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Water Systems

Hot and cold water service systems - design properties, capacities, sizing and more

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Centrifugal Pumps Modulated Capacity

Adapting pump capacity to variable process demand

Cold Water Storage Capacity

Required cold water storage capacity - commonly used fixtures and types of buildings

Cold Water Storage per Occupant

Cold water storage for occupants in common types of buildings as factories, hospitals, houses and more

Copper Tubes - Heat Loss

Heat loss from uninsulated copper tubes at various temperature differences between tube and air

Copper Tubes - Insulation and Heat Loss

Heat loss to surrounding air from insulated copper tubes

Copper Tubes - Maximum Water Velocity

Water velocity in a copper tube should not exceed certain limits to avoid erosion

Design of Domestic Service Water Supply Systems

Introduction to general design of domestic service water supply systems - with pressurized or gravity tanks

Diffusion Coefficients Gases in Water

Diffusion flux [kg/m2s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m2/s] are given for several gases in water

Domestic Hot Water Service Systems - Design Procedure

Design procedure for domestic hot water service systems

Domestic Water Supply - Lime Deposits

Lime deposited vs. temperature and water consumption

Farm Livestock - Water Consumption

Farming and animal required water supply

Fixture Units - WSFU vs GPM and Liters/sec

Converting WSFU - Water Supply Fixture Units - to GPM

Fixture Units and Required Trap Size

No. of fixture units and required trap sizes

Fixture Water Requirements

Water outlets demand

Fixtures and Trap Sizes

Recommended drain trap sizes for different types of fixtures

Flow Coefficients - Cv - and Formulas for Liquids, Steam and Gases - Online Calculators

Flow coefficient and proper design of control valves - Imperial Units

Heat Loss from Uninsulated Copper Tubes

Heat loss from uninsulated copper pipes - dimensions ranging 1/2 - 4 inches

Heavy Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermodynamic properties of heavy water (D2O) - density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more

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Horizontal Pipes - Discharge Flow vs. Length of Discharge Flow

Volume flow from horizontal pipes

Hot and Cold Water Pipe Sizing

Recommended dimensions of hot and cold water pipes

Hot Water Circulation Return Pipe

Hot water can be circulated through a return pipe if it's instantly required at the fixtures

Hot Water Consumption per Occupant

Consumption of hot water per person or occupant

Hot Water Content in Fixtures

Content of hot water in some common used fixtures - basins, sinks and baths

Hot Water Storage Tanks - Dimensions and Capacities

Dimensions and capacities of hot-water storage tanks

Hot Water Supply - Fixture Consumption

Design hot water consumption of fixtures - basins, showers, sinks and baths

Hot Water Supply - Flow Rates to Fixtures

Hot water consumption of some common equipment as basins, sinks, baths and showers

HVAC Diagram - Online Drawing

Draw HVAC diagrams - Online with the Google Drive drawing tool

Ice / Water - Melting Point at Higher Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

Insulated Pipes - Heat Loss Diagrams

Heat loss (W/m) from insulated pipes - ranging 1/2 - 6 inches - insulation thickness 10 - 80 mm - temperature differences 20 - 180 deg C

Maximum Flow Velocities in Water Systems

Water velocities in pipes and tubes should not exceed certain limits

Nozzles - Water Discharge Capacity

Discharge capacities of water nozzles

Online Design of Water Supply Systems

Online design tool for a water supply system

P&ID Diagram - Online Drawing Tool

Draw P&ID diagrams online in the browser with Google Docs

PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagrams

Friction loss (psi/100 ft) and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40

Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - online calculators

Sizing and Selection Butterfly Valves

Selecting and sizing butterfly valves for water applications

Sizing Domestic Hot Water Heaters

Domestic Hot-Water sizing equations - heating capacity, recovery rate and power supply

Sizing Water Supply Lines

Sizing water supply service and distribution lines based on Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU)

Stainless Steel Classifications

Stainless steels are commonly grouped into martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels

Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Services

Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Services according ANSI/AWWA C207-01

Surge - Water Hammer

Rapidly closing or opening valves - or starting stopping pumps - may cause pressure transients in pipelines known as surge or water hammers

Vertical Pipes - Discharge Flow vs. Height of Discharge Flow

Volume flow from vertical water pipes

Volumetric - or Cubic Thermal Expansion

Volumetric temperature expansion with online calculator

Water - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient

Definitions, online calculator, figures and tables giving Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging from 0 to 360 °C and 32 to 680°F - in Imperial and SI Units

Water - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing viscosity of water at temperatures ranging from 0 to 360 °C (32 to 675 °F) - Imperial and SI Units

Water - Enthalpy (H) and Entropy (S)

Figures and tables showing the enthalpy and entropy of liquid water as function of temperature - SI and Imperial Units

Water - Heat of Vaporization

Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units

Water - Human Activity and Consumption

Activity and average water consumption

Water - Ionization Constant, pKw, of normal and heavy water

Ionization constant (= dissociation constant = self-ionization constant = ion product = autoprotolysis constant ) of water and heavy water, given as function of temperature (°C and °F) in figures and tables

Water - Prandtl Number

Figures and tables showing Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Water - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).

Water - Saturation Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging from 0 to 370 °C and from 32 to 700°F - in Imperial and SI Units

Water - Specific Gravity

Figures and tables showing specific gravity of liquid water in the range of 32 to 700 °F or 0 to 370°C, using water density at four different temperatures as reference

Water - Specific Heat

Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat of liquid water at constant volume or constant pressure at temperatures from 0 to 360 °C (32-700 °F) - SI and Imperial units

Water - Specific Volume

Online calculator, figures and tables showing Specific Volume of water at temperatures ranging from 0-370 °C and 32 - 700 °F - Imperial and IS Units

Water - Suction Flow Velocity

Recommended water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps

Water - Thermal Conductivity

Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Water - Thermal Diffusivity

Figures and tables showing thermal diffusivity of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

Water Boiling Points at Higher Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

Water Boiling Points at Vacuum Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.

Water Control Valves - Calculating Kv Values

Design of water process control valves and their Kv values

Water Discharged through Hose

Water discharge through hoses - pressure ranging 10 - 200 psi (0.75 - 14 bar)

Water Distribution Pipes

Materials used in water distribution pipes

Water Flow - Delivery Velocity

Required maximum flow velocity in water systems - delivery side of the pump

Water Service Pipe Lines

Water service pipe lines extends from the potable water source to the interior of buildings

Water Supply - Calculating Demand

Calculating expected demand of water supply in service lines

Water Supply - Fixture Units WSFU

WSFU is used to calculate water supply service systems

Water Supply Pipe Lines - Sizing

Sizing of water supply pipe lines

Water Supply to Public Buildings

Required water supply to public buildings

Water vs Steam - Critical and Triple Point

Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium

Working Pressure Copper Tubes Type K, L and M

ASTM B88 seamless copper water tubes - working pressures

Yard Fixtures - Water Consumption

Water consumption in garden fixtures


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