Steam & condensate systems- properties, capacities, pipe sizing, systems configuration and more
Steam and condensate pipes - heat loss uninsulated and insulated pipes, insulation thickness and more
Thermodynamics of steam and condensate applications
Sizing steam and condensate pipes - pressure loss, recommended velocity, capacity and more
Flash steam generation - thermodynamic fundamentals, heat loss, energy recovery and more
Sizing and dimensions of control valves & equipment in steam and condensate systems
Estimate the amount of steam required (lb/h in 100 cfm) in humid air.
Using steam to humidify air.
The moisture holding capacity of air increases with temperature.
Air in the steam will lower the surface temperatures in heat exchangers - and less heat will be transferred
The International Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code establishes rules of safety governing the design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels, and nuclear power plant components during construction
Suspended solids in the feed water will remain in the boiler when steam is generated
Calculating boiler blowdown rate
Classification of boilers according the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Steam systems carries heat through pipes from the boiler to consumers as heat exchangers, process equipment etc.
Huge amounts of condensate generated when cold steam pipes are heated up must be drained from the pipes
When cold steam pipes are heated up they generate huge amounts of condensate that must be drained away from the pipe through steam traps - in Imperial Units
Heat loss from steam pipes generates condensate which must be drained from the system - imperial units
Heat loss from steam pipes generates condensate which must be drained from the system
Maximum capacities of condensate lines in kW steam consumption
High temperatures and danger of impeller cavitation is the major challenge of condensate pumping
An introduction to the basic design of steam heating systems
Diffusion flux [kg/m2s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m2/s] are given for several gases in water
Entropy of steam superheated to temperatures above saturation point
ABMA recommended feed water chemistry limits for steam boilers
Make-up water to steam boilers should be treated with oxygen scavengers to avoid serious corrosion problems
When condensate passes steam traps - flash steam is generated
When condensate leaves the steam traps - flash steam is generated. Amount of flash steam generated at different pressures - kN/m2
The amount of flash steam generated depends on steam pressure and pressure in the condensate lines
Flow coefficient and proper design of control valves - Imperial Units
Comparing flow coefficient Cv and flow factor Kv
Average overall heat transmission coefficients for some common fluids and surface combinations as Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more
Friction or major resistance in condensate pipe lines
Heat emission from steam or water heating pipes submerged in oil or fat - forced and natural circulation
Heat emision from steam or water heating pipes submerged in water - assisted (forced) or natural circulation
Heat loss from insulated and uninsulated, sheltered and exposed heated oil tanks
Amount of condensate generated in steam pipes depends on the heat loss from the pipe to the surroundings
Calculating steam and condensate loads in steam heated systems
Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D2O) - density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more
Online calculator, figures and tables showing melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.
Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam
Non-destructive testing of constructions
Pipes expands when heated and contracts when cooled and the expansion can be expressed with the expansion formula
Steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures
Saturated Steam Table with properties like boiling point, specific volume, density, specific enthalpy, specific heat and latent heat of vaporization
A Saturated Steam Table with steam properties as specific volume, density, specific enthalpy and specific entropy
Sizing safety valves after boiler output power in low pressure systems (kW and Btu/hr)
Flow and pressure loss in condensate return lines
Steam is a compressible gas where pipe line mass flow capacity depends on steam pressure.
Steam is a compressible gas where the capacity of a pipe line depends on the size of the pipe and the steam pressure.
Carbonates dissolved in water
Boiler output and feed water temperature
Steam consumption rates for typical steam heated consumers in industries like bakeries, breweries, paper factories etc.
Design of steam control valves and their Kv values
Impeller cavitation increase with water temperature
Calculating the amount of steam in non-flow batch and continuous flow heating processes
Calculate pressure drops in steam distribution pipe lines
Yearly heat loss in amount of coal or oil consumption for insulated and uninsulated steam pipes at different dimensions and operation times
Heat loss from un-insulated steam pipes
Properly draining steam pipes for condensate
Pressure drop and maximum allowable flow in steam pipes
Pipe sizing steam systems - major and minor loss in steam distribution systems
Thermal expansion of steam pipes heated from room temperature to operation temperature (mm pr. 100 m pipe)
Steam radiators and steam convectors - heating capacities and temperature coefficients
Steam tracing of pipe lines to maintain appropriate product temperature
A steam trap selection guide - Float & Thermostatic, Inverted Bucket, Bimetal Thermostatic, Impulse and Thermodynamic Disc steam traps
Steam pipes heated from room temperature to operation temperatures - expands
Introduction to vapor and steam
Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.
Definitions, online calculator and figures and tables with water properties like density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 680°F).
Free online calculator - figures and tables with viscosity of water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 675°F) - Imperial and SI Units.
Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units
Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units
Ionization constant (= dissociation constant = self-ionization constant = ion product = autoprotolysis constant ) of water and heavy water, given as function of temperature (°C and °F) in figures and tables
Figures and tables showing Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units
Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).
Online calculator, figures and tables with water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging 0 to 370 °C (32 to 700°F) - in Imperial and SI Units.
Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference
Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units
Online calculator, figures and tables showing Specific Volume of water at temperatures ranging from 0-370 °C and 32 - 700 °F - Imperial and IS Units
Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units
Figures and tables showing thermal diffusivity of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units
Thermal properties of water at different temperatures like density, freezing temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of melting, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.
Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium
Introduction and definition of steam quality and dryness fraction including calculating wet steam enthalpy and specific volume