Thermodynamics of steam and condensate systems.
Using steam to humidify air.
The moisture holding capacity of air increases with temperature.
Air in the steam will lower the surface temperatures in heat exchangers - and less heat will be transferred.
Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference in Heat Exchangers - AMTD - and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference - LMTD - formulas with examples - Online Mean Temperature Calculator.
Steam boilers output can be expressed in Boiler Horsepower, MBTU or in Pounds of Steam delivered per hour.
Boiler horsepower vs. heat transfer area.
Impurities from the feedwater will concentrate in the boiling water.
Heat transfer when steam condensates.
Conductive heat transfer takes place in a solid if there is a temperature gradient.
Electric heating of an object or mass - temperature change vs. energy supplied.
Average overall heat transmission coefficients for fluid and surface combinations like Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more.
Diffusion flux [kg/m2s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m2/s] for several gases in water.
Water can be heated by injecting steam.
Online calculator, figures and tables with melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.
Online calculator to compute the thermodynamic properties of saturated steam.
Conductive heat losses through cylinder or pipe walls.
Power plants heat rates, thermal efficiencies, capacity factors, load factors, economic efficiencies, operational efficiencies and energy efficiencies.
Saturated Steam Table with steam properties as specific volume, density, specific enthalpy and specific entropy.
Saturated Steam Table with properties like boiling point, specific volume, density, specific enthalpy, specific heat and latent heat of vaporization.
Steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures.
Steam consumption and condensate generation when heating liquid or gas flows
An enthalpy and entropy chart for steam
Calculate steam flow rate vs. kW rating.
Absolute viscosity of steam at pressure ranging 1 - 10000 psia.
Vapor and steam enthalpy, specific enthalpy of saturated liquid, saturated vapor and superheated vapor.
Basic steam thermodynamics - entropy diagram.
Calculate steam heated air systems.
Calculating the amount of steam in non-flow batch and continuous flow heating processes.
Enthalpy of steam superheated to temperatures above it's boiling point.
The entropy of steam superheated to temperatures above saturation points.
An introduction to vapor and steam.
Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.
Figures and tables with Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.
Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).
Online calculator, figures and tables with water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging 0 to 370 °C (32 to 700°F) - in Imperial and SI Units.
Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units.
Figures and tables with thermal diffusivity of liquids and gaseous water at varying temperarures and pressures - SI and Imperial units.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.
Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam.
Wet steam, dryness fraction and enthalpy.
Introduction and definition of steam quality and dryness fraction including calculating wet steam enthalpy and specific volume.
Wet steam and specific volume.