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# Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermodynamic properties of water:

• Boiling temperature (at 101.325 kPa):     99.974 °C = 211.953 °F
• Bulk modulus elasticity :                            2.15 x 109 Pa or N/m2
• Critical temperature :                                 373.946 °C = 705.103 °F
• Critical pressure :                                      217.7 atm = 220.6 bar = 22.06 MPa (MN/m2) = 3200 psi (=lbf /in2)
• Critical density:                                         0.322 g/cm3 = 0.62478 slug/ft3 = 20.1018 lbm /ft3
• Ionization constant , pKw (at 25°C):          13.995
• Latent heat of melting:                             334 kJ/kg = 144 Btu(IT)/lb
• Latent heat of evaporation(at 100°C):     40.657 kJ/mol = 2256 kJ/kg = 970 Btu(IT)/lb
• Maximum density (at 4 oC):                      999.975 kg/m3 = 1.9403 slug/ft3 = 8.34519 lbm /gal(US)
• Melting temperature (at 101.325 kPa):     0 °C = 32°F
• Molar mass:                                             18.01527 g/mol
• pH (at 25°C):                                            6.9976
• Specific heat (Cp ) water (at 15°C/60°F):  4.187 kJ/kgK = 1.001 Btu(IT)/(lbm °F) or kcal/(kg K)
• Specific heat ice:                                      2.108 kJ/kgK = 0.5035 Btu(IT)/(lbm °F) or kcal/(kg K)
• Specific heat water vapor:                        1.996 kJ/kgK =0.4767 Btu(IT)/(lbm °F) or kcal/(kg K)
• Specific Weight (at 4 oC):                         9.806 kN/m3 = 62.43 lbf /ft3
• Thermal expansion from 4 oC to 100 oC: 4.2x10-2 (Note! - volumetric temperature expansion of water is not linear with temperature)
• Triple point pressure:                               0.00604 atm = 0.00612 bar = 611.657 Pa = 0.08871 psi (=lbf /in2)
• Triple point temperature:                          0.01 °C = 32.02 °F

Follow the links below to get values for the listed properties of liquid water at varying pressure and temperature :

For each topic, there are figures and tables showing the variations in properties with temperature. Calculators giving the properties at specified temperatures are also available. All properties are given in both SI and imperial units.

See also more about atmospheric pressure , and STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure & NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure ,
as well as Thermophysical properties of: Acetone , Acetylene , Air , Ammonia , Argon , Benzene , Butane , Carbon dioxide , Carbon monoxide , Ethane , Ethanol , Ethylene , Helium , Hydrogen , Hydrogen sulfide , Methane , Methanol , Nitrogen , Oxygen , Pentane , Propane , Toluene and Heavy water, D2O .

## Related Topics

### • Densities

Densities of solids, liquids and gases. Definitions and convertion calculators.

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Climate, meteorology, solar, wind, emissions and environmental related engineering resources.

### • Material Properties

Properties of gases, fluids and solids. Densities, specific heats, viscosities and more.

### • Steam and Condensate

Design of steam & condensate systems with properties, capacities, sizing of pipe lines, system configuration and more.

## Related Documents

### Acetone - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of acetone, also called 2-propanone, dimethyl ketone and pyroacetic acid. Phase diagram included.

### Ammonia - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Ammonia. Phase diagram included.

### Benzene - Thermophysical properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of benzene, also called benzol. Phase diagram included.

### Carbon dioxide - Prandtl Number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and table with changes in Prandtl number for carbon dioxide with changes in temperature and pressure.

### Carbon Dioxide - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of carbon dioxide. Phase diagram included.

### Compressed Water - Properties vs. Temperature

Specific volume, enthalpy and entropy of compressed water.

### Density vs. Specific Weight and Specific Gravity

An introduction to density, specific weight and specific gravity.

### Dry Air and Water Vapor - Density and Specific Volume vs. Temperature - Imperial Units

Density and specific volume of dry air and water vapor at temperatures ranging 225 to 900 degF (107 to 482 degC).

### Electric Heating of Mass

Electric heating of an object or mass - temperature change vs. energy supplied.

### Ethane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Ethane - C2H6.

### Ethylene - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of ethylene, also called ethene, acetene and olefiant gas. Phase diagram included.

### Evaporation from a Water Surface

Evaporation of water from a water surface - like a swimming pool or an open tank - depends on water temperature, air temperature, air humidity and air velocity above the water surface - online calculator.

### Evaporative Cooling

Evaporative cooling tutorial.

### Gases Solved in Water - Diffusion Coefficients

Diffusion flux [kg/m2s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m2/s] for several gases in water.

### Great Sensible Heat Factor - GSHF

The Great Sensible Heat Factor is the ratio sensible to total heat in a cooling coil.

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The amount of heat required to change the temperature of a substance by one degree.

### Heating Water by Injecting Steam

Water can be heated by injecting steam.

### Heavy Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D2O) like density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.

### Ice - Thermal Properties

Thermal and thermodynamic properties of ice like density, thermal conductivity and specific heat at temperatures from 0 to -100 oC.

### Ice and Water - Melting Points vs. Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables with melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

### Latent Heat Flow

Latent heat is the heat when supplied to or removed from air results in a change in moisture content - the temperature of the air is not changed.

### Liquid Ammonia - Thermal Properties at Saturation Pressure

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity and Prandtls no. of liquid ammonia at saturation pressure.

### Liquids - Densities

Densities of common liquids like acetone, beer, oil, water and more.

### Liquids - Densities vs. Pressure and Temperature Change

Densities and specific volume of liquids vs. pressure and temperature change.

### Methane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Methane - CH4. Phase diagram included.

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Chemical, physical and thermal properties of methanol, CH3OH (also called carbinol, wood alcohol, hydroxy methyl and methyl alcohol). Phase diagram included.

### Mixing Fluids

Final mass and temperature when mixing fluids.

### Moist Air - Enthalpy

Sensible and latent heat of moist air.

### Pentane - Thermophysical Properties

Chemical, physical and thermal properties of pentane, also called n-pentane. Phase diagram included.

### Pipes Submerged in Oil or Fat - Heat Emission

Heat emission from steam or water heating pipes submerged in oil or fat - forced and natural circulation.

### Prandtl Number

A dimensionless number approximating the ratio of momentum diffusivity to thermal diffusivity.

### Pumping Water - Energy Cost Calculator

Calculate the energy cost of pumping water.

### Saturated Ice and Steam - Thermodynamic Properties

Thermodynamic properties of saturated ice and steam - specific volume, enthalpy and entropy.

### Saturated Steam - Properties - Imperial Units

Steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures.

### Soft or Hard Water

Carbonates dissolved in water.

### Soft or Hard Water

Carbonates dissolved in water.

### Specific Heat - Online Unit Converter

Online specific heat converter with the most commonly used units.

### Standardized Enthalpies and Entropies

Standardized enthalpies and entropies for some common substances.

### Steam - Viscosity vs. Pressure

Absolute viscosity of steam at pressure ranging 1 - 10000 psia.

### Steam Entropy

Basic steam thermodynamics - entropy diagram.

### Supercooled Water - Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature

Undercooled water and vapor pressure.

### Thermodynamic Terms - Functions and Relations

Common thermodynamic terms and functions - potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal or internal energy, chemical energy, nuclear energy and more.

### Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a substance is zero if the absolute temperature is zero.

### Volumetric (Cubic) Thermal Expansion

Volumetric temperature expansion calculator.

### Water - Absolute (Dynamic) Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Absolute viscosity for water in centipoises for temperatures between 32 - 200oF.

### Water - Boiling Points at Higher Pressures

Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

### Water - Boiling Points at Vacuum Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficients

Definitions, online calculator and figures and tables with water properties like density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 680°F).

### Water - Enthalpy and Entropy vs. Temperature

Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units.

### Water - Heat of Vaporization vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Ionization Constant, pKw, of Normal and Heavy Water

Ionization constant (= dissociation constant = self-ionization constant = ion product = autoprotolysis constant ) of water and heavy water, given as function of temperature (°C and °F) in figures and tables.

### Water - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).

### Water - Properties vs. Temperature and Pressure

Liquid water properties at temperatures between melting point and boiling point and pressures of 14.7 psia, 1000 psia and 10000 psia (1 atm, 68.1atm and 681 atm).

### Water - Saturation Pressure and Specific Weight vs. Temperature

Vapor pressure and specific weight of water at temperatures ranging 32 to 212 oF - Imperial Units.

### Water - Specific Gravity vs. Temperature

Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference.

### Water - Specific Heat vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Specific Volume vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables showing Specific Volume of water at temperatures ranging from 0-370 °C and 32 - 700 °F - Imperial and IS Units.

### Water - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature

Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables with thermal diffusivity of liquids and gaseous water at varying temperarures and pressures - SI and Imperial units.

### Water Vapor - Specific Heat vs. Temperature

Specific heat of Water Vapor - H2O - at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K.

### Water vs. Steam - Critical and Triple Points

Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

### Water-Steam Mollier Diagram

Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam.

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