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Pipe and Tube System Components - Minor (Dynamic) Loss Coefficients

Minor loss coefficients for components used in pipe and tube systems.

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Minor or dynamic pressure loss in pipe or tube system components can be expressed as

Δpminor_loss = ξ ρf v2 / 2                            (1)


ξ = minor loss coefficient

Δpminor_loss = minor pressure loss (Pa (N/m2), psf (lb/ft2))

ρf = density of fluid (kg/m3, slugs/ft3)

v = flow velocity (m/s, ft/s)

Minor loss coefficients for commonly used pipe and tube system components:

Type of Component or FittingMinor Loss Coefficient
- ξ -
Tee, Flanged, Dividing Line Flow 0.2
Tee, Threaded, Dividing Line Flow 0.9
Tee, Flanged, Dividing Branched Flow 1.0
Tee, Threaded , Dividing Branch Flow 2.0
Union, Threaded 0.08
Elbow, Flanged Regular 90o 0.3
Elbow, Threaded Regular 90o 1.5
Elbow, Threaded Regular 45o 0.4
Elbow, Flanged Long Radius 90o 0.2
Elbow, Threaded Long Radius 90o 0.7
Elbow, Flanged Long Radius 45o 0.2
Return Bend, Flanged 180o 0.2
Return Bend, Threaded 180o 1.5
Globe Valve, Fully Open 10
Angle Valve, Fully Open 2
Gate Valve, Fully Open 0.15
Gate Valve, 1/4 Closed 0.26
Gate Valve, 1/2 Closed 2.1
Gate Valve, 3/4 Closed 17
Swing Check Valve, Forward Flow 2
Ball Valve, Fully Open 0.05
Ball Valve, 1/3 Closed 5.5
Ball Valve, 2/3 Closed 200
Diaphragm Valve, Open 2.3
Diaphragm Valve, Half Open 4.3
Diaphragm Valve, 1/4 Open 21
Water meter 7

Example - Minor Dynamic Pressure Loss in Waterflow a Ball Valve 1/3 Closed

The minor loss a ball valve with flow velocity 2 m/s with water with density 1000 kg/m3 can be calculated as

Δpminor_loss = (5.5) (1000 kg/m3 (2 m/s)2 / 2

        = 11000 Pa 

        = 11 kPa       

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  • Engineering ToolBox, (2004). Pipe and Tube System Components - Minor (Dynamic) Loss Coefficients. [online] Available at: [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

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