Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

Stress in Thin-Walled Cylinders or Tubes

Hoop and longitudinal stress thin-walled tubes or cylinders.

Sponsored Links

When a thin-walled tube or cylinder is subjected to internal pressure a hoop and longitudinal stress are produced in the wall.

For the thin walled equations below the wall thickness is less than 1/20 of tube or cylinder diameter.

Stress in thin walled cylinders

Hoop (Circumferential) Stress

The hoop stress is acting circumferential and perpendicular to the axis and the radius of the cylinder wall. The hoop stress can be calculated as

σh = p d / (2 t)                         (1)


σh = hoop stress (MPa, psi)

p = internal pressure in the tube or cylinder (MPa, psi)

d = internal diameter of tube or cylinder (mm, in)

t = tube or cylinder wall thickness (mm, in)

Longitudinal (Axial) Stress

For a cylinder closed closed in both ends the internal pressure creates a force along the axis of the cylinder. The longitudinal stress caused by this force can be calculated as

σl = p d / (4 t)                               (2)


σl = longitudinal stress (MPa, psi)

Stress in thin walled cylinders

Example - Stress in a Thin Walled Tube

The pressure in a thin walled tube with diameter 0.3 m and thickness 0.001 m is 1000 kPa (10 bar).

The hoop stress can be calculated 

σh = (1000 kPa) (0.3 m) / (2 (0.001 m))

    =  150000 kPa

    = 150 MPa  

The longitudinal stress can be calculated 

σh = (1000 kPa) (0.3 m) / (4 (0.001 m))

    =  75000 kPa

    = 75 MPa

Note that typical maximum allowable stress for carbon steel pipes is below 135 MPa.

Sponsored Links

Related Topics

Related Documents

Sponsored Links

Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - Online 3D modeling!

3D Engineering ToolBox Extension to SketchUp - add parametric components to your SketchUp model

Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro .Add the Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the SketchUp Pro Sketchup Extension Warehouse!

About the Engineering ToolBox!


We don't collect information from our users. Only emails and answers are saved in our archive. Cookies are only used in the browser to improve user experience.

Some of our calculators and applications let you save application data to your local computer. These applications will - due to browser restrictions - send data between your browser and our server. We don't save this data.

Google use cookies for serving our ads and handling visitor statistics. Please read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can control adserving and the information collected.

AddThis use cookies for handling links to social media. Please read AddThis Privacy for more information.


This page can be cited as

  • Engineering ToolBox, (2005). Stress in Thin-Walled Cylinders or Tubes. [online] Available at: [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Modify access date.

. .


3D Engineering ToolBox - draw and model technical applications! 2D Engineering ToolBox - create and share online diagram drawing templates! Engineering ToolBox Apps - mobile online and offline engineering applications!

Scientific Online Calculator

Scientific Calculator

3 30

Sponsored Links