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Nails and Spikes - Withdrawal Force

Allowable withdrawal load for nail and spikes

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Allowable withdrawal load or force for a common nail or spike driven into side grain perpendicular to the fibers of seasoned wood (or wet unseasoned wood) can be estimated as

F = 1380 SG5/2 D                       (1)

where

F = allowable withdrawal load or force per inch of penetration (lb/in)

SG = specific gravity of oven dry wood

D = diameter of nail or spike (inches)

Example - Nail Withdrawal Load

The specific gravity of Canadian Spruce is 0.45. The diameter of 20D nail is 0.203 inches. The allowable withdrawal force per inch of penetration can be estimated as

F = 1380 (0.45)5/2 (0.203 in)

   =  38 lb/in (lb per inch penetration)  

spike nail

Nail Withdrawal Force Calculator

Imperial Units

SG - Specific Gravity of oven dry wood

D - diameter of nail or spike (inches)

penetration (inches)

Metric Units

SG - Specific Gravity of oven dry wood

D - diameter of nail or spike (mm)

penetration (mm)

Allowable Withdrawal Forces for some Common US Wire Nails

- for Spruce with specific gravity 0.5

SizeLength
(in)
Allowable Withdrawal Force
(lb)
2d 1 17.6
3d 25.3
4d 39.9
5d 46.5
6d 2 58.5
8d 81.7
10d 3 108
12d 117
16d 141
20d 4 198
30d 242
40d 5 290
60d 6 348

Allowable Withdrawal Forces for some Common Metric  Wire Nails

- for Spruce with specific gravity 0.5

Length
(mm)
Diameter
(mm)
Allowable Withdrawal Force
(N)
20 1.2 40.4 (4.12 kg)
25 1.4 58.9 (6 kg)
30 1.6 80.8 (8.23 kg)
35 1.6 94.2 (9.61 kg)
35 1.8 106 (10.8 kg)
40 2.0 135 (13.7 kg)
45 2.2 167 (17 kg)
50 2.2 185 (18.9 kg)
55 2.2 204 (20.8 kg)
55 2.5 231 (23.6 kg)
60 2.5 252 (25.7 kg)
60 2.8 283 (28.8 kg)
65 2.8 306 (31.2 kg)
65 3.1 339 (34.6 kg)
70 3.1 365 (37.2 kg)
80 3.1 417 (42.5 kg)
80 3.4 458 (46.7 kg)
90 3.4 515 (52.5 kg)
90 3.8 575 (58.7 kg)
100 3.8 639 (65.2 kg)
100 4.2 707 (72 kg)
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