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# Gases and Compressed Air

## Air, LNG, LPG and other common gas properties, pipeline capacities, sizing of relief valves

### Air - Composition and Molecular Weight

Dry air is a mechanical mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, argon and several other gases in minor amounts.

### Air - Density and Specific Volume vs. Altitude

Density and specific volume of air varies with elevation above sea level.

### Air - Density vs. Pressure and Temperatures

Air density at pressure ranging 1 to 10 000 bara (14.5 - 145000 psi) and constant selected temperatures.

### Air - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficients of air at temperatures ranging -100 to 1600 °C (-140 to 2900 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Air - Diffusion Coefficients of Gases in Excess of Air

Diffusion coefficients (D12) for gases in large excess of air at temperatures ranging 0 - 400 °C.

### Air - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables with dynamic (absolute) and kinematic viscosity for air at temperatures ranging -100 to 1600°C (-150 to 2900°F) and at pressures ranging 1 to 10 000 bara (14.5 - 145000 psia) - SI and Imperial Units.

### Air - Molecular Weight and Composition

Dry air is a mixture of gases where the average molecular weight (or molar mass) can be calculated by adding the weight of each component.

### Air - Prandtl Number

Prandtl number for air vs. temperature and pressure.

### Air - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Properties of air change along the boiling and condensation curves (temperature and pressure between triple point and critical point conditions). An air phase diagram included.

### Air - SCFM versus ACFM and ICFM

Actual air compressor capacity (ACFM) vs. standard air capacity (SCFM) and inlet air capacity (ICFM).

### Air - Specific Heat Ratio

Specific Heat Ratio of air at temperatures ranging -40 - 1000oC (-40 - 1500oF) at standard atmospheric pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### Air - Specific Heat vs. Pressure at Constant Temperature

Figures and tables with isobaric (Cp) and isochoric (Cv) specific heat of air at constant temperature and pressure ranging 0.01 to 10000 bara.

### Air - Specific Heat vs. Temperature at Constant Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing specific heat (Cp and Cv) of dry air vs. temperature and pressure. SI and imperial units.

### Air - Speed of Sound

Speed of sound in air at standard atmospheric pressure with temperatures ranging -40 to 1000oC (-40 to 1500oF) - Imperial and SI Units.

### Air - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing air thermal conductivity vs. temperature and pressure. SI and imperial units.

### Air - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables withdry air thermal diffusivity vs. temperarure and pressure. SI and Imperial units.

### Air - Thermophysical Properties

Thermal properties of air at different temperatures - density, viscosity, critical temperature and pressure, triple point, enthalpi and entropi, thermal conductivity and diffusivity and more.

### Air - Volume vs. Temperature

Air volume vs. temperature correction factor compared to Normal Air Conditions.

### Air Compressor - Power Cost per Year

Yearly power cost for operating an air compressor.

### Air Compressors - Maximum Air Flow vs. Inlet Pipe Size

Inlet pipe size and maximum air flow.

### Air Properties - Imperial Units

Thermodynamic properties of air at low pressures - imperial units.

### Air Tools - Air Consumption

Air consumption of air tools.

### Ammonia Gas - Density vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ammonia for temperatures ranging -50 to 425 °C (-50 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

### ASTM B819 Seamless Copper Tubes for Medical Gas Systems - Dimensions

Dimensions of copper tubes used in medical gas systems.

### Boyle's Law (Mariotte's Law)

The volume of an ideal gas vs. pressure.

### Carbon Dioxide Gas - Ideal Properties

Enthalpy, Entropy and Internal Energy of Carbon Dioxide gas.

### Charles' Law

Volume of an ideal gas vs. temperature.

### Classification of Gases

Oxidizers vs. inert vs. flammable gases.

### Compressed Air - Air Flow and Recommended Pipe Size

Pipe line sizing compressed air

### Compressed Air - Air Flow Discharge through Hoses

Discharged air flow volume through hoses with pressure ranging 30 - 90 psi.

### Compressed Air - Friction Loss in Hoses

Friction loss in air hoses vs. operating pressure.

### Compressed Air - Glossary of Terms

A glossary of terms commonly used for compressed air.

### Compressed Air - Laboratory Consumption

Compressed air supply to laboratories.

### Compressed Air - Pipe Line Pressure Drop Diagram

Calculate pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines with a nomograph diagram.

### Compressed Air - Pipe Line Pressure Loss - Online Calculator with Metric and Imperial Units

Calculate pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines - metric and imperial units.

### Compressed Air - Pressure Drop Diagrams, Metric Units

Pressure loss in compressed air pipe lines.

### Compressed Air - Size of Pipe vs. Capacity

Air pipe lines capacities at pressure 100 psi (6.9 bar).

### Compressed Air - Storage Volume

Calculate the storage volume of compressed air or other gases.

### Compressed Air - Water Content

Saturation pressure and maximum water content in compressed air.

### Compressed Air Pipe Line Capacity

Capacities of compressed air pipelines - pressure ranging 5 - 250 psi (0.5 - 17 bar).

### Compressed Air Pipe Lines - Pressure Loss vs. Capacity and Operating Pressure

Pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines.

### Compressed Air Pipes - Fittings and Pressure Loss

Fittings in compressed air pipe lines and equivalent length pressure drop.

### Compressed Air Piping - Pressure Loss Diagrams, Imperial Units

Pressure drop in compressed air pipelines with applied pressure 50, 100 and 150 psi.

### Compressed Air Quality

Compressed air is used for power tools, instrumentation, processing, breathing and medical purposes.

### Compressed Air vs. Free Air - Compression Ratio

The ratio of compressed air pressure to free air pressure.

### Critical Temperatures and Pressures for some Common Substances

Critical temperatures and pressures for some common substances like air, alcohol, ether, oxygen and more.

### Dalton's Law

Gibbs' Dalton's law of the total pressure of a mixture of gases.

### EN 1057 Copper Tubes for Water and Gas in Sanitary and Heating Applications - Dimensions

Dimensions of EN 1057 Copper and copper alloys - Seamless, round copper tubes for water and gas in sanitary and heating applications.

### EN 12735 Seamless, Round Copper Tubes for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration - Dimensions

Dimensions of seamless, round copper tubes for air conditioning and refrigeration piping systems.

### EN 13348 Seamless, Round Copper Tubes for Medical Gases or Vacuum - Dimensions

Dimensions of seamless round copper and copper alloys tubes for medical gases or vacuum.

### Gas Cookers - Marks vs. Temperature

Gas marks on gas ovens and heat or temperature developed.

### Gas Data

Online database with gas properties.

### Gas Mixtures - Properties

Gas mixtures and the ideal gas law, mass calculations, the individual gas constant and density.

### Gas Pipes - Approved Materials

Materials approved for gas pipes.

### Gas Pipes - Low Pressure Sizing

Sizing gas pipes for apartment service lines.

### Gas Vent Termination - Clearance vs. Roof Slope

Clearance tolerance for gas vent terminations vs. roof slope.

### Gases - Control Valves Calculator

An online control valve - Cv - calculator for gases.

### Gases - Densities

Densities and molecular weights of common gases like acetylene, air, methane, nitrogen, oxygen and others.

### Gases - Explosion and Flammability Concentration Limits

Flame and explosion limits for gases like propane, methane, butane, acetylene and more.

### Gases - Specific Gravities

Specific gravities of air, ammonia, butadiene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and some other common gases.

### Horsepower required to Compress Air

Calculate horsepower required by air compressors.

### House Gas Pipes - Capacities vs. Dimensions

Carrying capacity of house gas pipes - in imperial and metric units.

### Hydraulic Force vs. Pascal's Law

Pascal's law and the hydraulic force acting in fluids.

### Liquids - Vapor Pressures

Vapor and saturation pressure for some common liquids.

### LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas

LNG or Liquefied Natural Gas.

### LP Gas Properties

Liquefied Petroleum - LP - gas properties.

### LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas

LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas.

### LPG Tanks - Capacities of Relief Valves

Required capacities of relief valves on LPG vaporizers and tanks.

### Medical Gas Piping

Piping systems for medical gases.

### Methane - Liquid vs. Gaseous Units

Convert between liquid and gaseous LNG and Methane units.

### Moist Air - Density vs. Water Content and Temperature

Density of the mix of dry air and water vapor - moist humid air.

### Natural Gas - Capacity of Meters

Types of natural gas meters and their capacities.

### Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing Calculator

Calculate capacities and dimensions of natural gas pipe lines.

### Natural Gas Apartment Consumption vs. no. of Apartments

Multiple apartments and natural gas demand.

### Natural Gas Consumption

Natural gas consumption for equipment like boiling pans, ovens, cookers, kettles and more.

### Natural Gas Glossary

Natural gas is used extensively in residential, commercial and industrial applications.

### Natural Gas Laboratory Consumption vs. no. of Outlets

Natural gas consumption in laboratory outlets.

### Natural Gas Pipes - Low Pressure Capacities vs. Size

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Imperial units.

### Natural Gas Pipes - Minimum Cover

Burial dept and minimum cover of underground natural gas pipes.

### Natural Gas Piping - Sizing of Low Pressure Pipes vs. Capacity

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Metric units.

### Natural Gas Piping - Sizing vs. Capacity

Sizing natural gas pipes - pressures above 5 psi (35 kPa).

### Nitrogen - Enthalpy, Internal Energy and Entropy vs. Temperature

Enthalpy, internal energy and entropy of Nitrogen as an ideal gas.

### Non-ideal gas - Van der Waal's Equation and Constants

The van der Waals constants for more than 200 gases used to correct for non-ideal behavior of gases caused by intermolecular forces and the volume occupied by the gas particles.

### Orifice Air Discharge vs. Pressure

Nozzles discharging air volume.

### Orifices - Natural Gas Capacity

Capacity of natural gas orifices.

### Oxygen - Enthalpy, Internal Energy and Entropy vs. Temperature

Enthalpy, internal energy and entropy of oxygen as an ideal gas.

### Pneumatic Cylinders - Acting Velocities

Calculate pneumatic cylinder acting velocity.

### Pneumatic Cylinders - Excerted Force vs. Pressure

Force excerted by pneumatic air cylinders vs. air pressure cylinder size - online calculator.

### Pressure

Introduction to pressure - online pressure units converter.

### Pressure Units Converter

Convert from kPa to psi and inches of Water and Mercury.

### Propane - Latent Heat of Vaporization vs. Temperature

Latent heat with vaporized propane.

### Propane Air Mixture

Energy content and specific gravity of propane air mixtures.

### Propane Butane Mixture - Evaporation Pressure

Evaporation pressure of propane butane mixture vs. temperature.

### Propane Gas - Sizing Pipe Lines

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Metric units.

### Propane Gas Piping - Capacity vs. Size

Sizing of propane gas pipe lines with pressures above 5 psig (35 kPa).

### Propane Gas Piping - Low Pressure Capacity vs. Size

Sizing of low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Imperial units.

### Pumps vs. Compressors, Blowers and Fans

The difference between pumps, compressors, blowers and fans.

### Rating of Air Compressors and Air Equipment

Common rating terms for air flow capacity are ICFM, FAD, ANR, SCFM or nl/min.

### Relief Valves - Length of Vent Pipes

Calculate length of safety valves vent pipes.

### Safety Relief Valve Capacities

Maximum safety valve free air relief capacity.

### Safety Valves in Gas and Vapor Systems

Calculating relief valves in gas and vapor systems.

### Single Acting Pneumatic Piston - Air Consumption

Calculate air volume used by a single-acting piston.

### Steam and Vapor Enthalpy

Vapor and steam enthalpy, specific enthalpy of saturated liquid, saturated vapor and superheated vapor.

### The Ideal Gas Law

The relationship between volume, pressure, temperature and quantity of a gas, including definition of gas density.

### Types of Air Compressors

Reciprocating, rotary screw and rotary centrifugal air compressors.

### Universal and Individual Gas Constants

The Universal and Individual Gas Constants in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. Individual gas constants for the most common gases.

### Vacuum

Vacuum is defined as air pressure below atmospheric pressure.

### Vacuum - Air Expansion Ratio

Convert vacuum air volume to standard air volume

### Vacuum - Evacuation Time

Vacuum pumps - calculate flow rate and required evacuation time.

### Vacuum - Measure Flow

Measure air volume flow in vacuum.

### Vacuum - Pressure Units Converter

Converting between vacuum units like % vacuum - mm Mercury - psi - torr - micron - kPa.

### Vacuum Pipes - Flow Velocities

Air velocity diagrams for vacuum pipe lines.

### Vacuum Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Air Flow

Calculate pressure drops in vacuum pipe lines.

### Vacuum Pumps - Exhaust Pipe Capacities

Capacities of vacuum pump exhaust pipes.

### Vapor and Steam

Introduction to vapor and steam.

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Temperature

oC
oF

Length

m
km
in
ft
yards
miles
naut miles

Area

m2
km2
in2
ft2
miles2
acres

Volume

m3
liters
in3
ft3
us gal

Weight

kgf
N
lbf

Velocity

m/s
km/h
ft/min
ft/s
mph
knots

Pressure

Pa (N/m2)
bar
mm H2O
kg/cm2
psi
inches H2O

Flow

m3/s
m3/h
US gpm
cfm

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