Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

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Engineering related topics like Beaufort Wind Scale, CE-marking, drawing standards and more

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Abbreviations According the International Electrotechnical Commission

Conforming abbreviations according IEC

Acceleration of Gravity vs Latitude and Elevation

Variation of acceleration of gravity due to latitude and elevation above sea level

Air Temperature and Altitude

Altitude - air temperature and air density

Altitude above Sea Level and Air Pressure

Elevation above sea level - in feet and meter - with barometric and atmospheric pressure - inches mercury, psia, kg/cm2 and kPa

Animals in Laboratory Environments

Typical temperature and humidity environments for animals in laboratories

Antifreeze - Required Amount

Protected cooling system temperature and required amount of antifreeze

Apothecaries' Weight System

Apothecaries' fluid and weight system - ounce, drachms, grains, scruples ..

Area Survey App

Online calculator app to make an exact plot of a surveyed area - like a room, a property or any 2D shape

Assembly of Shrink-Fits

Heating temperatures of shrink-fits

Barometer - Compensation for Altitude

Compensating manometer for elevation

Barometric Pressure - Pressure in Pounds per Square Inch and Square Foot

Relation between barometric pressure (inches Hg) and pressure in psi and psf

Beaufort Wind Scale

The Beaufort description and observation of wind and wind speed

Blueprint Letters

Letters used to differentiate blueprint drawings

Board Feet Chart and Calculator

Board feet - volume measurement of lumber

Bricks - Quantity and Mortar Consumption

Estimating required quantity of bricks and mortar

Builder's to Surveyor's Measurements

Convert builder's measurements to surveyor's measurements

Building Foundations - Loads

Typical loads on building foundations

Building Tolerances

Tolerances for floors, walls, columns and more

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CE Marking

The European Machine Directive

Center of Gravity

Bodies and their center of gravity

Chemicals - Formulas and Trading Names

Formulas and trading names for some common chemicals

Clothes - Comparing US, UK and European Sizing

Comparing European, UK, US sizing in clothing, shoes, shirts and sweaters

CO2 calculator - emissions from trains

Calculator for CO2 emissions from trains, comparing with alternative forms of transportation (as plane, bus, conventional and electrical cars)

CO2 calculator - emissions from airplanes

Calculator for CO2 emissions from planes, comparing with alternative forms of transportation (as train, bus, conventional and electrical cars)

CO2 calculator - emissions from cars

Calculator for CO2 emissions from different kind of cars (gasoline, diesel, LPG, electrical), comparing with alternative forms of transportation (as airplane, bus and train)

Color Mixing Theory

Subtractive and additive color mixing theories

Compression Ratio - Piston Engines

Piston engine cylinder volume ratio

Concentration Units Converter

Calculator and formulas for conversion between different units of concentration: Molarity, molality, mole fraction, weight percent of solute and grams of solute per liter of solution - descriptive terms for solubility

Concrete - Calculate Cubic Volume

Calculating required concrete volume

Concrete - Volume Estimate

Estimate required concrete volume per sq. ft. of slab

Concrete - Water to Cement Ratios

Concrete and water to cement ratios

Concrete Columns

Estimate concrete volume required for concrete columns

Concrete Footing

Estimating concrete continous footing

Concrete Footing Volume

Estimate required concrete footing volume

Concrete Slab Load Capacity

Load capacity of simply supported concrete slabs

Concrete Slab Thickness

Recommended thickness of concrete slabs

Concrete Walls

Estimate volume in concrete walls

Constants of e

e constants

Constants of PI

π constants

Conveyor Capacity

Calculate the capacity of conveyors

Conveyors - Load & Power Consumption

Load and conveyors required power consumption

Conveyors - Maximum Inclination

Maximum conveyor slopes for various materials

Cooking - Volume Converter

Convert liquid cooking volumes

Cooking Volume Converter - US and Metric Units

Convert common cooking liquid and dry measuring volumes between US and metric units

CSI MasterFormat Specifications

Construction Specifications Institute's 2004 Master-Format Edition


Decibel is a logarithmic unit used to describe the ratio of a signal level - like power or intensity to a reference level

DFA - Design for Assembly index

Design for Assembly Index

Dimensionless numbers

Definitions and symbols for physical and chemical dimensionless quantities, with areas of application of the different numbers. Reynolds, Euler, Nusselt, Prandtl..... and many more

Distance Traveled - Speed versus Time - miles/h

Speed (miles per hour) and time (hours) and distance traveled (miles) chart

Distances between cities

Flight distances between selected cities in different countries and continents, to be used to calculate CO2 emissions from long distance flights

Drawings - Sheet Layouts

Standard layouts of drawing sheets

Drawings - Standard Metric Sizes

Standard metric drawing sheet sizes

Drill Bit Speed - Hardwood and Softwood

Hardwood and softwood drill speed chart

Driving Distance between European Cities

Driving distance between some major European cities

Dumping or Tipping Angles

Tipping angles for some common materials like ashes, sand, earth, shingles ...

Dust Explosions - Critical Temperatures and Concentrations

Critical temperatures and concentration parameters for substances like coal, zinc, uranium and more

Effects of Low-Frequency Vibrations on Buildings

Effects of low-frequency vibrations on building constructions

Electrical Equipment and Power Consumption

Typical power consumption and running time for some common electrical equipment

Electrical Motors - Starting Devices

Direct-on-line starters, star-delta starters, frequency drives and soft starters

Electrode Potential and Galvanic Corrosion

Introduction to electro chemical series and corrosion of metals

Elevation and Speed of Sound

Speed of sound, temperature and pressure at different altitudes

Engine & Gear Oil - Appropriate Viscosity vs. Outside Temperatures

Oil viscosity vs. temperature

EV - Electric Vehicle - State of Charge and Range Chart Calculator

Battery size, SOC - state of charge, energy consumption and electric vehicle range

EV - Electrical Vehicle - Charging Speed

Power supply and electrical vehicle charging speed

Excavation Slope

Calculating excavation slope

Factors of Safety

Factors of Safety - FOS - are important for engineering design

Fasteners - Type Chart

Wood screws, machine screws, sheet metal screws, self drilling SMS and more

Feet to Inches Converting Chart

Convert from feet and inches to inches

Fire-Stop Ratings

F-rated, T-rated and L-rated fire-stop systems

Food Products and Osmotic Pressure

Osmotic pressure of food products

Food-borne Infections and Diseases

Common bacteria and viruses found in food

Friction and Friction Coefficients

The friction theory and friction coefficients at different conditions for various of materials like ice, aluminum, steel, graphite and other common materials and materials combinations

Frozen Food and Storage Life

Practical storage life for some common frozen food products

Fruits and Vegetables and Optimal Storage Conditions

Optimal temperature and humidity conditions for some common fruits and vegetables

Fuel Consumption - Calculate liter/km

Estimate fuel consumption in liter per km - consumption chart and calculator

Fuel Consumption - Calculate mpg

Estimate fuel consumption in miles per gallon - mpg - consumption chart and calculator

Fuel Consumption Converter

Convert between fuel consumption units like US MPG, Imperial MPG, litre/nm, litre/100 km and km/litre

Gauge and Weight Chart

Gauge and weight chart for sheet steel, galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum and strip & tubing

Glue-Laminated Timber - Dimensions

Typical sizes of glue-laminated timber

Golden Section

Or Golden Mean

Gravel - Cover Area

Gravel aggregate covering area

Grease Temperature Limits

Grease is a combination of oil and thickener

Grit Size and Surface Roughness

Comparison of grit size and surface roughness

Hardwood Lumber - Dimensions

Size of hardwood lumber

Hazardous Area Classification - North America

North American hazardous locations classification in classes, divisions and groups

Hazardous Area Classification - the European Standard

European hazardous area classification in zones, protection types, temperature codes and codes

HTML Color Codes

Safe html color codes

Inches - Fractional to Decimal Equivalents

Decimal equivalents of eights, sixteenths, thirty-seconds and sixty-fourths of an inch

International Standard Atmosphere

International standard atmosphere in elevation -2000 to 30000 metre - pressure, temperature, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and velocity of sound

ISO 724 - Metric Threads

Dimensions of metric threads according ISO 724

Latitude and Longitude Converter

Convert between Degrees, Minutes and Seconds and Decimal Units (or vice versa)

Lead Acid Batteries

Specific gravity and charge of lead acid batteries - temperature and efficiency

Length Units Converter

Convert between units like metre, feet, inches, yards, kilometers and miles

Lubricated Bolts and Reduced Torque

Lubrication effect on bolt tension and torque

Machine Processing and Tolerance Grades

Machine processing and tolerances

Manila Rope - Strength

Manila 3-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

Mapping Scales - Length and Area

Convert between mapping scales and length and area

Masonry Blocks - Dimensions

Concrete Masonry Unit Blocks (CMU) - dimensions

Materials - Light Reflecting Factors

Light reflecting factor materials

Mechanical Processing and Surface Roughness

Mechanical production methods and surface roughness

Mesh Size vs. Particle Diameter

Strainers and filters - mesh size vs. particle diameter opening size

Metric Bolts - Head and Wrench Sizes

ANSI/SO, DIN and JIS bolts

Mild Steel - Round Bar

Round bar weights

Mild Steel - Square Bars

Typical weight of mild steel square bars

Minutes to Decimal Hours

Converting minutes to descimal hours

Mortar Types

ASTM Mortar Types

Nails and Spikes - Withdrawal Force

Allowable withdrawal load for nail and spikes

Numerical Constants

Some numerical constants

Nylon Rope - Strength

Nylon 3-strand and 8-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

Oil - Lubrication and Temperature Limits

Temperature limits for lubricating oils

Paper Drafting Sizes - Comparing ISO and U.S. Drawing Sheets

ISO compared with U.S. and Canadian drawing sheets

Paper Drafting Sizes - ISO 216 series A, B and C

The ISO 216 A, B and C drawing series - dimensions of regular, oversized and envelope sheets

Paper Sizes - commonly used in U.S. Offices

Office paper sizes as Letter, Legal, Tabloid and more

Paper Sizes - Imperial

Sizes used for printing and drawing papers

Pasteurization Time and Temperature

Pasteurization methods, time and temperatures

pH Definition - basic (alkaline) and acidic

Introduction to pH - acidic and basic (alkaline)

Piston Engine Displacement

Calculate piston engine displacement

Poisson's ratio

When a material is stretched in one direction it tends to get thinner in the other two directions

Polyester Polyolefin Rope - Strength

Polyester Polyolefin dual fiber 3-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

Polyester Rope - Strength

Polyester 3-strand and 8-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

Polypropylene Fiber Rope - Strength

Polypropylene fiber 3-strand and 8 strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

Precious Metals - Karat Unit of Fineness

Units of fineness - Karat

Pressure acting on Underground Pipes

Pressure due to soil and transport

Rebar - Metric Reinforcing Bar

Reinforcing bar - European metric dimensions

Rebar - U.S. Imperial Reinforcing Bar

U.S. imperial dimensions of rebar

Rebar - Weights

Weights of rebar rods - size ranging 1/4

Rectangular Tanks - Volume

Tank volume per foot depth

Roman Numerals

Roman numerals are a combinations of seven letters

Roof Framing

Run, Roof Slope, Gable Height and Gable Area

Roofing Materials - Weights

Weight calculator for roofing materials

Safety Signals - recommended Colors

American National Standards Institutes schedule for safety colors marking physical hazards

Sandpaper - Grit Sizes

Grit sizes ranging 12 - 600


Orbital and escape velocity

Scale of Objects

The relative scale of objects

Scientific and Engineering Terms - ANSI Abbreviations

Abbreviations for Use on Drawings and in Text - ANSI Y1.1

Shackles - Safe Loads

Safe loads of shackles

Shipping Measuring Units

Vessel and cargo capacities

Sieve Size and Mesh Designation

US commercial sieve sizes and mesh designations

Sisal Rope - Strength

Sisal rope 3-strand, minimum breaking strength and safe load

Slope - Degree, Gradient and Grade Converter

Converting slopes pitch between degrees, gradients and grades

Softwood Lumber - Dimensions

Commercial softwood lumber dimension chart - nominal and actual sizes

Softwood Lumber - Grading

Rough lumber, surfaced lumber (dressed), worked lumber, shop and factory lumber and yard lumber

Soil and Rock - Bulk Factors

Soil and rock expansion - or swell - after mining

Speed and Velocity Converter

Convert speed and velocity units - m/s, km/h, knots, mph and ft/s

Speed vs. Time and Distance Traveled Graph Calculator

Velocity plotted against time diagram

Sprinkler Protection Area

Maximum fire sprinkler protection area

Stairs Calculator

Calculate steps unit rise and run in stairs

Standard Gauges

Standard gauges for wire and sheet - American, Birmingham, Washburn, Music, Stubs ..

Standard test methods (ASTM and others) and specifications for petroleum products

An overview of common test methods and specifications of petroleum fuels. What, why and how do the different test?

Standard test methods (ASTM and others) for crude oil properties

An overview of common test methods and typical ranges of variation of petroleum quality parameters. What, why and how do the different test?

Standard US Architectural Drawing Sizes

Commonly used US architectural drawing sizes and formats

Standard US Engineering Drawing Sizes

US engineering drawing sizes based on ANSI/ASME Y14.1

Steel Flats - Weight

Typically weight of mild steel flats

Steel Plates - Size & Weight

Size & weight of steel plates - Imperial and Metric units

Steel Tempering Colors

The tempering process of hardening steel

Steel Wool Grades

Steel wool grades and fiber thickness

Stockpile Volumes

Volume of natural stockpiles - cubic feet, yard, metre and decimetre

Stone - Weight and Strength

Weight and strength of sandstone, granite, limestone, marble and slate

Surface Finishing

Lumber and surface finishing abbreviations

Surface Roughness and Abrasive Grain Size

U.S. mesh size and surface roughness

Symbols Used to Denote a Chemical Reaction, Process or Condition

Explanation of symbols used as subscripts or superscripts to tell more about the type of chemical reaction, process or condition

The Greek Alphabet

The Greek alphabet is essential when expressing formulas and technical language

The Phonetic Alphabet

The phonetic alphabet used in international aircraft communications

Threaded Bolt Stress Area

Threaded bolts tensile stress area

Trench Excavation

Estimate trench excavation - online calculator

Troy Weight

Weight of gold and silver

Types of Contracts

Commonly used engineering and construction contracts


The ASTM E1557 UNIFORMAT II Standard

Urban Heights of Trees

Height of trees commonly used in towns and urban areas

US and Metric Fasteners - Thread Sizes

Printable fastener chart

US Bolts - Head and Wrench Sizes

Hex Bolt, Lag Bolt, Square Bolt and Heavy Hex Bolt

US Machine Screws - Dimensions

Machine screw diameters

US Wood Screws - Nominal Sizes

Wood screws - nominal sizes vs. diameters

US Wood Screws - Pilot Holes

Hard wood and soft wood pilot holes, shank clearance holes and countersink diameters

UTM to Latitude and Longitude Converter

Online UTM to Latitude Longitude converter

Value Engineering

Enhancing function and improving value

Variable Frequency Drives - Generated Heat and Required Ventilation

A variable frequency drive develops heat during work and to avoid overheating ventilation is required

Vehicle - Speed, Time and Distance Traveled - km/h

Speed (km per hour), time (hours) and distance traveled (km)

Vehicles - Traffic Flow and Density

Vehicles flow and density in highway design

Volume of Cylindrical Tanks

Volume in US gallons and Liters

Walls - No. of Studs

Calculate the number of studs in a wall

Water Demand of Trees

Trees and their relative water demand

Welding Temperatures

Melting and welding temperatures

Wire Rope - Strength

6 strand x 19 wire (6x19) - minimum breaking strength, safe loads and weight

Wood - Moisture and Compressive Strength

Red Spruce, Longleaf Pine and Douglas Fir - moisture content and their compressive strength

Wood Screws - Withdrawal Forces

Allowable withdrawal load force

Wrench Spanner - Inches to mm

SAE to metric wrench and spanner converter chart


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