properties - Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more
  • Density - Density of different solid materials, liquids and gases. Definitions and convertion calculators.
  • Boiling point - Documents giving boiling point of elements and different kind of chemical species at varying conditions
  • Melting point - freezing point - Documents giving melting or freezing point of elements and different kind of chemical species at varying conditions

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