# Mechanics

## Forces, acceleration, displacement, vectors, motion, momentum, energy of objects and more

### • Threads

Thread data - metric, unified, ACME and others

### • Fasteners

Bolts, nuts and threaded rods - torque, tension and loads

### Acceleration of Gravity and Newton's Second Law

Acceleration of gravity and Newton's Second Law - SI and Imperial units

### Acceleration Units Converter

Convert between units of acceleration

### American Standard Beams - S Beam

American Standard Beams ASTM A6 - Imperial units

### American Wide Flange Beams

American Wide Flange Beams ASTM A6 in metric units

### American Wide Flange Beams - W Beam

Dimensions of American Wide Flange Beams ASTM A6 - Imperial units

### Area Moment of Inertia - Converter

Convert between Area Moment of Inertia units

### Area Moment of Inertia - Typical Cross Sections I

Area Moment of Inertia, Moment of Inertia for an Area or Second Moment of Area for typical cross section profiles

### Area Moment of Inertia - Typical Cross Sections II

Area Moment of Inertia, Moment of Inertia for an Area or Second Moment of Area for typical cross section profiles

### Beam Loads - Support Force Calculator

Calculate beam load and supporting forces

### Beams - Fixed at Both Ends - Continuous and Point Loads

Support loads, stress and deflections

### Beams - Fixed at One End and Supported at the Other - Continuous and Point Loads

Support loads, moments and deflections

### Beams - Supported at Both Ends - Continuous and Point Loads

Support loads, stress and deflections

### Belt Transmissions - Length and Speed of Belt

Length and speed of belt and belt gearing

### Belts - Power Transmission and Efficiency

Calculate belts power transmission and efficiency

### Belts - Pulley Diameters vs. Speed

The pulley laws - driver and driven - diameter and rpm

### Bollard Force

Rope friction around a pole - load and effort force in rope around a bollard

### British Universal Columns and Beams

Properties of British Universal Steel Columns and Beams

### Cable Loads

Force and tension in cables with uniform loads

### Car Acceleration

Calculate acceleration of car

### Center Mass

Calculate position of center mass

### Center of Gravity

Bodies and their center of gravity

### Center of Gravity and Buoyancy

Stability - center of gravity and center of buoyancy

### Centripetal and Centrifugal Force - Acceleration

Centripetal and centrifugal acceleration - forces due to circular motion

### Conn-Rod Mechanism

The connecting rod mechanism

### Conservation of Momentum

Momentum of a body is defined as the product of its mass and velocity - recoil calculator

### Density, Specific Weight and Specific Gravity

An introduction to density, specific gravity and specific weight - formulas with examples

### Disk Brakes - Force and Torque

Force and torque by activated disk brakes

### Drawbridge Elevation - Forces and Moments

Calculate elevation moment for a drawbridge or a beam

### Efficiency of Small Machine Elements

Friction and efficiency in bearings and roller chains

### Elevator - Force and Power

Required force and power to lift an elevator

### Energy

Energy is the capacity to do work

### Engineering Materials

Typical properties of engineering materials like steel, plastics, ceramics and composites

### Equilibrant

The force required to keep a system of forces in equilibrium

### Fibre-reinforced Polymer Composites

Mechanical properties of fibers used to reinforce polymer composites

### Flywheel Kinetic Energy

Kinetic energy stored in a flywheel - moment of inertia

### Force

Newton's third law - mass and acceleration

### Force acting on Body Moving in Horizontal Plane

The force acting on a body moved in the horizontal plane

### Force and Tension in a Rope due to Angle

Reduced load capacity in ropes, cables or lines - due to angle

### Force Ratio

Force ratio - load force versus effort force

### Forces Acting on Body Moving on an Inclined Plane

Required force to move a body up an inclined plane

### Formulas of Motion - Linear and Circular

Linear and angular (rotation) acceleration, velocity, speed and distance

### Friction and Friction Coefficients

The friction theory and friction coefficients at different conditions for various of materials like ice, aluminum, steel, graphite and other common materials and materials combinations

### Gear Reducing Formulas

Output torque, speed and horsepower when using gears

### Gear Trains - Bicycle Gearing Calculator

Gear train transmission - bicycle gearing

### Gears

Gears and effort force

### Harmonic Oscillator

A simple harmonic oscillator

### HE-A Steel Beams

Properties of HE-A profiled steel beams

### HE-B Steel Beams

Properties of HE-B profiled steel beams

### HE-M Steel Beams

Properties of HE-M profile steel beams

### Hooke's Law

Hooke's law - force, elongation and spring constant

### Hot Air Balloon - Lifting Force

Calculate potential lifting force in hot air volume

### Improvised Torque Wrench

Improvise a torque wrench with a luggage scale

### Impulse and Impulse Force

Forces acting a very short time are called impulse forces

### ISO 2841 - Spark Plugs Metric Threads

Metric threads spark plugs according ISO 28741

### Kinetic Energy

Kinetic energy of a rigid body is the energy possessed by its motion

### Levers

Use levers to magnify forces

### Lifting Wheels

Lifting wheels - loads and effort force

### Mass Moment of Inertia

Mass Moment of Inertia (Moment of Inertia) depends on the mass of the object, its shape and its relative point of rotation - Radius of Gyration

### Mass vs. Weight

Mass vs. weight - the Gravity Force

### Metric Bolts - Minimum Ultimate Tensile and Proof Loads

Minimum ultimate tensile and proof loads for metric bolts with coarse or fine threads

### Metric Nuts - Proof Loads

Proof loads of metric nuts - coarse and fine threads

### Metric Steel Bolts - Grades and Property Classes

Metric steel bolts, screws and studs - proof and tensile strength

### Modulus of Rigidity

Shear Modulus (Modulus of Rigidity) is the elasticity coefficient for shearing or torsion force

### Motors, Pulley Diameters and Speed

Pulley (Sheave) selection charts for motors ranging 850 - 3450 rpm

### Movement Ratio

Machines and movement ratio (velocity ratio)

### Normal Flange I Beams

Properties of normal flange I profile steel beams

### Poisson's Ratio

When a material is stretched in one direction it tends to get thinner in the other two directions

### Poisson's Ratio for Metals

Some metals and their Poisson's Ratio

### Potential Energy

Hydropower - elevation and potential energy

### Power

Power is the rate at which work is done or energy converted

### Projectile Range

Motion in two dimensions - calculate the range of a projectile

### Pulleys

Pulleys, blocks and tackles

### Radian

The radian - unit of angle - and angular velocity

### Radius of Gyration in Structural Engineering

Radius of gyration is used to describe the distribution of cross sectional area in a column around its centroidal axis

### Rolling Resistance

Rolling friction and rolling resistance

### Rotating Shafts and Torques

Torsional moments acting on rotating shafts

### Screw Jacks

Screw jacks and effort force

### Section Modulus - Unit Converter

Convert between Elastic Section Modulus units

### Steel Bolts - ASTM Grades

ASTM steel bolts - proof and tensile strength

### Steel Bolts - SAE Grades

SAE steel bolts - grades ranging grade 1 to 8.2 - proof and tensile strength

### Steels - Endurance Limits and Fatigue Stress

Endurance limits and fatigue stress for steels

### Stiffness

Stiffness is resistance to deflection

### Stress

Stress is force applied on cross-sectional area

### Stress in Thick-Walled Cylinders or Tubes

Radial and tangential stress in thick-walled cylinders or tubes with closed ends - with internal and external pressure

### Stress in Thin-Walled Cylinders or Tubes

Hoop and longitudinal stress thin-walled tubes or cylinders

### Stress, Strain and Young's Modulus

Stress is force per unit area - strain is the deformation of a solid due to stress

### Support Reactions - Equilibrium

Static equilibrium is achieved when the resultant force and resultant moment equals to zero

### Thermal Expansion - Stress and Force

Stress and force when thermal expansion is restricted

### Three-Hinged Arches - Continuous and Point Loads

Support reactions and bending moments

### Toggle Joint

A toggle joint mechanism can be used to multiply force

### Torque - Work done and Power Transmitted

The work done and power transmitted by a constant torque

### Torque or Moment of Force - Online Converter

Torque or moment - the tendency of a force to rotate an object

### Torsion of Shafts

The torsion of solid or hollow shafts - Polar Moment of Inertia of Area

### Trusses

Common types of trusses

### UNC and UNF - Unified Inch Screw Threads

ANSI/ASME B1.1 Unified National Thread - UNC Coarse series and UNF Fine series

### Universal Gravitational Law

The gravitational attraction between two objects depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them

### Vector Addition

Online vector calculator - add vectors with different magnitude and direction - like forces, velocities and more

### Weight of Beam - Stress and Strain

Stress and deformation of a vertical beam due to it's own weight

### Wind Load vs. Wind Speed

Wind load on surface - Wind load calculator

### Wire Rope Slings

Sling angle and influence on capacity

### Work done by Force

Work done by a force acting on an object

### Young's Modulus - Tensile and Yield Strength for some common Materials

Young's Modulus or Tensile Modulus alt. Modulus of Elasticity - and Ultimate Tensile and Yield Strength for steel, glass, wood and other common materials