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# Electrical

## Electrical units, amps and electrical wiring, wire gauge and AWG, electrical formulas and motors.

### 12 Volt - Electric Automotive Wiring

Maximum wire lengths vs. currents in the 12 volt electrical system of a car.

### 12 Volt - Maximum Wire Length vs. Current

Maximum length of copper wire with 2% voltage drop.

### 12 Volt - Wire Gauge vs. Amps

Maximum current (amps) in a 12V electrical circuit vs. size (AWG) and length of wire.

### AC - Active, Reactive and Apparent Power

Real, imaginary and apparent power in AC circuits.

### AC Circuits - Power vs. Voltage and Current

The alternating current In an AC circuit is generated by a sinusoidal voltage source.

### Aluminum and Copper Wires - Electrical Resistance vs. Cross-Sectional Area

Electrical resistance in plain copper or aluminum wires.

### Aluminum Conductor Characteristics

Characteristics of all-aluminum conductors (AAC).

### Asynchronous Induction Motors - Electrical Properties

Typical electrical motor data like nominal current, fuse, start ampere, size of contactor and circuit breaker - for asynchronous induction motors.

### AWG - American Wire Gauge Converting Chart

American Wire Gauge (AWG) vs. cross sectional area converter.

### AWG - American Wire Gauge Current Ratings

Amp ratings vs. US AWG wire gauges.

### AWG - American Wire Gauge vs. Circular Mils

AWG vs. diameter mil, circular mil, diameter in mm and area in mm2.

### Capacitors

Capacitors and capacitance - charge and unit of charge.

### Capacitors - Parallel and Serial Connections

Parallel and serial connected capacitor circuits.

### Capacitors - Stored Energy

Potential power and energy stored in capacitors.

### CE Marking

Verifies that a product is designed to the appropriate standards according the European Machine Directive.

### Circles within a Rectangle - Calculator

Calculate the maximum number of circles within a rectangle - can be used to calculate the numbers of pipes or wires in a conduit or similar.

### CM - Circular Mil Area

The circular mil area (CM) unit denotes the cross-sectional size of a wire or a cable.

### Copper and Aluminum Wire - Max Amps vs. Gauge

Maximum current in copper and aluminum wire.

### Copper Wire - Electrical Resistance vs. Gauge

Gauge, weight, circular mils and electrical resistance in copper wire.

### Coulomb's Law

The electric force acting on a point charge.

### Current Divider - Online Calculator

An electric current divider outputs a current that is a fraction of the input current.

### Dielectric Strength of Insulating Materials

The dielectric strength of a material is the ability to the material to act as an insulator.

### Electric Cable Size vs. Current Rating

Amps vs. cable size for fixed installations in buildings.

### Electric Circuit Diagram - Drawing Template

Online shareable electric circuit diagram.

### Electric Circuits Voltage Drop

Ohm's law and voltage drop in electric circuits.

### Electric Current - Single Phased vs. Three Phased Amperage

Convert between single phase (120, 240 and 480 Voltage) and three phase (240 and 480 Voltage).

### Electric Heating of Mass

Electric heating of an object or mass - temperature change vs. energy supplied.

### Electric Motor Calculator

Calculate amps, hp and kVA for electrical motors.

### Electric Motors - 230 & 460V Three Phase Circuits Wiring

Sizing of copper wire and transformers for three phase 230 & 460V electrical motors.

### Electric Motors - 480 Volt Wiring

480V electrical motor wiring data - NEMA amps, starter size, HMCP size for motors ranging 1/2 to 500 hp.

### Electric Motors - Efficiency

Calculate electric motor efficiency.

### Electric Motors - IEC and NEMA Standard Torques

IEC and NEMA torque classifications of electrical motors.

### Electric Motors - Torque vs. Power and Speed

Electric motor output power and torque vs. rotation speed.

### Electric Shocks

The physiological effects of electric shocks.

### Electric Wire - Calculating Cross-Section Areas

Calculate single and bunched electric wire cross-section area and diameter.

### Electric Wire - Maximum Length with 240 Volts Single-Phase Power

Maximum length of 240 V single phase electric wire with max. 2% voltage drop.

### Electric Wire - Resistance

Electric resistance in wire made of Copper, Aluminum, Brass, Constantan, Nichrome, Platinum, Silver or Tungsten.

### Electrical Conductivity - Elements and other Materials

Electric conductance is the ability of a element to conduct an electric current.

### Electrical DC Motors - Full-load Currents

Full load amps in 120 and 240 volts electrical DC motors.

### Electrical Distribution Systems

Electrical distribution systems commonly used in Europe and USA

### Electrical Enclosure Types by NEMA

Description of NEMA electrical enclosures types.

### Electrical Formulas

Commonly used electrical formulas like Ohms Law and more.

### Electrical Inductance - Serial and Parallel Connections

Electrical inductance in serial and parallel connected inductors.

### Electrical Induction Motors - Slip

Slip is the difference between an electrical induction motor's synchronous and asynchronous speed.

### Electrical Induction Motors - Synchronous Speed

Operating speed of an induction motor depends on the input power frequency and the number of magnetic poles in the motor.

### Electrical Induction Motors - Torque vs. Speed

Full load operating torque vs. break down, pull up and locked rotor torque.

### Electrical Metal Tubing (EMT) - Conduits

Trade sizes and max. distance between conduit supports.

### Electrical Motors - Frame Dimensions

Electrical motors NEMA frame dimensions.

### Electrical Motors - Full Load Amps

Full load amps for single and 3-phase 460 volts, 230 volts and 115 volts electric motors.

### Electrical Motors - Heat Loss

Heat loss from an electrical motor to the surroundings.

### Electrical Motors - Horsepower vs. Voltage and Amps

Electrical motors horsepower rating vs. their ampere rating.

### Electrical Motors - Insulation Classes

Electrical motors NEMA temperature and insulation classes.

### Electrical Motors - Locked Rotor Design Code Letters

NEMA locked rotor indicating code letters for electrical motors.

### Electrical Motors - Maximum Cable Size and Length vs. Power

Maximum electrical motor cable length vs. power.

### Electrical Motors - NEMA Frame Assignments

NEMA frame assignments.

### Electrical Motors - Shaft Power vs. Voltage and Current

Calculate electric motors shaft power.

### Electrical Motors - Single Phase 230 V Circuit Wiring

Copper wire gage and transformer size for single phase 230 volts electrical motors.

### Electrical Motors - Speed at Operating vs. Synchronous Load

Speed of an operating electrical motor with load is lower than the synchronous speed (no load) of the motor.

### Electrical Motors - Speed vs. No. of Poles and Frequency

The speed of electrical motors with 2, 4, 6 or 8 poles at 50 Hz and 60 Hz.

### Electrical Motors Efficiency Ratings

NEMA - electrical motor efficiency ratings.

### Electrical Motors Service Factor

Service factor - SF - is a measure of periodically overload capacity at which a motor can operate without beeing damaged.

### Electrical Parallel Circuits

Resistance, voltage and current in electrical parallel circuits.

### Electrical Resistance in Serial and Parallel Networks

Resistors in parallel and serial connections.

### Electrical Series Circuits

Voltage and current in electrical series circuits.

### Electrical Units

Definition of common electrical units - like Ampere, Volt, Ohm, Siemens.

### Electrical Vehicle Charging - Power vs. Voltage and Amps

EV Charging - AC vs. DC, single phase vs. three phase and power vs. voltage and amps.

### Electromotive Force - e.m.f

Change in electrical potential between two points.

### Electrotechnical Abbreviations

Abbreviations according the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

### Extension Cords - Load Rating vs. Wire Gauge and Length

Size of extension cords - full load ratings with 115 V.

### Galvanic Corrosion vs. Electrode Potential

Introduction to electro chemical series and corrosion of metals.

### IEC Electric Motor Duty Cycles

The eight - S1 - S8 - IEC duty cycles of operating electrical motors.

### Inductance

The Electro Magnetic Field - EMF - induced into a electric circuit.

### Induction Motors - No. of Poles and Synchronous vs. Full Load Speed

Synchronous and full load speed of amplitude current (AC) induction motors.

### Inductors - Stored Energy

Energy stored in a magnetic field.

### Intermediate Metal Conduit - IMC

Lighter and lower cost metal conduits.

### IP - Ingress Protection Ratings

IP - Ingress Protection rating is used to specify the environmental protection - or electrical enclosure - of electrical equipment.

### Kirchhoff's Voltage and Current Laws

Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws.

### LENI - Lighting Energy Numeric Indicator

Energy consumption of lighting systems

### Lights vs. Power Installation

Lights vs. power installations in common types of buildings and rooms.

### Ligths - Color Temperatures

Light sources and their color irradiation in degrees Kelvin.

### Luminous Efficacy

The visible light produced by light sources.

### NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association

National Electrical Manufacturers Association.

### NEMA A, B, C and D Electrical Motor Design

NEMA has established the four different designs A, B, C and D for electrical induction motors.

### NEMA and IEC Enclosure Classifications

NEMA enclosure classifications versus IEC enclosure classifications.

### NEMA Enclosure Standards for Electric Motors

NEMA enclosure standard for electrical motors.

### NEMA Insulation Classes

Electrical insulation systems rated by standard NEMA classifications to maximize allowable operating temperatures.

### Nema Starters

Nema sized contactors or starters.

### Nickel-Chromium Heater Wire - Temperature Rise vs. Amps

Electric resistance vs. temperature rise for Nickel-Chromium electrical heater wire.

### Ohm's Law

The relation between voltage, current and electrical resistance.

### Online Wire Gauge - AWG - Calculator

Calculate AWG, mil, mm, CM or square mm.

### Permeability

Electromagnetism and formation of magnetic fields.

### Polyphase Motors - Voltage Imbalance vs. Derating Factor

Increased voltage imbalance and decreased efficiency.

### Potential Divider - Online Calculator

Output voltage with a potential divider.

### Power Installations - DIN VDE Standards

DIN VDE power installation standards.

### Power Wiring - Color Codes

Color codes used in power wiring.

### Rechargeable Batteries Life Calculator

Properties of rechargeable batteries and accumulators.

### Relative Permittivity - the Dielectric Constant

Common materials and their relative permittivity.

### Relative vs. Absolute Voltage

Electric circuits and voltage at any point.

### Resistance vs. Conductance

The reciprocal of electrical resistance is conductance.

### Resistance vs. Resistivity

Electrical resistance and resistivity.

### Resistivity and Conductivity - Temperature Coefficients Common Materials

Resistivity, conductivity and temperature coefficients for common materials like silver, gold, platinum, iron and more..

### Resistors - Color Codes Calculator

Color codes for fixed resistors - values and tolerances - online calculator.

### Resistors - Letters and Digit Codes

Letter and digit codes to indicating resistor values.

### Resistors - Standard Values

Preferred number series for resistors.

### Rigid Aluminum Conduit - RAC

Rigid Aluminum Conduit dimensions.

### Single Phase Power Equations

Power equations for single phased electrical systems.

### Smaller Circles within a Larger Circle - Calculator

Calculate the number of small circles that fits into an outer larger circle - ex. how many pipes or wires fits in a larger pipe or conduit.

### Soil Resistivity

Types of soil and resistivity.

### SWG - Standard Wire Gauge

Imperial Standard Wire Gauge used with wire and sheet metal.

### Three-Phase Electrical Motors - Power vs. Amps and Voltage

Full load amps, wire and conduit sizes for three phase electrical motors.

### Three-Phase Electrtical Motors - Power Factor vs. Inductive Load

Inductive loads and power factors with electrical three-phase motors.

### Three-Phase Power Equations

Electrical 3-phase equations.

### Transformers - kVA Ratings vs. Volt and Amps

Alternating voltage and induced electro magnetic field - e.m.f. - in a transformer.

### Transient Spikes

A transient is a high voltage spike caused by an external or internal transient source

### Voltage Standards by Country

Typical voltages and frequencies used for domestic appliances in different countries.

### Wire Size - Area to Diameter Converter

Convert wire area from square mm to diameter mm.

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## Unit Converters

Temperature

oC
oF

Length

m
km
in
ft
yards
miles
naut miles

Area

m2
km2
in2
ft2
miles2
acres

Volume

m3
liters
in3
ft3
us gal

Weight

kgf
N
lbf

Velocity

m/s
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mph
knots

Pressure

Pa (N/m2)
bar
mm H2O
kg/cm2
psi
inches H2O

Flow

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m3/h
US gpm
cfm

2 6

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