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Soft and hardwood - the Janka Hardness scale.
For wood hardness is a measure of resistance to dent and wear.
The Janka test measures the force (N, lbf) required to embed an 11.28 mm steel ball into the wood half the ball's diameter. Larger force - harder wood.
The Janka Hardness Values and Hardness Grades for some common Wood Species
Wood Hardness Grades
|Brazilian Ebony ||16420 ||Exceedingly hard |
|Ipe ||16390 || |
|Cumaru ||15470 || |
|Ebony ||14300 ||Extremely hard |
|Golden Teak ||10400 || |
|Merbau ||8560 ||Very hard |
|Hickory ||8100 || |
|Rosewood ||7900 ||Hard |
|White Oak ||6000 || |
|Ash ||5900 ||Rather hard |
|Birch ||5600 || |
|Teak ||5140 || |
|English Oak ||5000 ||Firm |
|Burmese Teak ||4600 || |
|Black Walnut ||4500 || |
|Cherry ||4200 || |
|Mahogany ||3600 || |
|Douglas Fir ||2900 ||Soft |
|Alder ||2600 || |
|Chestnut ||2400 || |
|Poplar ||2400 || |
|Hemlock ||2200 || |
|White Pine ||1900 ||Very soft |
|Balsa ||310 || |
- Material properties of gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more.
- The Brinell hardness test of metals and alloys.
- Comparing sandpaper grit size and surface roughness.
- Species of hardwood vs. softwood.
- Hardwood and softwood drill speed chart.
- Sizing of hardwood lumber.
- Weights of green, kiln dried and pressure treated lumber boards.
- Grading of lumber in North America
- The Mohs qualitative ordinal scale characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals.
- Allowable withdrawal load for nail and spikes.
- Strength classes, bending stress and mean density of hardwood and softwood
- Basic size, area, moments of inertia and section modulus for timber - metric units.
- Properties of structural lumber.
- Trees species and relative water demand.
- Height of trees commonly used in towns and urban areas.
- Red Spruce, Longleaf Pine and Douglas Fir - moisture content and their compressive strength.
- The density of wood versus moisture content.
- Weight supported by a double or triple wood headers.
- Densities of various wood species - apple, ash, cedar, elm and more.
- Density, fibre stress, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of clear wood, panel and structural timber products.
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