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Combustion

Boiler house topics - fuels like oil, gas, coal, wood - chimneys, safety valves, tanks - combustion efficiency

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Adiabatic Flame Temperatures

Adiabatic flame temperatures for hydrogen, methane, propane and octane - in Kelvin.

Air Supply to a Boiler House

Incomplete boiler combustion may generate carbon monoxide - CO - and re-ignition may cause disastrous effects on personnel and property.

Alternative Fuels - Properties

Properties of alternative fuels like biodiesel, E85, CNG and more.

Anthracite Coal

Anthracite coal is available in a number of different grades.

API Gravity

API expresses the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products. Online API to Specific Gravity calculator.

ASTM Standard - Volume 05.06 Gaseous Fuels, Coal and Coke

An overview of ASTM Section 5 - Petroleum Products, Lubricants, and Fossil Fuels - Volume 05.06 Gaseous Fuels, Coal and Coke.

Biogas - Composition

Typical composition of biogas produced from household waste.

Biogas - Energy Content

Energy content in biogas produced from municipal and industrial waste.

Biomasses - Energy Content Used as Fuel

Biomass fuels and their energy content.

Biomasses - Higher Heating Values

Some biomass fuels and their higher heating values (HHV).

Boiler - Efficiency

Combustion gross and net calorific value.

Boiler - Exhaust Velocity

Recommended boiler exhaust velocities.

Boiler Rooms - Sizing

Minimum area in a boiler room.

Chimney Sizing

Calculate chimney draft and required chimney area - online calculator.

Chimney's Explosion Doors

Recommended size of explosion doors or draught stabilizers in oil fired installations.

Chimney's Size vs. Boiler Power

The size of chimney vs. boiler's heat load.

Chimneys - Roof Termination

Chimneys and single wall vents roof termination.

Chimneys and Fireplace Sizing

Chimneys and fireplaces for stoves burning wood or coal as fuel.

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Classification of Gases

Oxidizers vs. inert vs. flammable gases.

Coal - Classification

Classification of coal based on volatile matter and cooking power of clean material.

Combustion Efficiency and Excess Air

Optimizing boilers efficiency is important to minimize fuel consumption and unwanted excess to the environment.

Combustion Heat

Heat of combustion (energy content) for som common substances - with examples how to calculate heat of combustion.

Combustion of Fuels - Carbon Dioxide Emission

Environmental emission of carbon dioxide CO2 when combustion fuels like coal, oil, natural gas, LPG and bio energy.

Combustion Processes and Combustion Efficiency

Typical furnace combustion efficiencies in fireplaces, space heaters, boilers and more.

Combustion Testing

Combusting testing of fuel oil and gas burners.

Emissions from Biomass Combustion

Combustion of biomasses and their emission.

Energy Content in common Energy Sources

Heating fuels and their energy content.

Energy Content in Fossil vs. Alternative Fuels

Net (low) and gross (high) energy content in fossil and alternative fuels.

Fire Wood - the Cord

The cord unit for purchasing fuel wood.

Flame Temperatures - Gases

Adiabatic flame temperatures for common fuel gases - propane, butane, acetylene and more - in air or oxygen atmospheres.

Flash Points - Liquids

Common liquids and fuels and their flash points.

Flue Gases - Dew Point Temperatures

Flue gas dew point temperatures and condensation of water vapor.

Fuel Equivalents - Online Calculator

Online fuels energy equivalents calculator for oil, gas and more.

Fuel Gases - Combustion Values

Combustion values for fuel gases like natural gas, propane and butane - Btu per cubic feet.

Fuel Gases - Heating Values

Combustion heat values for gases like acetylene, blast furnace gas, ethane, biogas and more - Gross and Net values.

Fuel Gases - Wobbe Index

Wobbe index for fuel gases like propane, butane, methane and more.

Fuel Oil Burners

Pot types, gun types and rotary types fuel burners.

Fuel Oil Combustion Values

Combustion values in Btu/gal for fuel oils No.1 to No.6.

Fuel Oil Pumps - Suction Capacities

Single stage and double stage fuel oil pumps and their suction capacities.

Fuel Oil Storage Tanks

Fuel oil storage tanks dimensions.

Fuels - Boiling Points

Fuels and their boiling points.

Fuels - Combustion Air and Flue Gases

Combustion air and flue gas for common fuels - coke, oil, wood, natural gas and more.

Fuels - Densities and Specific Volumes

Densities and specific volumes fuels like anthracite, butane, gasoil, diesel, coke, oil, wood and more.

Fuels - Exhaust Temperatures

Exhaust and outlet temperatures fuels like natural gas, liquefied petroleum, diesel and more.

Fuels - Higher and Lower Calorific Values

Higher and lower calorific values (heating values) for fuels like coke, oil, wood, hydrogen and others.

Fuels - Properties Database

Online petroleum-based fuels properties database

Fuels - Viscosities vs. Temperature

Fuels oil viscosities vs. temperature.

Fuels and Chemicals - Autoignition Temperatures

Autoignition points for fuels and chemicals like butane, coke, hydrogen, petroleum and more.

Fuels Flue Gases - Average Dew Points

Flue gas dew point temperatures for some fuels.

Gaseous Fuels - Chemical Composition

Chemical composition of gaseous fuels like coal gas, natural gas, propane and more.

Gases - Explosion and Flammability Concentration Limits

Flame and explosion limits for gases like propane, methane, butane, acetylene and more.

Gases - Gross and Net Heat Values

Gross heat and net heat values for gases like hydrogen, methane and more.

Gross Combustion Value common Materials

Gross combustion values for materials like - carbon, methane, ethylene and more - values in Btu/lb.

Heating Fuels - Cost Comparing

Cost comparison formulas for heating fuels like Natural Gas, Propane LP Gas, Fuel Oil and Electricity.

High and Low Heat Values

The gross (high) and net (low) heating values.

Hot Water Boiler - Circulation Rates

Boiler power and water flow - Imperial and SI-units.

Intermittent Combustion and Boiler Efficiency

Efficiency reduction due to intermittent boiler operation.

LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas

LNG or Liquefied Natural Gas.

LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas

LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas.

Methane - Liquid vs. Gaseous Units

Convert between liquid and gaseous LNG and Methane units.

Natural Gas Consumption

Natural gas consumption for equipment like boiling pans, ovens, cookers, kettles and more.

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emission from Fuels

Emission of Nitrogen Oxides - NOx - with combustion of fuels like oil, coal, propane and more.

Oil Pipes - Head Loss

Head or pressure loss due to friction in oil pipes - various viscosity and laminar flow.

Oil Pipes - Heat Loss

Heat loss in W/mK and Btu/hr ft oF from oil tubes ranging temperatures 10 - 38oC (50 - 100oF).

Oil Pipes - Recommended Flow Velocities

Oil pipes flow velocities should be kept within certain limits.

Optimal Combustion Processes - Fuel vs. Excess Air

Stable and efficient combustion requires correct mixture of fuels and oxygen.

Paraffins and Alkanes - Combustion Properties

Properties like heat values, air/fuel ratios, flame speed, flame temperatures, ignition temperatures, flash points and flammability limits.

Propane - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of propane gas - C3H8.

Propane - Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature

Vapor pressure vs. temperature.

Propane Butane Mixture - Evaporation Pressure

Evaporation pressure of propane butane mixture vs. temperature.

Standard Grade Coal - Heat Values

Standard grades coal heat values.

Standard Reference Fuels and their Equivalents

Convert between fuel equivalents.

Stoichiometric Combustion

Stoichiometric combustion and excess air.

Stoker Classification

Coal stokers classified on basis of coal burning capacities.

Waste Fuel - Heat Values

Fuel from waste products and their heat values.

Wood - Combustion Heat Values

Combustion of wood and firewood heat values for species like Pine, Elm, Hickory and more.

Wood and Bio Mass - Combustion Heat

Combustion heat values for wet and dry wood - Btu/pounds, kJ/kg and kcal/kg.

Wood Species - Moisture Content and Weight

Weight of green and air-dried fire wood.

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