# Miscellaneous

## Engineering related topics like Beaufort Wind Scale, CE-marking, drawing standards and more.

### Acceleration of Gravity vs. Latitude and Elevation

Acceleration of gravity due to latitude and elevation above sea level.

### Air Temperature, Pressure and Density vs. Altitude

Elevation above sea level and air temperature, pressure and density.

### Angle of Repose

Tipping or dumping angles for common materials like ashes, sand, earth, shingles and more.

### Animals in Laboratory Environments

Temperature and humidity environments for laboratory animals.

### Antifreeze - Ethylene Glycol Volume vs. Temperature Rating

Freeze protecting of cooling systems - temperature rating vs. required amount of antifreeze.

### Apothecaries' Weight System

Apothecaries' fluid and weight system with ounces, drachms, grains, scruples and more.

### Area Survey App

Online app that can be used to make an exact plot of a surveyed area - like a room, a property or any 2D shape.

### Atmospheric Pressure vs. Elevation above Sea Level

Elevation above sea level - in feet and meter - with barometric and atmospheric pressure - *inches mercury, psia, kg/cm ^{2} and kPa*.

### Barometer - Altitude Compensation

Elevation compensating manometer.

### Barometric Pressure - Pressure in psi, psf and kPa

Convert between barometric pressure inches Hg, psi and psf.

### Beaufort Wind Scale

The Beaufort description and observation scale for wind and wind speed.

### Blueprint Letters

Letters commonly used to differentiate blueprint drawings.

### Board Feet Chart and Calculator

Board feet is used as a volume measurement of lumber.

### Bricks - Quantity and Mortar Consumption

Estimate required quantities of bricks and mortar.

### Builder's to Surveyor's Measurements

Convert builder's measurements to surveyor's measurements.

### Building Foundations - Loads

Typical loads on building foundations.

### Building Tolerances

Typical tolerances for floors, walls, columns and more.

### Car Fuel Consumption - liter/100 km

Calculate fuel consumption in liter per km - consumption chart and calculator.

### CE Marking

Verifies that a product is designed to the appropriate standards according the European Machine Directive.

### Center of Gravity

A body and the center of gravity.

### Chemicals - Formulas and Trading Names

Formulas and trading names for some common chemicals.

### Clothing Sizes - US vs. UK and Europe

Comparing European, UK, US sizing in clothing, shoes, shirts and sweaters.

###
CO_{2} Calculator - Emissions from Trains

Calculator for CO_{2} emissions from trains, comparing with alternative forms of transportation (as plane, bus, conventional and electrical cars).

###
CO_{2} Calculator - Emissions from Airplanes

Calculator for CO_{2} emissions from planes, comparing with alternative forms of transportation (as train, bus, conventional and electrical cars).

###
CO_{2} Calculator - Emissions from Cars

Calculator for CO_{2} emissions from different kind of cars (gasoline, diesel, LPG, electrical), comparing with alternative forms of transportation (as airplane, bus and train).

### Color Mixing Theory

Subtractive and additive color mixing.

### Concentration Units Converter

Calculator and formulas for conversion between different units of concentration: Molarity, molality, mole fraction, weight percent of solute and grams of solute per liter of solution - descriptive terms for solubility.

### Concrete - Calculating Cubic Volume

Calculating the concrete volume required for an operation.

### Concrete - Water to Cement Ratios

Water vs. cement ratio when mixing concrete.

### Concrete Columns

Estimate concrete volume required for concrete columns.

### Concrete Footing

Estimating concrete continous footing.

### Concrete Footings - Volume

Estimate required concrete footing volume.

### Concrete Slabs - Load Capacity

Load capacity of simply supported concrete slabs.

### Concrete Slabs - Required Thickness

Required thickness of concrete slabs.

### Concrete Slabs - Volume Estimates

Estimate required concrete volume per sq. ft.

### Concrete Walls - Volume

Estimate concrete wall volume.

### Consanguinity

Relationship between persons decending from the same anchestor.

###
Constants of *e*

The mathematical *e* constants.

### Constants of PI

The mathematical π constants.

### Contract Types

Commonly used engineering and construction contracts.

### Conveyors - Belt Speed

Maximum conveyor belt speed.

### Conveyors - Capacities

Calculate conveyor capacities.

### Conveyors - Load & Power Consumption

Conveyor required power consumption vs. load.

### Conveyors - Maximum Inclination vs. Product

Maximum conveyor inclination slopes for typical products.

### Cooking - Volume Converter

Convert between different liquid cooking volume units.

### Cooking Volume Converter - US and Metric Units

Convert between cooking liquid and dry measuring US and metric volume units.

### Crude Oil Properties - Standard test methods (ASTM and others)

An overview of common test methods and typical ranges of variation of petroleum quality parameters. What, why and how do the different test?

### CSI MasterFormat Specifications

Construction Specifications Institute's 2004 Master-Format Edition.

### Cylindrical Tanks - Volume

Volume in US gallons and liters.

### Decibel

Logarithmic unit used to describe ratios of signal levels - like power or intensity - to a reference level.

### DFA - Design for Assembly index

Design for Assembly Index indicates how easy it is to assembly a component.

### Dimensionless Numbers

Physical and chemical dimensionless quantities - Reynolds number, Euler, Nusselt, and Prandtl number - and many more.

### Distance Traveled vs. Speed and Time - Calculator and Chart

Velocity plotted in time used diagram.

### Distances between Cities

Flight distances between selected cities in different countries and continents, to be used to calculate CO2 emissions from long distance flights.

### Drawings - Sheet Layouts

Standard drawing sheets layouts.

### Drawings - Standard Metric Sizes

Standard metric drawing sheet sizes.

### Drill Bit Speed - Hardwood and Softwood

Hardwood and softwood drill speed chart.

### Driving Distance between European Cities

Driving distance between some major European cities.

### Dust Explosions - Critical Temperatures and Concentrations

Critical temperatures and concentration parameters for substances like coal, zinc, uranium and more.

### Electrical Equipment typical Power Consumption

Typical power consumption and running time for common electrical equipment.

### Electrical Motors - Starting Devices

Direct-on-line starters, star-delta starters, frequency drives and soft starters.

### Electrotechnical Abbreviations

Abbreviations according the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

### Elevation - Temperature, Pressure and Speed of Sound

Altitude and speed of sound, temperature and pressure.

### Engine & Gear Oil - Recommended Viscosity vs. Outside Temperature

Oil viscosity vs. temperature.

### EV - Electric Vehicles Energy Consumption - miles/kWh vs. kWh/100 km

Convert between energy consumption units like miles/kWh and kWh/100 km.

### EV - Electric Vehicles Range vs. State of Charge (SOC) Calculator

Electric vehicle range vs. battery size, SOC - state of charge and energy consumption.

### EV - Electrical Vehicles Charging Speed (km/h and mph)

Electrical vehicle charging speed vs. power supply and energy consumption.

### Excavation Slope

Calculating excavation slope.

### Factors of Safety

Factors of Safety - FOS - are important in engineering designs.

### Fasteners - Type Chart

Wood screws, machine screws, sheet metal screws, self drilling SMS and more.

### Feet vs. Inches Converting Chart

Convert from feet and inches to inches.

### Fire-Stop Ratings

F-rated, T-rated and L-rated fire-stop systems.

### Food Products - Osmotic Pressure

Osmotic pressure in food products.

### Food-borne Infections and Diseases

Common bacteria and viruses found in food.

### Friction - Friction Coefficients and Calculator

Friction theory with calculator and friction coefficients for combinations of materials like ice, aluminum, steel, graphite and many more.

### Frozen Food Storage Life

Practical storage life for common frozen food products.

### Fruits and Vegetables - Optimal Storage Conditions

Optimal temperature and humidity conditions for common fruits and vegetables.

### Fuel Consumption - mpg

Calculate fuel consumption in miles per gallon - mpg - calculator and consumption charts.

### Fuel Consumption Converter

Convert between fuel consumption units like *US MPG, Imperial MPG, litre/nm, litre/100 km* and *km/litre*

### Galvanic Corrosion vs. Electrode Potential

Introduction to electro chemical series and corrosion of metals.

### Glue-Laminated Timber - Dimensions

Common sizing of glue-laminated timber.

### Golden Section

Golden Section also called the Golden Mean.

### Gravel - Cover Area

Gravel aggregate covering area.

### Grease - Temperature Limits

Temperature limits for grease - a combination of oil and thickener.

### Greek Alphabet

The Greek alphabet is essential expressing formulas and in technical language.

### Grit Size vs. Surface Roughness

Comparing sandpaper grit size and surface roughness.

### Hardwood Lumber - Dimensions

Sizing of hardwood lumber.

### Hazardous Areas - European Classification Standard

European hazardous area classification with zones, protection types, temperature codes and codes.

### Hazardous Areas - North America Classification

North American hazardous locations classification with classes, divisions and groups

### HTML Color Codes

Safe html color codes.

### Inches - Fractional vs. Decimal Equivalents

The decimal equivalents of eights, sixteenths, thirty-seconds and sixty-fourths of an inch.

### International Standard Atmosphere

International standard atmosphere in elevation *-2000 to 30000 metre* - pressure, temperature, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and velocity of sound.

### ISO 724 - Metric Threads

Dimensions of metric threads according ISO 724.

### Latitude and Longitude Converter

Convert between Degrees, Minutes and Seconds and Decimal Units (or vice versa).

### Lead-Acid Batteries

Specific gravity and charge of lead acid batteries - temperature and efficiency.

### Length Units Converter

Convert between units like *metre, feet, inches, yards, kilometers and miles*.

### Low-Frequency Vibrations Effects on Building Constructions

Effects of low-frequency vibrations on building constructions.

### Lumber - Surface Finishing

Lumber and surface finishing abbreviations.

### Machine Processing vs. Tolerances

Machine processing and tolerance grades.

### Manila Rope - Strength

Minimum breaking strength and safe load of manila 3-strand rope.

### Mapping Scales vs. Lengths and Areas

Convert lengths areas between different mapping scales.

### Masonry Blocks - Dimensions

Concrete Masonry Unit Blocks (CMU) - dimensions.

### Materials - Light Reflecting Factors

Light reflecting factor materials.

### Mesh Size vs. Particle Diameter

Strainers and filters - mesh size vs. particle diameter opening size.

### Metal Content in Minerals

Content of metals in minerals.

### Metric Bolt Head and Wrench Size

ANSI/SO, DIN and JIS bolts.

### Mild Steel - Round Bar

Weight of round bars.

### Mild Steel - Square Bars

Typical weights of mild steel square bars.

### Minutes to Decimal Hours

Convert minutes to descimal hours.

### Miter Saw - Calculate Sawing Angle

Calculate miter saw protractor angles for skirting and decorative mouldings work.

### Morse Code

The morse code alphabet.

### Mortar Types

ASTM mortar types.

### Nails and Spikes - Withdrawal Force

Allowable withdrawal load for nail and spikes.

### Numerical Constants

Some numerical constants.

### Nylon Rope - Strength

Nylon 3-strand and 8-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load.

### Oil Lubrication - Temperature Limits

Temperature limits for lubricating oils.

### Paper Drafting Sizes - Comparing ISO and U.S. Drawing Sheets

ISO vs. U.S. and Canadian drawing sheets.

### Paper Drafting Sizes - ISO 216 series A, B and C

ISO 216 A, B and C drawing series - dimensions of regular, oversized and envelope sheets.

### Paper Sizes - commonly used in U.S. Offices

Office paper sizes as Letter, Legal, Tabloid and more.

### Paper Sizes - Imperial

Printing and drawing papers sizes.

### Pasteurization - Time and Temperature

Pasteurization methods, time and temperatures.

### Petroleum Products - Standard Test Methods (ASTM and others) and Specifications

An overview of common test methods and specifications of petroleum fuels. What, why and how do the different test?

### pH - Basic (alkaline) vs. Acidic

Introduction to pH - the acidic and basic (alkaline) definition.

### Phonetic Alphabet

The phonetic alphabet used in international aircraft communications.

### Piston Engines - Compression Ratios

Cylinder volume and compression ratios in piston engines.

### Piston Engines - Displacement

Calculate piston engine displacement.

### Poisson's Ratio

When a material is stretched in one direction it tends to get thinner in the other two directions.

### Polyester Polyolefin Rope - Strength

Polyester Polyolefin dual fiber 3-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load.

### Polyester Rope - Strength

Polyester 3-strand and 8-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load.

### Polypropylene Fiber Rope - Strength

Polypropylene fiber 3-strand and 8 strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load.

### Precious Metals - Karat Unit of Fineness

Units of fineness - Karat.

### Rebar - Metric Reinforcing Bar

Reinforcing bar - European metric dimensions.

### Rebar - U.S. Imperial Reinforcing Bar

U.S. imperial dimensions of rebar

### Rebar - Weights

Weights of rebar rods - size ranging 1/4.

### Rectangular Tanks - Volume

Tank volume per foot depth.

### Reduced Torque with Lubricated Bolts

Lubrication effect on bolt tension and torque.

### Roman Numerals

Roman numerals are a combinations of seven letters.

### Roof Framing

Run, roof slope, gable height and gable area.

### Roofing Materials - Weights

Weight calculator for roofing materials.

### Safety Signals - Recommended Colors

American National Standards Institutes schedule for safety colors marking physical hazards.

### Sandpaper - Grit Sizes

Grit sizes ranging 12 - 600.

### Satellites in Orbit

Orbital and escape velocity for geostationary satellites.

### Scales of Objects

The relative scale of objects.

### Scientific and Engineering Terms - ANSI Abbreviations

Abbreviations for Use on Drawings and in Text - ANSI Y1.1.

### Shackles - Safe Loads

Safe loads of shackles.

### Shipping Measuring Units

Vessel and cargo capacities.

### Shrink-Fits Assembly

Assembly temperatures for shrink-fits.

### Sieve Size vs. Mesh Designation

US commercial sieve sizes vs. mesh designations.

### Sisal Rope - Strength

Sisal rope 3-strand, minimum breaking strength and safe load.

### Slope - Degree, Gradient and Grade Calculator

Convert slopes pitch between degrees, gradients and grades.

### Softwood Lumber - Dimensions

Commercial softwood lumber dimension chart - nominal and actual sizes.

### Softwood Lumber - Grading

Rough lumber, surfaced lumber (dressed), worked lumber, shop and factory lumber and yard lumber.

### Soil and Rock - Bulk Factors

Soil and rock expansion - or swell - after mining.

### Staircases Calculator

Calculate steps, unit rise and run in a staircase.

### Standard Gauges

Standard gauges for wire and sheet - *American, Birmingham, Washburn, Music, Stubs* ..

### Steel Flats - Weight

Typically weight of mild steel flats.

### Steel Plates - Size & Weight

Size & weight of steel plates - Imperial and Metric units.

### Steel Tempering Colors

The tempering process of hardening steel.

### Steel Wool - Grades

Steel wool grades vs. fiber thickness.

### Stockpile Volumes

Volume of natural stockpiles - cubic feet, yard, metre and decimetre.

### Stone - Weight and Strength

Weight and strength of sandstone, granite, limestone, marble and slate.

### Surface Roughness vs. Abrasive Grain Size

U.S. mesh size vs. surface roughness.

### Surface Roughness vs. Mechanical Processing

Mechanical production methods and their surface roughness.

### Symbols Used to Denote a Chemical Reactions and Process or Condition

Explanation of symbols used as subscripts or superscripts to tell more about the type of chemical reaction, process or condition.

### Threaded Bolts - Stress Area

Threaded bolts tensile stress area.

### Tree Species - Water Demand

Trees species and relative water demand.

### Trench Excavation

Estimate trench excavation - online calculator.

### Troy Weight

Weight unit for preciuos metals like gold and silver.

### Underground Pipes - Earth Pressure

Pressure acting on underground pipes due to weight of soil and transport.

### Uniformat

The ASTM E1557 UNIFORMAT II Standard.

### Urban Tree Heights

Height of trees commonly used in towns and urban areas.

### US and Metric Fasteners - Thread Sizes

Printable fastener chart.

### US Bolts - Head and Wrench Sizes

Hex Bolt, Lag Bolt, Square Bolt and Heavy Hex Bolt.

### US Machine Screws - Dimensions

Machine screw diameters.

### US Standard Architectural Drawing Sizes

US architectural drawing sizes and formats.

### US Standard Engineering Drawing Sizes

US engineering drawing sizes based on ANSI/ASME Y14.1.

### US Wood Screws - Nominal Sizes

Wood screws - nominal sizes vs. diameters.

### US Wood Screws - Pilot Holes

Hard wood and soft wood pilot holes, shank clearance holes and countersink diameters.

### UTM to Latitude and Longitude Converter

Free online UTM to Latitude and Longitude coordinates converter.

### Value Engineering

Improved value by enhanced function.

### Variable Frequency Drives - Heat Loss and Required Air Cooling

Avoid overheated variable frequency drives with adequate ventilation.

### Vehicle - Distance Traveled vs. Velcocity and Time Used (mph)

Speed (mph) and time (hours) and distance traveled (miles) chart.

### Vehicle - Distance Traveled vs. Velocity and Time (km/h)

Speed (km/h) vs. time (hours) and distance traveled (km).

### Vehicles Traffic Flow and Density

Traffic flow and density as used in highway design.

### Velocity Converter

Convert between speed and velocity units like *m/s, km/h, knots, mph and ft/s*.

### Walls - No. of Studs

Calculate required number of studs in a wall.

### Water Sprinkler - Protection Area vs. Classification

Maximum fire sprinkler protection area vs. classification and construction.

### Weight vs. Gauge Chart

Gauge and weight chart for sheet steel, galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum and strip & tubing.

### Welding Temperatures

Melting and welding temperatures.

### Wire Rope - Strength

6 strand x 19 wire (6x19) - minimum breaking strength, safe loads and weight.

### Wood - Compressive Strength vs. Moisture Content

Red Spruce, Longleaf Pine and Douglas Fir - moisture content and their compressive strength.

### Wood Screws - Withdrawal Force

Allowable withdrawal load force.

### Wrench Spanners - Inches vs. mm

Convert between US Inches and metric mm wrench and spanner sizes.