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Carbon Dioxide - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of carbon dioxide. Phase diagram included.

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Carbon dioxide, CO 2 , is a colourless and odorless gas. It is relatively nontoxic and noncombustible, but it is heavier than air and may asphyxiate by the displacement of air.

When CO 2 is solved in water, the mild carbonic acid , is formed. Cooled CO 2 in solid form is called dry ice .

Carbon dioxide phase diagram

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of carbon dioxide : Values are given for gas phase at 25 o C /77 o F / 298 K and 1 atm., if not other phase, temperature or pressure given.

For full table with Imperial Units - rotate the screen!

Carbon Dioxide - Thermophysical Properties
Property Value Unit Value Unit Value Unit Value Unit
Acidity (pKa1) 6.35
Acidity (pKa2) 10.33
Boiling Point - sublimation point 194.686 K -78.464 °C -109.24 °F
Critical density 10.63 mol/dm 3 467.6 kg/m 3 0.9073 slug/ft 3 29.19 lb/ft 3
Critical pressure 7.38 MPa=MN/m 2 73.8 bar 72.8 atm 1070 psi=lb f /in 2
Critical temperature 304.13 K 30.98 °C 87.76 °F
Critical volume 94.12 cm 3 /mol 0.00214 m 3 /kg 1.102 ft 3 /slug 0.03426 ft 3 /lb
Density 40.8 mol/m 3 1.795 kg/m 3 0.00348 slug/ft 3 0.1121 lb/ft 3
Density, gas at 32°F/0°C 1 atm 44.9 mol/m 3 1.977 kg/m 3 0.00384 slug/ft 3 0.1234 lb/ft 3
Density, liquid at -34.6 °F/-37°C, saturation pressure 25017 mol/m 3 1101 kg/m 3 2.136 slug/ft 3 68.73 lb/ft 3
Density, solid at -109.3 °F/-78.5°C, 1 atm 35492 mol/m 3 1562 kg/m 3 3.031 slug/ft 3 97.51 lb/ft 3
Flammable no
Gas constant - R (individual) 188.92 J/kg K 0.0525 Wh/(kg K) 1130 [ft lb f /slug °R] 35.114 [ft lb f /lb °R]
Gibbs free energy of formation -394.00 kJ/mol -8953 kJ/kg -3849 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of combustion 0 kJ/mol 0 kJ/kg 0 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of formation -393.50 kJ/mol -8941 kJ/kg -3844 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of fusion 9.02 kJ/mol 205 kJ/kg 88.11 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of sublimation, at 180 K 26 kJ/mol 591 kJ/kg 254 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of vaporization at 15°C 179.5 kJ/kg 77.2 Btu/lb
Heat (enthalpy) of vaporization at triple point 15.55 kJ/mol 353.4 kJ/kg 151.93 Btu/lb
Specific heat capacity, Cp (isobaric) 37.35 J/mol K 0.849 kJ/kg K 0.203 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Specific heat capacity, Cv (isochoric) 28.96 J/mol K 0.658 kJ/kg K 0.157 Btu/lb°F or cal/g K
Ionization potential 13.77 eV
Molecular Weight 44.0095 g/mol 0.09702 lb/mol
pH of saturated aqueous solution 3.7
Solubility in water 0.148 g/100 g 1.48 g/l=mg/ml
Sound velocity in gas 269 m/s
Specific Gravity (density relativ to density of air) 1.53
Specific Heat Ratio - Cp/Cv 1.29
Specific Volume 0.0245 m 3 /mol 0.557 m 3 /kg 287.1 ft 3 /slug 8.92 ft 3 /lb
Standard molar entropy , S° 213.8 J/mol K 4.86 kJ/kg K 1.16 Btu/lb °F
Sublimation Point 194.686 K -78.464 °C -109.24 °F
Surface tension at melting point 16.2 dynes/cm
Thermal Conductivity 0.01663 W/m°C 0.009609 Btu/hr ft °F
Triple point pressure 0.5180 MPa=MN/m 2 5.180 bar 5.112 atm 75.12 psi=lbf/in 2
Triple point temperature 216.58 K -56.57 °C -69.81 °F
Vapor (saturation) pressure 6.45 MPa=MN/m 2 48379 mm Hg 63.66 atm 935.5 psi=lbf/in 2
Viscosity , dynamic (absolute) 1.495 cP 1004.6 [lb m /ft s*10 -6 ] 31.22 [lbf s/ft 2 *10 -6 ]
Viscosity , kinematic 0.834 cSt 8.977 [ft 2 /s*10 -6 ]

Follow the links below to get values for the listed properties of carbon dioxide at varying pressure and temperature :

See also more about atmospheric pressure , and STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure & NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure ,
as well as Thermophysical properties of: Acetone , Acetylene , Air , Ammonia , Argon , Benzene , Butane , Carbon monoxide , Ethane , Ethanol , Ethylene , Helium , Hydrogen , Hydrogen sulfide , Methane , Methanol , Nitrogen , Oxygen , Pentane , Propane , Toluene , Water and Heavy water, D 2 O .

Carbon dioxide is a gas at standard conditions. However, at low temperature and/or high pressures the gas becomes a liquid or a solid.

The phase diagram for carbon dioxide shows the phase behavior with changes in temperature and pressure. The curve between the critical point and the triple point shows the carbon dioxide boiling point with changes in pressure. The curve between the triple point downwards to zero pressure shows the sublimation point with changes in pressure (Sublimation: transformation from solid phase directly to gas phase). Carbon dioxide in solid phase is called dry ice.

CO2 phase diagram C

At the critical point there is no change of state when pressure is increased or if heat is added.

The triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

Atmospheric CO 2 Concentration

Atmospheric CO2 concentration

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