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# Solubility Product Constants

## The equilibrium constant, Ksp, for aqueous solutions of ionic compounds at 25°C.

For ionic compounds with limited solubility in water, an equilibrium constant, K sp , can be defined from the ion concentration in water from the equation:

M m A n (s) = m M n+ (aq) + n A m- (aq)

where M m A n is the slightly soluble substance and M n+ and A m- are the ions produced in solution by dissosiation of M m A n .

K sp = [M n+ ] m * [A m- ] n

The table below gives calculated values of K sp for common ionic substances at 25°C (77°F). They are calculated by using standard state thermodynamic data and the equations:

Δ = m f G °(M + , aq) + n f (A - , aq) - Δf (M m A n , s)        and       ln K sp = -Δ G°/RT

K sp is indicating the maximum concentration of the solved ionic substace in water at the actual (stable) temperature.

For sulfides , a K spa is defined based on the equation

M m S n (s) + 2H + = m M + (aq) + n H2S(aq)

Solubility Product Constants
Name Formula K sp K spa
Aluminium hydroxide Al(OH)3 3*10 -34
Aluminium phosphate AlPO 4 9.84 *10 -21
Barium bromate Ba(BrO3 ) 2 2.43*10-4
Barium carbonate BaCO3 2.58*10 -9
Barium chromate(VI) BaCrO 4 1.17*10 -10
Barium fluoride BaF 2 1.84*10 -7
Barium hydroxide octahydrate Ba(OH)2*8H2O 2.55*10-4
Barium iodate Ba(IO3 ) 2 4.01 *10 -9
Barium iodate monohydrate Ba(IO3 )2*H2O 1.67 *10 -9
Barium molybdate BaMoO 4 3.54*10 -8
Barium nitrate Ba(NO3 ) 2 4.64*10-3
Barium selenate BaSeO 4 3.40*10 -8
Barium sulfate BaSO 4 1.08*10 -10
Barium sulfite BaSO3 5.0*10 -10
Beryllium hydroxide Be(OH) 2 6.92*10 -22
Bismuth arsenate BiAsO 4 4.43*10 -10
Bismuth iodide BiI 7.71*10-19
Bismuth triiodite BiI3 7.71*10-19
Cadmium arsenate Cd3 (AsO 4 ) 2 2.2*10 -33
Cadmium fluoride CdF 2 6.44 *10-3
Cadmium hydroxide Cd(OH) 2 7.2*10 -15
Cadmium iodate Cd(IO3 ) 2 2.5*10 -8
Cadmium oxalate trihydrate CdC2O 4 *3H2O 1.42*10 -8
Cadmium phosphate Cd3 (PO 4 ) 2 2.53*10 -33
Calcium carbonate (calcite) CaCO3 3.36*10 -9
Calcium carbonate (aragonite) CaCO3 6.0*10 -9
Calcium fluoride CaF 2 3.45*10 -11
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 5.02*10-6
Calcium iodate Ca(IO3 ) 2 6.47*10-6
Calcium iodate hexahydrate Ca(IO3 )2*6H2O 7.10 *10 -7
Calcium molybdate CaMoO 4 1.46*10 -8
Calcium oxalate monohydrate CaC2O 4 *H2O 2.32*10 -9
Calcium phosphate Ca3 (PO 4 ) 2 2.07*10 -33
Calcium sulfate CaSO 4 4.93*10 -5
Calcium sulfate dihydrate CaSO 4 *2H2O 3.14 *10 -5
Calcium sulfite hemihydrate CaSO3 *0.5H2O 3.1 *10 -7
Cesium perchlorate CsClO 4 3.95*10-3
Cesium periodate CsIO 4 5.16 *10-6
Cobalt(II) arsenate Co3 (AsO 4 ) 2 6.80 *10 -29
Cobalt(II) carbonate CoCO3 1.0 *10 -10
Cobalt(II) hydroxide Co(OH) 2 5.92*10 -15
Cobalt(II) iodate dihydrate Co(IO3 )2*2H2O 1.21*10-2
Cobalt(II) phosphate Co3 (PO 4 ) 2 2.05*10 -35
Copper(II) arsenate Cu3 (AsO 4 ) 2 7.95*10 -36
Copper(I) bromide CuBr 6.27*10 -9
Copper(I) chloride CuCl 1.72*10 -7
Copper(I) cyanide CuCN 3.47 *10 -20
Copper(II) hydroxide Cu(OH) 2 1*10 -20
Copper(II) iodate monohydrate Cu(IO3 )2*H2O 6.94 *10 -8
Copper(I) iodide CuI 1.27*10-12
Copper(II) oxalate CuC2O 4 4.43*10 -10
Copper(II) phosphate Cu3 (PO 4 ) 2 1.40*10 -37
Copper(II) sulfide CuS 6*10 -16
Copper(I) thiocyanate CuSCN 1.77*10 -13
Chromium(II)hydroxide Cr(OH) 2 1*10 -17
Chromium(III)hydroxide Cr(OH)3 1*10 -30
Europium(III) hydroxide Eu(OH)3 9.38 *10 -27
Gallium(III) hydroxide Ga(OH)3 7.38 *10 -36
Iron(II) carbonate FeCO3 3.13 *10 -11
Iron(II) fluoride FeF 2 2.36*10-6
Iron(II) hydroxide Fe(OH) 2 4.87*10 -17
Iron(III) hydroxide Fe(OH)3 2.79*10 -39
Iron(III) phosphate dihydrate FePO 4 *2H2O 9.91*10 -16
Iron(II) sulfide FeS 6*102
Lanthanum iodate La(IO3 )3 7.50*10-12
Lead(II) chloride PbCl 2 1.70*10 -5
Lead(II) chromate PbCrO 4 3*10 -13
Lead(II) fluoride PbF 2 3.3*10 -8
Lead(II) hydroxide Pb(OH) 2 1.43*10 -20
Lead(II) iodate Pb(IO3 ) 2 3.69*10 -13
Lead(II) iodide PbI 2 9.8*10 -9
Lead oxalate PbC2O 4 8.5*10 -9
Lead(II) selenate PbSeO 4 1.37*10 -7
Lead(II) sulfate PbSO 4 2.53*10 -8
Lithium carbonate LiCO3 8.15*10-4
Lithium fluoride LiF 1.84*10-3
Lithium phosphate Li3 PO 4 2.37*10 -11
Magnesium ammonium phosphate MgNH 4 PO 4 3*10 -13
Magnesium carbonate MgCO3 6.82*10-6
Magnesium carbonate pentahydrate MgCO3 *5H2O 3.79*10-6
Magnesium carbonate trihydrate MgCO3 *3H2O 2.38*10-6
Magnesium fluoride MgF 2 5.16*10 -11
Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 5.61*10-12
Magnesium oxalate dihydrate MgC2O 4 *2H2O 4.83*10-6
Magnesium phosphate Mg3 (PO 4 ) 2 1.04*10 -24
Manganese(II) carbonate MnCO3 2.24*10 -11
Manganese(II) iodate Mn(IO3 ) 2 4.37*10 -7
Manganese(II) oxalate dihydrate MnC2O4*2H2O 1.70*10 -7
Manganese(II) sulfide (a-form) MnS 3*10 7
Mercury(I) bromide Hg2Br 2 6.40*10 -23
Mercury(II) bromide HgBr3 6.2*10 -20
Mercury(I) carbonate Hg2CO3 3.6*10 -17
Mercury(I) chloride Hg2Cl 2 1.43*10 -18
Mercury(I) fluoride Hg2F 2 3.10*10-6
Mercury(I)hydroxide Hg2(OH) 2 2*10 -24
Mercury(II) hydroxide Hg(OH) 2 4*10 -26
Mercury(I) iodide Hg2I 2 5.2*10 -29
Mercury(II) iodide (red) HgI 2 2.9*10 -29
Mercury(I) oxalate Hg2C2O 4 1.75*10 -13
Mercury(I) sulfate Hg2SO 4 6.5*10 -7
Mercury(II) sulfide (red) Hg2S 4*10 -33
Mercury(II) sulfide (black) Hg2S 2*10 -32
Mercury(I) thiocyanate Hg2(SCN) 2 3.2*10 -20
Neodymium carbonate Nd2(CO3 )3 1.08*10 -33
Nickel(II) carbonate NiCO3 1.42*10 -7
Nickel(II) hydroxide Ni(OH) 2 5.48*10 -16
Nickel(II) iodate Ni(IO3 ) 2 4.71*10 -5
Nickel(II) phosphate Ni3 (PO 4 ) 2 4.74*10 -32
Palladium(II) thiocyanate Pd(SCN) 2 4.39*10 -23
Potassium hexachloroplatinate K2PtCl6 7.48*10-6
Potassium perchlorate KClO 4 1.05*10-2
Potassium periodate KIO 4 3.71*10-4
Praseodymium(III) hydroxide Pr(OH)3 3.39*10 -24
Radium iodate Ra(IO3 ) 2 1.16*10 -9
Radium sulfate RaSO 4 3.66*10 -11
Rubidium perchlorate RbClO 4 3.00*10-3
Scandium fluoride ScF3 5.81*10 -24
Scandium hydroxide Sc(OH)3 2.22*10 -31
Silver(I) acetate AgC2H3 O 2 1.94*10-3
Silver(I) arsenate Ag3 AsO 4 1.03*10 -22
Silver(I) bromate AgBrO3 5.38*10 -5
Silver(I) bromide AgBr 5.35*10 -13
Silver(I) carbonate Ag2CO3 8.46*10-12
Silver(I) chloride AgCl 1.77*10 -10
Silver(I) chromate Ag2CrO 4 1.12*10-12
Silver(I) cyanide AgCN 5.97*10 -17
Silver(I) hydroxide AgOH 2*10 -8
Silver(I) iodate AgIO3 3.17*10 -8
Silver(I) iodide AgI 8.52*10 -17
Silver(I) oxalate Ag2C2O 4 5.40*10-12
Silver(I) phosphate Ag3 PO 4 8.89*10 -17
Silver(I) sulfate Ag2SO 4 1.20*10 -5
Silver(I) sulfide Ag2S 6*10 -30
Silver(I) sulfite Ag2SO3 1.50*10 -14
Silver(I) thiocyanate AgSCN 1.03*10-12
Strontium arsenate Sr3 (AsO 4 ) 4.29*10-19
Strontium carbonate SrCO3 5.60*10 -10
Strontium fluoride SrF 2 4.33*10 -9
Strontium iodate Sr(IO3 ) 2 1.14*10 -7
Strontium iodate hexahydrate Sr(IO3 )2*6H2O 4.55*10 -7
Strontium iodate monohydrate Sr(IO3 )2*H2O 3.77*10 -7
Strontium oxalate SrC2O 4 5*10 -8
Strontium sulfate SrSO 4 3.44*10 -7
Thallium(I) bromate TlBrO3 1.10*10-4
Thallium(I) bromide TlBr 3.71*10-6
Thallium(I) chloride TlCl 1.86*10-4
Thallium(I) chromate Tl2CrO 4 8.67*10 -13
Thallium(III) hydroxide Tl(OH)3 1.68*10 -44
Thallium(I) iodate TlIO3 3.12*10-6
Thallium(I) iodine TlI 5.54*10 -8
Thallium(I) thiocyanate TlSCN 1.57*10-4
Tin(II) hydroxide Sn(OH) 2 5.45*10 -27
Tin(II) sulfide SnS 1*10 -5
Vanadium(II) hydroxide V(OH) 2 4*10 -16
Yttrium carbonate Y2(CO3 )3 1.03*10 -31
Yttrium fluoride YF3 8.62*10 -21
Yttrium hydroxide Y(OH)3 1.00*10 -22
Yttrium iodate Y(IO3 )3 1.12*10 -10
Zinc arsenate Zn3 (AsO 4 ) 2 2.8*10 -28
Zinc carbonate ZnCO3 1.46*10 -10
Zinc carbonate monohydrate ZnCO3 *H2O 5.42*10 -11
Zinc fluoride ZnF 2 3.04*10-2
Zinc hydroxide Zn(OH) 2 3*10 -17
Zinc iodate dihydrate Zn(IO3 )2*2H2O 4.1*10-6
Zinc oxalate dihydrate ZnC2O 4 *2H2O 1.38*10 -9
Zinc selenide ZnSe 3.6*10 -26
Zinc selenite monohydrate ZnSeO3 *H2O 1.59*10 -7
Zinc sulfide (sphalerite) ZnS 2*10-4
Zinc sulfide (wurtzite) ZnS 3*10-2

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## Citation

• The Engineering ToolBox (2017). Solubility Product Constants. [online] Available at: https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/solubility-product-equilibrium-constant-ionic-solution-salt-Ksp-d_1952.html [Accessed Day Month Year].

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5.16.12

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