Boiler house topics, fuels like oil, gas, coal, wood - chimneys, safety valves, tanks - combustion efficiency.
Adiabatic Flame Temperatures
Adiabatic flame temperatures for hydrogen, methane, propane and octane - in Kelvin.
Air Supply to a Boiler House
Incomplete boiler combustion may generate carbon monoxide - CO - and re-ignition may cause disastrous effects on personnel and property.
Alternative Fuels - Properties
Properties of alternative fuels like biodiesel, E85, CNG and more.
Anthracite coal is available in a number of different grades.
API expresses the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products. Online API to Specific Gravity calculator.
ASTM Standard - Volume 05.06 Gaseous Fuels, Coal and Coke
An overview of ASTM Section 5 - Petroleum Products, Lubricants, and Fossil Fuels - Volume 05.06 Gaseous Fuels, Coal and Coke.
Biogas - Composition
Typical composition of biogas produced from household waste.
Biogas - Energy Content
Energy content in biogas produced from municipal and industrial waste.
Biomasses - Energy Content Used as Fuel
Biomass fuels and their energy content.
Biomasses - Higher Heating Values
Some biomass fuels and their higher heating values (HHV).
Boiler - Efficiency
Combustion gross and net calorific value.
Boiler - Exhaust Velocity
Recommended boiler exhaust velocities.
Boiler Rooms - Sizing
Minimum area in a boiler room.
Calculate chimney draft and required chimney area - online calculator.
Chimney's Explosion Doors
Recommended size of explosion doors or draught stabilizers in oil fired installations.
Chimney's Size vs. Boiler Power
The size of chimney vs. boiler's heat load.
Chimneys - Roof Termination
Chimneys and single wall vents roof termination.
Chimneys and Fireplace Sizing
Chimneys and fireplaces for stoves burning wood or coal as fuel.
Classification of Gases
Oxidizers vs. inert vs. flammable gases.
Coal - Classification
Classification of coal based on volatile matter and cooking power of clean material.
Combustion Efficiency and Excess Air
Optimizing boilers efficiency is important to minimize fuel consumption and unwanted excess to the environment.
Heat of combustion (energy content) for som common substances - with examples how to calculate heat of combustion.
Combustion of Fuels - Carbon Dioxide Emission
Environmental emission of carbon dioxide CO2 when combustion fuels like coal, oil, natural gas, LPG and bio energy.
Combustion Processes and Combustion Efficiency
Typical furnace combustion efficiencies in fireplaces, space heaters, boilers and more.
Combusting testing of fuel oil and gas burners.
Emissions from Biomass Combustion
Combustion of biomasses and their emission.
Energy Content in common Energy Sources
Heating fuels and their energy content.
Fire Wood - the Cord
The cord unit for purchasing fuel wood.
Flame Temperatures - Gases
Adiabatic flame temperatures for common fuel gases - propane, butane, acetylene and more - in air or oxygen atmospheres.
Flash Points - Liquids
The flash points for some common liquids and fuels.
Flue Gases - Dew Point Temperatures
Flue gas dew point temperatures and condensation of water vapor.
Food - Calorific Combustion Values
Combustion heat values of some foods.
Fossil and Alternative Fuels - Energy Content
Net (low) and gross (high) energy content in fossil and alternative fuels.
Fuel Equivalents - Online Calculator
Online fuels energy equivalents calculator for oil, gas and more.
Fuel Gases - Combustion Values
Combustion values for fuel gases like natural gas, propane and butane - Btu per cubic feet.
Fuel Gases - Heating Values
Combustion heat values for gases like acetylene, blast furnace gas, ethane, biogas and more - Gross and Net values.
Fuel Gases - Wobbe Index
Wobbe index for fuel gases like propane, butane, methane and more.
Fuel Oil Burners
Pot types, gun types and rotary types fuel burners.
Fuel Oil Combustion Values
Combustion values in Btu/gal for fuel oils No.1 to No.6.
Fuel Oil Pumps - Suction Capacities
Single stage and double stage fuel oil pumps and their suction capacities.
Fuel Oil Storage Tanks
Fuel oil storage tanks dimensions.
Fuels - Boiling Points
Fuels and their boiling points.
Fuels - Combustion Air and Flue Gases
Combustion air and flue gas for common fuels - coke, oil, wood, natural gas and more.
Fuels - Densities and Specific Volumes
Densities and specific volumes fuels like anthracite, butane, gasoil, diesel, coke, oil, wood and more.
Fuels - Exhaust Temperatures
Exhaust and outlet temperatures fuels like natural gas, liquefied petroleum, diesel and more.
Fuels - Higher and Lower Calorific Values
Higher and lower calorific values (heating values) for fuels like coke, oil, wood, hydrogen and others.
Fuels - Properties Database
Online petroleum-based fuels properties database.
Fuels and Chemicals - Autoignition Temperatures
Autoignition points for fuels and chemicals like butane, coke, hydrogen, petroleum and more.
Fuels Flue Gases - Average Dew Points
Flue gas dew point temperatures for some fuels.
Gaseous Fuels - Chemical Composition
Chemical composition of gaseous fuels like coal gas, natural gas, propane and more.
Gases - Explosion and Flammability Concentration Limits
Flame and explosion limits for gases like propane, methane, butane, acetylene and more.
Gases - Gross and Net Heat Values
Gross heat and net heat values for gases like hydrogen, methane and more.
Gross Combustion Values for some common Materials
Gross combustion values for materials like - carbon, methane, ethylene and more - values in Btu/lb.
Heating Fuels - Cost Comparing
Cost comparison formulas for heating fuels like Natural Gas, Propane LP Gas, Fuel Oil and Electricity.
High and Low Heat Values
The gross (high) and net (low) heating values.
Hot Water Boiler - Circulation Rates
Boiler power and water flow - Imperial and SI-units.
Intermittent Combustion and Boiler Efficiency
Efficiency reduction due to intermittent boiler operation.
LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas
LNG or Liquefied Natural Gas.
LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas.
Methane - Liquid vs. Gaseous Units
Convert between liquid and gaseous LNG and Methane units.
Natural Gas - Consumption of Equipments
Natural gas consumption for equipment like boiling pans, ovens, cookers, kettles and more.
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emission from Fuels
Emission of Nitrogen Oxides - NOx - with combustion of fuels like oil, coal, propane and more.
Oil Fuels - Viscosities vs. Temperature
Viscosities of fuel oils vs. temperature.
Oil Pipes - Head Loss
Head or pressure loss due to friction in oil pipes - various viscosity and laminar flow.
Oil Pipes - Heat Loss
Heat loss in W/mK and Btu/hr ft oF from oil tubes ranging temperatures 10 - 38oC (50 - 100oF).
Oil Pipes - Recommended Flow Velocities
Oil pipes flow velocities should be kept within certain limits.
Optimal Combustion Processes - Fuel vs. Excess Air
Stable and efficient combustion requires correct mixture of fuels and oxygen.
Paraffins and Alkanes - Combustion Properties
Properties like heat values, air/fuel ratios, flame speed, flame temperatures, ignition temperatures, flash points and flammability limits.
Propane - Thermophysical properties
Chemical, physical and thermal properties of propane gas - C3H8.
Propane - Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature
Vapor pressure vs. temperature.
Propane Butane Mixture - Evaporation Pressure
Evaporation pressure of propane butane mixture vs. temperature.
Standard Grade Coal - Heat Values
Standard grades coal heat values.
Standard Reference Fuels and their Equivalents
Convert between fuel equivalents.
Stoichiometric combustion and excess air.
Coal stokers classified on basis of coal burning capacities.
Waste Fuel - Heat Values
Fuel from waste products and their heat values.
Wood - Combustion Heat Values
Combustion of wood and firewood heat values for species like Pine, Elm, Hickory and more.
Wood and Bio Mass - Combustion Heat
Combustion heat values for wet and dry wood - Btu/pounds, kJ/kg and kcal/kg.
Wood Species - Moisture Content and Weight
Weight of green and air-dried fire wood.