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Nails and Spikes

Allowable withdrawal load

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Allowable withdrawal load for a common nail or spike driven into side grain perpendicular to the fibers of seasoned wood (or wet unseasoned wood):

F = 1.380 SG5/2 D                       (1)


F = allowable withdrawal load or force per inch (mm) of penetration (lb, N)

SG = specific gravity of oven dry wood

D = diameter of nail or spike (in, mm)

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