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# Resistivity and Conductivity - Temperature Coefficients Common Materials

## Resistivity, conductivity and temperature coefficients for common materials like silver, gold, platinum, iron and more..

Resistivity is

• the electrical resistance of a unit cube of a material measured between the opposite faces of the cube

### Electric Conductor Resistance Calculator

This calculator can be used to calculate electrical resistance of a conductor.

Resistivity, Conductivity and Temperature Coefficients Common Materials
Material Resistivity Coefficient 2)
- ρ -
(ohm m 2 /m)
( Ω m )
Temperature
Coefficient
2)
- α -

(per degree C)
(1/ o C)
Conductivity
- σ -
(1 /(Ω m))
Aluminum 2.65 x 10 -8 3.8 x 10 -3 3.77 x 10 7
Aluminum alloy 3003, rolled 3.7 x 10 -8
Aluminum alloy 2014, annealed 3.4 x 10 -8
Aluminum alloy 360 7.5 x 10 -8
Aluminum bronze 12 x 10 -8
Animal fat 14 x 10 -2
Animal muscle 0.35
Antimony 41.8 x 10 -8
Barium (0 o C) 30.2 x 10 -8
Beryllium 4.0 x 10 -8
Beryllium copper 25 7 x 10 -8
Bismuth 115 x 10 -8
Brass - 58% Cu 5.9 x 10 -8 1.5 x 10 -3
Brass - 63% Cu 7.1 x 10 -8 1.5 x 10 -3
Caesium (0 o C) 18.8 x 10 -8
Calcium (0 o C) 3.11 x 10 -8
Carbon (graphite) 1) 3 - 60 x 10 -5 -4.8 x 10 -4
Cast iron 100 x 10 -8
Cerium (0 o C) 73 x 10 -8
Chromel (alloy of chromium and aluminum) 0.58 x 10 -3
Chromium 13 x 10 -8
Cobalt 9 x 10 -8
Constantan 49 x 10 -8 3 x 10 -5 0.20 x 10 7
Copper 1.724 x 10 -8 4.29 x 10 -3 5.95 x 10 7
Cupronickel 55-45 (constantan) 43 x 10 -8
Dysprosium (0 o C) 89 x 10 -8
Erbium (0 o C) 81 x 10 -8
Eureka 0.1 x 10 -3
Europium (0 o C) 89 x 10 -8
Gallium (1.1K) 13.6 x 10 -8
Germanium 1) 1 - 500 x 10 -3 -50 x 10 -3
Glass 1 - 10000 x 10 9 10 -12
Gold 2.24 x 10 -8
Graphite 800 x 10 -8 -2.0 x 10 -4
Hafnium (0.35K) 30.4 x 10 -8
Hastelloy C 125 x 10 -8
Holmium (0 o C) 90 x 10 -8
Indium (3.35K) 8 x 10 -8
Inconel 103 x 10 -8
Iridium 5.3 x 10 -8
Iron 9.71 x 10 -8 6.41 x 10 -3 1.03 x 10 7
Lanthanum (4.71K) 54 x 10 -8
Lead 20.6 x 10 -8 0.45 x 10 7
Lithium 9.28 x 10 -8
Lutetium 54 x 10 -8
Magnesium 4.45 x 10 -8
Magnesium alloy AZ31B 9 x 10 -8
Manganese 185 x 10 -8 1.0 x 10 -5
Mercury 98.4 x 10 -8 8.9 x 10 -3 0.10 x 10 7
Mica (Glimmer) 1 x 10 13
Mild steel 15 x 10 -8 6.6 x 10 -3
Molybdenum 5.2 x 10 -8
Monel 58 x 10 -8
Neodymium 61 x 10 -8
Nichrome (alloy of nickel and chromium) 100 - 150 x 10 -8 0.40 x 10 -3
Nickel 6.85 x 10 -8 6.41 x 10 -3
Nickeline 50 x 10 -8 2.3 x 10 -4
Niobium (Columbium) 13 x 10 -8
Osmium 9 x 10 -8
Phosphorus 1 x 10 12
Platinum 10.5 x 10 -8 3.93 x 10 -3 0.943 x 10 7
Plutonium 141.4 x 10 -8
Polonium 40 x 10 -8
Potassium 7.01 x 10 -8
Praseodymium 65 x 10 -8
Promethium 50 x 10 -8
Protactinium (1.4K) 17.7 x 10 -8
Quartz (fused) 7.5 x 10 17
Rhenium (1.7K) 17.2 x 10 -8
Rhodium 4.6 x 10 -8
Rubber - hard 1 - 100 x 10 13
Rubidium 11.5 x 10 -8
Ruthenium (0.49K) 11.5 x 10 -8
Samarium 91.4 x 10 -8
Scandium 50.5 x 10 -8
Selenium 12.0 x 10 -8
Silicon 1) 0.1-60 -70 x 10 -3
Silver 1.59 x 10 -8 6.1 x 10 -3 6.29 x 10 7
Sodium 4.2 x 10 -8
Soil, typical ground 10 -2 - 10 -4
Solder 15 x 10 -8
Stainless steel 10 6
Strontium 12.3 x 10 -8
Sulfur 1 x 10 17
Tantalum 12.4 x 10 -8
Terbium 113 x 10 -8
Thallium (2.37K) 15 x 10 -8
Thorium 18 x 10 -8
Thulium 67 x 10 -8
Tin 11.0 x 10 -8 4.2 x 10 -3
Titanium 43 x 10 -8
Tungsten 5.65 x 10 -8 4.5 x 10 -3 1.79 x 10 7
Uranium 30 x 10 -8
Water, distilled 10 -4
Water, fresh 10 -2
Water, salt 4
Ytterbium 27.7 x 10 -8
Yttrium 55 x 10 -8
Zinc 5.92 x 10 -8 3.7 x 10 -3
Zirconium (0.55K) 38.8 x 10 -8

1) Note! - the resistivity depends strongly on the presence of impurities in the material.

2 ) Note! - the resistivity depends strongly on the temperature of the material. The table above is based on 20 o C reference.

### Convert between Electrical Resistivity Units

• 1 Ω m = 10 -2 Ω cm = 2.54 10 -2 Ω inch = 3.048 10 -1 Ω foot

### Electrical Resistance in a Wire

The electrical resistance of a wire is greater for a longer wire and less for a wire of larger cross sectional area. The resistance depend on the material of which it is made and can be expressed as:

R = ρ L / A (1)

where

R = resistance (ohm, Ω )

ρ = resistivity coefficient (ohm m, Ω m)

L = length of wire (m)

A = cross sectional area of wire (m 2 )

The factor in the resistance which takes into account the nature of the material is the resistivity. Since it is temperature dependent, it can be used to calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometry at different temperatures.

The inverse of resistivity is called conductivity and can be expressed as:

σ = 1 / ρ (2)

where

σ = conductivity (1 / Ω m)

#### Example - Resistance in an Aluminum Wire

Resistance of an aluminum cable with length 10 m and cross sectional area of 3 mm 2 can be calculated as

R = (2.65 10 -8 Ω m) (10 m) / ((3 mm 2 ) (10 -6 m 2 /mm 2 ))

= 0.09 Ω

### Resistance

The electrical resistance of a circuit component or device is defined as the ratio of the voltage applied to the electric current which flows through it:

R = U / I (3)

where

R = resistance (ohm)

U = voltage (V)

I = current (A)

### Ohm's Law

If the resistance is constant over a considerable range of voltage, then Ohm's law,

I = U / R (4)

can be used to predict the behavior of the material.

### Resistivity vs. Temperature

Change in resistivity vs. temperature can be calculated as

= ρ α dt                  (5)

where

dρ = change in resistivity (ohm m 2 /m)

α = temperature coefficient (1/ o C)

dt = change in temperature ( o C)

#### Example - Change in Resistivity

Aluminum with resistivity 2.65 x 10 -8 ohm m 2 /m is heated from 20 o C to 100 o C . The temperature coefficient for aluminum is 3.8 x 10 -3 1/ o C . The change in resistivity can be calculated as

dρ = (2.65 10 -8 ohm m 2 /m) (3.8 10 -3 1/ o C) ((100 o C) - (20 o C))

= 0.8 10 -8 ohm m 2 /m

The final resistivity can be calculated as

ρ = (2.65 10 -8 ohm m 2 /m) + (0.8 10 -8 ohm m 2 /m)

= 3.45 10 -8 ohm m 2 /m

#### Resistivity Coefficient vs. Temperature Calculator

This caculator can be used to calculate resistivity in a conductor material vs. temperature.

### Resistance and Temperature

For most materials the electrical resistance increases with temperature. Change in resistance can be expressed as

dR / R s = α dT (6)

where

dR = change in resistance (ohm)

R s = standard resistance according reference tables (ohm)

α = temperature coefficient of resistance ( o C -1 )

dT = change in temperature from reference temperature ( o C, K)

(5) can be modified to:

dR = α dT R s (6b)

The "temperature coefficient of resistance" - α - of a material is the increase in the resistance of a 1 Ω resistor of that material when the temperature is increased 1 o C .

#### Example - Resistance of a Copper Wire in Hot Weather

A copper wire with resistance 0.5 kΩ at normal operating temperature 20 o C is in hot sunny weather heated to 80 o C . The temperature coefficient for copper is 4.29 x 10 -3 (1/ o C) and  the change in resistance can be calculated as

dR = ( 4.29 x 10 -3 1/ o C) ((80 o C) - (20 o C) ) (0.5 kΩ)

= 0.13 (kΩ)

The resulting resistance for the copper wire in hot weather will be

R = (0.5 kΩ) + (0.13 kΩ)

= 0.63 (kΩ)

= 630 (Ω)

#### Example - Resistance of a Carbon Resistor when Temperature is changed

A carbon resistor with resistance 1 kΩ at temperature 20 o C is heated to 120 o C . The temperature coefficient for carbon is negative -4.8 x 10 -4 (1/ o C) - the resistance is reduced with increasing temperature.

The change in resistance can be calculated as

dR = ( -4.8 x 10 -4 1/ o C) ((120 o C) - (20 o C) ) (1 kΩ)

= - 0.048 (kΩ)

The resulting resistance for the resistor will be

R = (1 kΩ) - (0.048 kΩ)

= 0.952 (kΩ)

= 952 (Ω)

#### Resistance vs. Temperature Calculator

This caculator can be used to calculate resistance in a conductor vs. temperature.

### Temperature Correction Factors for Conductor Resistance

Temperature Correction Factors for Conductor Resistance
Temperature of Conductor
(°C)
Factor to Convert to 20°CReciprocal to Convert from 20°C
5 1.064 0.940
6 1.059 0.944
7 1.055 0.948
8 1.050 0.952
9 1.046 0.956
10 1.042 0.960
11 1.037 0.964
12 1.033 0.968
13 1.029 0.972
14 1.025 0.976
15 1.020 0.980
16 1.016 0.984
17 1.012 0.988
18 1.008 0.992
19 1.004 0.996
20 1.000 1.000
21 0.996 1.004
22 0.992 1.008
23 0.988 1.012
24 0.984 1.016
25 0.980 1.020
26 0.977 1.024
27 0.973 1.028
28 0.969 1.032
29 0.965 1.036
30 0.962 1.040
31 0.958 1.044
32 0.954 1.048
33 0.951 1.052

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## Citation

• The Engineering ToolBox (2003). Resistivity and Conductivity - Temperature Coefficients Common Materials. [online] Available at: https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/resistivity-conductivity-d_418.html [Accessed Day Month Year].

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12.8.9