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Air - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient at Varying Temperature and Constant Pressures

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient of air at temperatures ranging -100 to 1600 °C (-140 to 2900 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

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Density is the ratio of the mass to the volume of a substance:

ρ = m/V                                          [1]

where
ρ = density, units typically [kg/m3] or [lb/ft3]
m = mass, units typically [kg] or [lb]

V = volume, units typically [m3] or [ft3]

Specific weight is the ratio of the weight to the volume of a substance:

γ   = (m * g)/V   = ρ * g                                     [2]

where
γ = specific weight, units typically [N/m3] or [lbf/ft3]
m = mass, units typically [g] or [lb]
g = acceleration due to gravity, units typically [m/s2] and value on Earth usually given as 9.80665 m/s2 or 32.17405 ft/s2 
V = volume, units typically [cm3] or [ft3]
ρ = density, units typically [g/cm3] or [lb/ft3]

Tabulated values and density units conversion are given below the figures. At the bottom of the page there are some examples of calculations using hot and cold air.

See also Air Composition and molecular weight, Density at varying pressure, Diffusion Coefficients for Gases in AirDynamic (absolute) and kinematic viscosity, Prandtl Number, Specific heat at varying temperature and Specific heat at varying pressureThermal ConductivityThermal Diffusivity, Properties at gas-liquid equilibrium conditions and Air thermophysical properties, for other properties of air.
For other substances, see Density and specific weight of acetone, ammonia, argon, benzene, butanecarbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ethane, ethanol, ethylene, helium, hydrogen, methane, methanol, nitrogen, oxygen, pentane, propane, toluene and water, as well as Density of crude oil, Density of fuel oils, Density of lubricating oil and Density of jet fuel as function of temperature.

Online Air Density Calculator

The calculator below can be used to calculate the air density and specific weight at given temperatures and atmospheric pressure.
The output density is given as kg/m3, lb/ft3, lb/gal(US liq) and sl/ft3.  Specific weight is given as N/m3 and lbf/ ft3.

Note! Temperature must be within the ranges -100 - 1600 °C, -140 - 2900 °F, 175 - 1900 K and 315 - 3400 °R to get valid values.

Temperature

Choose the actual unit of temperature:

°C °F K °R

Air density and specific weight at atmospheric pressure:

Air density 1atm temp C

Air density 1atm temp F

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Air density at ambient temperature and pressure:

Air density ambient pressures temp C

Air density ambient pressures temp F



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Air density at varying pressure and temperature:

Air density pressure temp C
Air density pressure temp F

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Air density at gas-liquid equilibrium pressure:

air density equlibrium pressure gas liquid C

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Air thermal expansion coefficient at atmospheric pressure:
Air thermal expansion 1atm temp C

Air thermal expansion 1atm temp F

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Density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient of air at 1 atmosphere pressure, at temperatures given as °F:

Temperature Density Specific weight Thermal expansion coefficient
[°F] [lbm/ft3] [sl/ft3*10-3] [lbm/gal(US liq)] [kg/m3] [lbf/ft3] [N/m3] [x10-3 °F-1]
-100 0.1104 3.431 0.01476 1.768 0.11038 17.34 2.83
-50 0.0968 3.010 0.01295 1.551 0.09684 15.21 2.48
-20 0.0902 2.803 0.01206 1.445 0.09019 14.17 2.30
0 0.0862 2.681 0.01153 1.382 0.08625 13.55 2.20
10 0.0844 2.624 0.01128 1.352 0.08441 13.26 2.15
20 0.0826 2.569 0.01105 1.324 0.08265 12.98 2.10
30 0.0810 2.516 0.01082 1.297 0.08096 12.72 2.06
40 0.0793 2.466 0.01061 1.271 0.07935 12.46 2.02
50 0.0778 2.418 0.01040 1.246 0.07780 12.22 1.98
60 0.0763 2.372 0.01020 1.222 0.07631 11.99 1.94
70 0.0749 2.327 0.01001 1.199 0.07487 11.76 1.90
80 0.0735 2.284 0.00982 1.177 0.07349 11.55 1.87
100 0.0709 2.203 0.00948 1.135 0.07089 11.14 1.80
120 0.0685 2.128 0.00915 1.097 0.06846 10.75 1.74
140 0.0662 2.057 0.00885 1.060 0.06619 10.40 1.68
160 0.0641 1.991 0.00856 1.026 0.06406 10.06 1.63
180 0.0621 1.929 0.00830 0.994 0.06206 9.75 1.58
200 0.0602 1.870 0.00804 0.964 0.06018 9.45 1.53
250 0.0559 1.738 0.00747 0.896 0.05591 8.78 1.41
300 0.0522 1.622 0.00698 0.836 0.05219 8.20 1.30
350 0.0489 1.521 0.00654 0.784 0.04894 7.69 1.23
400 0.0461 1.432 0.00616 0.738 0.04608 7.24 1.16
450 0.0436 1.354 0.00582 0.698 0.04357 6.84 1.10
500 0.0413 1.285 0.00553 0.662 0.04134 6.49 1.05
600 0.0461 1.432 0.00616 0.738 0.04608 7.24 0.96
700 0.0436 1.354 0.00582 0.698 0.04357 6.84 0.88
800 0.0315 0.978 0.00421 0.5042 0.03148 4.94 0.81
1000 0.0272 0.845 0.00363 0.4354 0.02718 4.27 0.70
1200 0.0239 0.743 0.00319 0.3827 0.02389 3.75 0.61
1400 0.0213 0.663 0.00285 0.3416 0.02132 3.35 0.54
1600 0.0193 0.599 0.00257 0.3085 0.01926 3.03 0.49
1800 0.0176 0.546 0.00235 0.2813 0.01756 2.76 0.45
2000 0.0161 0.501 0.00216 0.2583 0.01613 2.53 0.42

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Density and specific weight of air at 1 atmosphere pressure, at temperatures given as °C:

Temperature Density Specific weight Thermal expansion coefficient
[°C] [kg/m3] [lbm/ft3] [sl/ft3*10-3] [lbm/gal(US liq)] [N/m3] [lbf/ft3] [x10-3 K-1]
-75 1.783 0.1113 3.460 0.01488 17.49 0.11131 5.14
-50 1.582 0.0988 3.070 0.01320 15.52 0.09878 4.55
-25 1.422 0.0888 2.759 0.01187 13.94 0.08877 4.08
-15 1.367 0.0853 2.652 0.01141 13.40 0.08532 3.92
-10 1.341 0.0837 2.601 0.01119 13.15 0.08370 3.84
-5 1.316 0.0821 2.553 0.01098 12.90 0.08214 3.76
0 1.292 0.0806 2.506 0.01078 12.67 0.08063 3.69
5 1.268 0.0792 2.461 0.01059 12.44 0.07919 3.62
10 1.246 0.0778 2.418 0.01040 12.22 0.07780 3.56
15 1.225 0.0765 2.376 0.01022 12.01 0.07645 3.50
20 1.204 0.0752 2.336 0.01005 11.81 0.07516 3.43
25 1.184 0.0739 2.297 0.00988 11.61 0.07390 3.38
30 1.164 0.0727 2.259 0.00972 11.42 0.07269 3.32
40 1.127 0.0704 2.188 0.00941 11.06 0.07039 3.21
50 1.093 0.0682 2.120 0.00912 10.72 0.06822 3.12
60 1.060 0.0662 2.057 0.00885 10.40 0.06619 3.02
80 1.000 0.0625 1.941 0.00835 9.81 0.06245 2.85
100 0.9467 0.0591 1.837 0.00790 9.28 0.05910 2.70
125 0.8868 0.0554 1.721 0.00740 8.70 0.05536 2.51
150 0.8338 0.0521 1.618 0.00696 8.18 0.05206 2.33
175 0.7868 0.0491 1.527 0.00657 7.72 0.04912 2.22
200 0.7451 0.0465 1.446 0.00622 7.31 0.04651 2.10
225 0.7078 0.0442 1.373 0.00591 6.94 0.04419 2.01
300 0.6168 0.0385 1.197 0.00515 6.05 0.03850 1.76
400 0.5238 0.0327 1.016 0.00437 5.14 0.03270 1.52
500 0.4567 0.0285 0.886 0.00381 4.48 0.02851 1.32
600 0.4043 0.0252 0.784 0.00337 3.96 0.02524 1.16
700 0.3626 0.0226 0.704 0.00303 3.56 0.02264 1.03
800 0.3289 0.0205 0.638 0.00274 3.23 0.02053 0.94
900 0.3009 0.0188 0.584 0.00251 2.95 0.01879 0.86
1000 0.2773 0.0173 0.538 0.00231 2.72 0.01731 0.80
1100 0.2571 0.0160 0.499 0.00215 2.52 0.01605 0.75

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Density units conversion:

Density converter

kilogram/cubic meter [kg/m3] = gram/liter [g/l], kilogram/liter [kg/l] = gram/cubic centimeter [g/cm3]= ton(metric)/cubic meter [t/m3], once/gallon(US liquid) [oz/gal(US liq)] pound/cubic inch [lb/in3], pound/cubic foot [lb/ft3], pound/gallon(UK) [lb/gal(UK)], pound/gallon(US liquid) [lb/gal(US liq)], slug/cubic foot [sl/ft3], ton(short)/cubic yard [ton(short)/yd3], ton(long)/cubic yard [yd3]

  • 1 g/cm3 = 1 kg/l = 1000 kg/m3 = 62.428 lb/ft3 = 0.03613 lb/in3 = 1.9403 sl/ft3 = 10.0224 lb/gal(UK) = 8.3454 lb/gal(US liq) = 0.5780 oz/in= 0.7525 ton(long)/yr3
  • 1 g/l = 1 kg/m3 = 0.001 kg/l = 0.000001 kg/cm3 = 0.001 g/cm3 = 0.99885 oz/ft3  = 0.0005780 oz/in3 = 0.16036 oz/gal(UK) = 0.1335 oz/gal(US liq) = 0.06243 lb/ft3 = 3.6127x10-5 lb/in3 = 1.6856 lb/yd3 = 0.010022 lb/gal(UK) = 0.0083454 lb/gal(US liq) = 0.0007525 ton(long)/yd= 0.0008428 ton(short)/yd3
  • 1 kg/l = 1 g/cm3 = 1000 kg/m3 = 62.428 lb/ft3 = 0.03613 lb/in3 = 1.9403 sl/ft3 = 8.3454 lb/gal(US liq) = 0.5780 oz/in= 0.7525 ton(long)/yr3
  • 1 kg/m3 = 1 g/l = 0.001 kg/l = 0.000001 kg/cm3 = 0.001 g/cm3 = 0.99885 oz/ft3  = 0.0005780 oz/in3 = 0.16036 oz/gal(UK) = 0.1335 oz/gal(US liq) = 0.06243 lb/ft3 = 3.6127x10-5 lb/in3 = 1.6856 lb/yd3 = 0.010022 lb/gal(UK) = 0.008345 lb/gal(US liq) = 0.0007525 ton(long)/yd = 0.0008428 ton(short)/yd
  • 1 lb/ft3 = 27 lb/yd3 = 0.009259 oz/in= 0.0005787 lb/in= 16.01845 kg/m3 = 0.01602 g/cm3  = 0.1605 lb/gal(UK) = 0.1349 lb/gal(US liq) = 2.5687 oz/gal(UK) = 2.1389 oz/gal(US liq) = 0.01205 ton(long)/yd3 = 0.0135 ton(short)/yd3
  • 1 lb/gal(UK) = 0.8327 lb/gal(US liq) = 16 oz/gal(UK) = 13.323 oz/gal(US liq) = 168.179 lb/yd3 = 6.2288 lb/ft3 = 0.003605 lb/in3 = 0.05767 oz/in = 99.7764 kg/m3 = 0.09977 g/cm3  = 0.07508 ton(long)/yd3 = 0.08409 ton(short)/yd3
  • 1 lb/gal(US liq) = 1.2009 lb/gal(UK) = 19.215 oz/gal(UK) = 16 oz/gal(US liq) = 201.97 lb/yd3 = 7.4805 lb/ft3 = 0.004329 lb/in3 = 0.06926 oz/in = 119.826 kg/m3 = 0.1198 g/cm3  = 0.09017 ton(long)/yd3 = 0.1010 ton(short)/yd3
  • 1 lb/in3 = 1728 lb/ft3 = 46656 lb/yd3 = 16 oz/in= 27680 kg/m3 = 27.680 g/cm3  = 277.419 lb/gal(UK) = 231 lb/gal(US liq) =4438.7 oz/gal(UK) = 3696 oz/gal(US liq) = 20.8286 ton(long)/yd3 = 23.3280 ton(short)/yd3
  • 1 oz/gal(UK) =  0.8327 oz/gal(US liq) = 6.2360 kg/m3 = 6.2288 oz/ft3 = 0.3893 lb/ft3 = 10.5112 lb/yd3
  • 1 oz/gal(US liq) = 1.2009 oz/gal(UK) = 7.4892 kg/m3 = 7.4805 oz/ft3 = 0.4675 lb/ft3 = 12.6234 lb/yd3
  • 1 sl/ft3 = 515.3788 kg/m3 = 514.7848 oz/ft3 = 0.2979 oz/in3 = 32.1741 lb/ft3 = 82.645 oz/gal(UK) = 68.817 oz/gal(US liq) 
  • 1 ton(long)/yd3 = 1.12 ton(short)/yd3 = 1328.94 kg/m3 = 0.7682 oz/in3 = 82.963 lb/ft3 = 2240 lb/yd3 = 2.5786 sl/ft3 = 13.319 lb/gal(UK) = 11.0905 lb/gal(US liq)
  • 1 ton(short)/yd3 = 0.8929 ton(long)/yd3 = 1186.55 kg/m3 = 0.6859 oz/in3 = 74.074 lb/ft3 = 2000 lb/yd3 = 2.3023 sl/ft3 = 11.8921 lb/gal(UK) = 9.9023 lb/gal(US liq)

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Example - Mass of Air at Temperature 100 oC

From the table above - the density of air is 0.946 kg/m3 at 100 oC. The mass of 10 m3 air can be calculated as

m = V ρ

    = 10 [m3] * 0.946 [kg/m3] =  9.46 [kg]

where
m = mass [kg]
V = volume [m3]
ρ = density [kg/m3]

Example - Mass of Air at Temperature 20 oC

From the table above - the density of air is 1.205 kg/m3 at 20 oC. The mass of 10 m3 air can be calculated as

m = 10 [m3] * 1.205 [kg/m3]  = 12.05 [kg]

Example - Lifting Force of a Hot Air Balloon

An air balloon with volume 10 m3 is heated to 100 oC. The temperature of the surrounding air is 20 oC. The change in gravity force (weight) of the air volume is the potential lifting force of the balloon. The lifting force can be calculated as

Fl = dm ag  = V dρ ag   

  = 10 [m3] *(1.205 - 0.946) [kg/m3]*9.81 [m/s2]  = 25.4 [N]

where

Fl = lifting force - change in gravity force (weight)  [N]
agacceleration of gravity (9.81 [m/s2])
dm = V dρ = change of mass in the balloon [kg]
dρ = change in density due to temperature difference [kg/m3]

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Density of crude oil as function of temperature
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