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Water Distribution Pipes - Materials

Materials used in water distribution pipes.

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A water-distribution pipe is located inside a building and delivers potable water to the fixtures. The supply system delivering water from the potable source to the building is the "water service" pipe.

The water distribution system includes normally both hot and cold water. The temperature range limits the materials allowed.

  • it is common to rate water-distribution pipes for a minimum working pressure of aprox. 100 psi (7 bar) and 180oF (80oC)

It the the water-service to the building exceeds the rated water-distribution pressure, a pressure-reducing valve must be installed.

Commonly used and approved materials in water-distribution pipe lines are

  • Copper tube
  • Galvanized steel pipe
  • PB - polybutene
  • PEX - cross-linked Polyethylene

Water Distribution Pipes

Materials used for water distribution pipes according US standards.

Piping MaterialUS Standards
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubing ASTM D2846; ASTM F441; ASTM F442; CSA B137.6
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride/aluminum/chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC/AL/CPVC) ASTM F2855
Copper or copper-alloy pipe ASTM B42; ASTM B302; ASTM B43
Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM) ASTM B75; ASTM B88; ASTM B251; ASTM B447
Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing ASTM F876; CSA B137.5
Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pipe ASTM F1281; ASTM F2262; CSA B137.10
Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene (PEX-AL-HDPE) ASTM F1986
Ductile iron pipe AWWA C151/A21.51; AWWA C115/A21.15
Galvanized steel pipe ASTM A53
Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) composite pipe ASTM F1282
Polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) plastic tubing ASTM F2769; CSA B137.158
Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing ASTM F2389; CSA B137.11
Stainless steel pipe (Type 304/304L) ASTM A312; ASTM A778
Stainless steel pipe (Type 316/316L) ASTM A312; ASTM A778
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