Hot and cold water service systems - design properties, capacities, sizing and more.
Butterfly Valves - Sizing and Selection
Selecting and sizing butterfly valves for water applications.
Centrifugal Pumps - Capacity Modulation
Modulating pumps to adapt capacities to variable process demands.
Cold Water Dwelling Storage Capacity
Required cold water dwelling storage capacity - commonly used fixtures and types of buildings.
Cold Water Storage per Occupant
Cold water storage for occupants in common types of buildings as factories, hospitals, houses and more
Copper Tubes - Heat Loss
Heat loss from uninsulated copper tubes vs. temperature differences between tube and air.
Copper Tubes - Insulated Heat Loss
Heat loss to surrounding air from insulated copper tubes.
Copper Tubes - Maximum Water Velocities
Water velocity in a copper tube should not exceed certain limits to avoid erosion.
Copper Tubes - Uninsulated Heat Losses
Heat loss from uninsulated copper pipes - dimensions ranging 1/2 - 4 inches.
Copper Tubes Type K, L and M - Working Pressures vs. Size
ASTM B88 seamless copper water tubes - working pressures.
Domestic Hot Water Heaters - Sizing
Domestic Hot-Water sizing equations - heating capacity, recovery rate and power supply.
Domestic Hot Water Service Systems - Design Procedures
Design procedures for domestic hot water service systems.
Domestic Service Water Supply Systems
Introduction to general design of domestic service water supply systems - with pressurized or gravity tanks.
Domestic Water Supply - Lime Deposits
Lime deposited vs. temperature and water consumption.
Farm Livestock - Water Consumption
Farming and animals required water supply.
Fixtures and Trap Sizes
Recommended drain trap sizes for different types of fixtures
Gases Solved in Water - Diffusion Coefficients
Diffusion flux [kg/m2s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m2/s] for several gases in water.
Heavy Water - Thermophysical Properties
Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D2O) like density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.
Hose - Water Discharge Volume Flow vs. Pressure
Water discharge through hoses - pressure ranging 10 - 200 psi (0.75 - 14 bar).
Hot and Cold Water Pipe Sizing
Recommended dimensions hot and cold water pipes.
Hot Water Circulation System - Return Pipes
Hot water can be circulated through a return pipe if it's instantly required at the fixtures.
Hot Water Consumption per Occupant
Consumption of hot water per person or occupant.
Hot Water Content in Fixtures
Content of hot water in some common used fixtures - basins, sinks and baths.
Hot Water Storage Tanks - Capacities vs. Dimensions
Dimensions and capacities of hot-water storage tanks.
Hot Water Supply - Fixture Consumption
Design hot water consumption of fixtures - basins, showers, sinks and baths.
Hot Water Supply - Flow Rates to Fixtures
Hot water consumption of some common equipment as basins, sinks, baths and showers.
HVAC Diagram - Online Drawing Tool
Draw HVAC diagrams online with this Google Drive drawing tool.
Ice and Water - Melting Points vs. Pressure
Online calculator, figures and tables with melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.
Impurities in Water Supply Systems
Typiclal limits for impurities in drinking water.
Liquid, Steam and Gas - Flow Coefficients Cv
Calculate flow coefficients for the design of control valves - Imperial units.
Nozzles - Water Discharge Capacities
Discharge capacities of water nozzles.
Open Horizontal Pipes - Discharge Length vs. Volume Flow
Discharge length vs. volume flow from water filled horizontal pipes.
P&ID Diagram - Online Drawing Tool
Draw P&ID diagrams online in the browser with Google Docs.
Pipes - Insulated Heat Loss Diagrams
Heat loss (W/m) from 1/2 to 6 inches insulated pipes - ranging insulation thickness 10 to 80 mm and temperature differences 20 to 180 oC.
PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow Diagrams
Friction loss (psi/100 ft) and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40.
Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - online calculators.
Stainless Steel Classifications
Stainless steels are commonly grouped into martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels.
Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Services
Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Services according ANSI/AWWA C207-01.
Trap Size vs. Fixture Units
No. of fixture units and required trap size.
Vertical Pipes - Discharge Height vs. Volume Flow
Volume flow and discharge height from vertical water pipes.
Volumetric (Cubic) Thermal Expansion
Volumetric temperature expansion calculator.
Water - Boiling Points at Vacuum Pressure
Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.
Water - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficients
Definitions, online calculator and figures and tables with water properties like density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 680°F).
Water - Dynamic (Absolute) and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure
Free online calculator - figures and tables with viscosity of water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 675°F) - Imperial and SI Units.
Water - Enthalpy (H) and Entropy (S) vs. Temperature
Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units.
Water - Heat of Vaporization vs. Temperature
Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.
Water - Human Activity and Consumption
Activity and average water consumption
Water - Ionization Constant, pKw, of Normal and Heavy water
Ionization constant (= dissociation constant = self-ionization constant = ion product = autoprotolysis constant ) of water and heavy water, given as function of temperature (°C and °F) in figures and tables.
Water - Max. Suction Flow Velocities vs. Pipe Size
Recommended max. water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps.
Water - Prandtl Number vs. Temperature and Pressure
Figures and tables with Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.
Water - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions
Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).
Water - Saturation Pressure vs. Temperature
Online calculator, figures and tables with water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging 0 to 370 °C (32 to 700°F) - in Imperial and SI Units.
Water - Specific Gravity vs. Temperature
Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference.
Water - Specific Heat vs. Temperature
Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.
Water - Specific Volume vs. Temperature
Online calculator, figures and tables showing Specific Volume of water at temperatures ranging from 0-370 °C and 32 - 700 °F - Imperial and IS Units.
Water - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature
Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units.
Water - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure
Figures and tables with thermal diffusivity of liquids and gaseous water at varying temperarures and pressures - SI and Imperial units.
Water Boiling Points at Higher Pressures
Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.
Water Control Valves - Kv Calculation
Designing water process control valves and their Kv values.
Water Distribution Pipes - Materials
Materials used in water distribution pipes.
Water Flow - Max. Delivery Velocities vs. Pipe Size
Recommended maximum flow velocities in water systems on the delivery side of the pump.
Rapidly closing or opening valves - or starting stopping pumps - may cause pressure transients in pipelines known as surge or water hammers.
Water Service Pipe Lines
Water service pipe lines extends from the potable water source to the interior of buildings.
Water Supply - Calculating Demand
Calculating expected demand for water supply service lines.
Water Supply Fixture Units - WSFU vs. GPM and Liters/sec
Converting WSFU - Water Supply Fixture Units - to GPM.
Water Supply Fixture Units WSFU
WSFU is used to calculate water supply service systems.
Water Supply Lines - Sizing
Sizing water supply service and distribution lines based on Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU).
Water Supply Pipe Lines - Sizing
Sizing of water supply pipe lines.
Water Supply Public Buildings
Required water supply to public buildings.
Water Supply Systems - Online Design Application
Free online tool for designing water supply systems in buildings.
Water Supply vs. Fixture Water Requirements
Supply requirements for common fixtures.
Water Systems - Maximum Flow Velocities
Water velocities in pipes and tubes should not exceed certain limits.
Water vs. Steam - Critical and Triple Points
Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Yard Fixtures - Water Consumption
Water consumption in garden fixtures.