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Soil and rock expansion - or swell - after mining.
Soil or rock from the borrow expands when dropped on the lorry or the landfill - or stockpiled. One cubic from the borrow does not translate to one cubic dump.
Bulking or swell factors for some materials:
Soil and Rock - Bulk Factors
|Material||Density at the Borrow|
|Bulking (Swell) Factor|
|Basalt ||2.4 - 3.1 ||75 - 80 |
|Clay ||1.8 - 2.6 ||20 - 40 |
|Dolomite ||2.8 ||50 - 60 |
|Earth || ||20 - 30 |
|Gneiss ||2.69 ||75 - 80 |
|Granite ||2.6 - 2.8 ||75 - 80 |
|Gravel, dry ||1.80 ||20 - 30 |
|Gravel, wet ||2.00 ||20 - 30 |
|Gravel, wet w/clay || ||50 - 60 |
|Limestone ||2.7 -2.8 ||75 - 80 |
|Loam || ||15 - 25 |
|Quartz ||2.65 ||75 - 80 |
|Rock || ||40 - 80 |
|Sand, dry ||1.60 ||20 - 30 |
|Sand, wet ||1.95 ||20 - 30 |
|Sandstone ||2.1 - 2.4 ||75 - 80 |
|Slate ||2.6 - 3.3 ||85 - 90 |
|Soil ||1.2 - 1.6 ||20 - 30 |
Example - Swell Factor
After excavation of 300 m3 clay with bulking factor 40% - the clay swells to
(300 m3) (100% + 40%) / 100% = 420 m3
in the dump.
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- Maximum conveyor inclination slopes for typical products.
- Densities of common products - Imperial and SI-units.
- Densities - pound per cubic foot and kilograms per cubic metre - of dirt and mud.
- Weight or density of ditch filling materials.
- Calculating excavation slope.
- Geological periods and time scale.
- Gravel aggregate covering area.
- Volume not occupied by solid material.
- Typical weight and composition of soil.
- Densities of selected solids.
- Volume of natural stockpiles - cubic feet, yard, metre and decimetre.
- Weight and strength of sandstone, granite, limestone, marble and slate.
- Estimate trench excavation - online calculator.
- Pressure acting on underground pipes due to weight of soil and transport.
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