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Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermal properties of water - density, freezing temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of melting, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more

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Thermodynamic properties of water:

  • Boiling temperature (at 101.325 kPa):     99.974 °C = 211.953 °F
  • Bulk modulus elasticity:                            2.15 x 109 Pa or N/m2
  • Critical temperature:                                 373.946 °C = 705.103 °F
  • Critical pressure:                                      217.7 atm = 220.6 bar = 22.06 MPa (MN/m2) = 3200 psi (=lbf/in2)
  • Critical density:                                         0.322 g/cm3 = 0.62478 slug/ft3 = 20.1018 lbm/ft3
  • Ionization constant, pKw (at 25°C):          13.995    
  • Latent heat of melting:                             334 kJ/kg = 144 Btu(IT)/lb
  • Latent heat of evaporation(at 100°C):     40.657 kJ/mol = 2030 kJ/kg = 872.7 Btu(IT)/lb
  • Maximum density (at 4 oC):                      999.975 kg/m = 1.9403 slug/ft3 = 9.71086 lbm/gal(US)
  • Melting temperature (at 101.325 kPa):     0 °C = 32°F
  • Molar mass:                                             18.01527 g/mol
  • pH (at 25°C):                                            6.9976
  • Specific heat (Cp) water (at 15°C/60°F):  4.187 kJ/kgK = 1.001 Btu(IT)/(lbm °F) or kcal/(kg K)
  • Specific heat ice:                                      2.108 kJ/kgK = 0.5035 Btu(IT)/(lbm °F) or kcal/(kg K)
  • Specific heat water vapor:                        1.996 kJ/kgK =0.4767 Btu(IT)/(lbm °F) or kcal/(kg K)
  • Specific Weight (at 4 oC):                         9.806 kN/m3 = 62.43 lbf/ft3
  • Thermal expansion from 4 oC to 100 oC: 4.2x10-2 (Note! - volumetric temperature expansion of water is not linear with temperature)
  • Triple point pressure:                               0.00604 atm = 0.00612 bar = 611.657 Pa = 0.08871 psi (=lbf/in2)
  • Triple point temperature:                          0.01 °C = 32.02 °F

Follow the links below to get values for the listed properties of liquid water at varying pressure and temperature:

For each topic, there are figures and tables showing the variations in properties with temperature. Calculators giving the properties at specified temperatures are also available. All properties are given in both SI and imperial units.

See also more about atmospheric pressure, and STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure & NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure,
as well as Thermophysical properties of: Acetone, Acetylene, Air, Ammonia, Argon, Benzene, Butane, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Ethane, Ethanol, Ethylene, Helium, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Methane, Methanol, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Pentane, Propane, Toluene and Heavy water, D2O.

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