Wet Steam  Quality vs. Dryness Fractions
Introduction and definition of steam quality and dryness fraction including calculating wet steam enthalpy and specific volume.
The steam dryness fraction is used to quantify the amount of water within steam.
 Dry steam  all water molecules are in the gaseous state
 Wet steam  a portion of the water molecules have lost their energy  latent heat  and condensed to tiny water droplets
To produce 100% dry steam in an boiler and keep the steam dry throughout the piping system is in general not possible. Droplets of water will escape from the boiler surface due to turbulence and splashing when bubbles of steam break through the water surface. The steam leaving the boiler space will contain a mixture of water droplets and steam.
In addition heat loss in the pipe lines condensates parts of the steam to droplets of water.
Steam  produced in a boiler where the heat is supplied to the water and where the steam is in contact with the water surface of the boiler  contains approximately 5% water by mass.
Dryness fraction of Wet Steam
If the water content in the steam is 5% by mass, then the steam is said to be 95% dry with a dryness fraction 0.95.
Dryness fraction can be expressed:
ζ = w_{s} / (w_{w} + w_{s}) (1)
where
ζ = dryness fraction
w_{w} = mass of water (kg, lb)
w_{s} = mass of steam (kg, lb)
Enthalpy of Wet Steam
Actual enthalpy of wet steam can be calculated with the dryness fraction  ζ  and the specific enthalpy  h_{s}  of "dry" steam picked from steam tables. Wet steam will always have lower usable heat energy than "dry" steam.
h_{t} = h_{s} ζ + (1  ζ ) h_{w} (2)
where
h_{t} = enthalpy of wet steam (kJ/kg, Btu/lb)
h_{s} = enthalpy of "dry" steam (kJ/kg, Btu/lb)
h_{w} = enthalpy of saturated water or condensate (kJ/kg, Btu/lb)
Specific Volume of Wet Steam
The droplets of water in wet steam occupies a negligible space in the steam and the specific volume of wet steam will be reduced by the dryness fraction.
v_{t} = v_{s} ζ (3)
where
v_{t} = specific volume of wet steam (m^{3}/kg, ft^{3}/lb)
v_{s} = specific volume of the dry steam (m^{3}/kg, ft^{3}/lb)
Example  Enthalpy and Specific Volume of Wet Steam
Steam with pressure 5 bar gauge (6 bar abs) has a dryness fraction of 0.95. From the steam table
h_{s} = 2755.46 (kJ/kg)
h_{w} = 670.43 (kJ/kg)
The total enthalpy can be calculated:
h_{t} = (2755.46 kJ/kg) 0.95 + (1  0.95) (670.43 kJ/kg)
= 2651 kJ/kg
Specific volume can be calculated:
v = (0.315 m^{3}/kg) 0.95
= 0.299 m^{3}/kg
Related Topics

Steam and Condensate
Design of steam & condensate systems with properties, capacities, sizing of pipe lines, system configuration and more. 
Thermodynamics
Calculate heat, work, temperature and energy. The thermodynamics of steam and condensate systems. Water and Ice properties.
Related Documents

Flash Steam Generation  Fundamental Physics
Tutorial to the basic physics behind flash steam generation 
Properties of Saturated Steam  SI Units
Saturated Steam Table with steam properties as specific volume, density, specific enthalpy and specific entropy. 
Saturated Steam  Properties  Imperial Units
Steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures. 
Steam and Vapor Enthalpy
Vapor and steam enthalpy, specific enthalpy of saturated liquid, saturated vapor and superheated vapor. 
Steam Heating Systems  Design
An introduction to the basic design of steam heating systems. 
Superheated Steam  Enthalpy
Enthalpy of steam superheated to temperatures above it's boiling point. 
Vapor and Steam
An introduction to vapor and steam. 
Water vs. Steam  Critical and Triple Points
Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. 
WaterSteam Mollier Diagram
Enthalpyentropy diagram for water and steam. 
Wet Steam  Enthalpy
Wet steam, dryness fraction and enthalpy. 
Wet Steam  Specific Volume
Wet steam and specific volume.