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# High and Low Heat Values

## The gross (high) and net (low) heating values.

The heat value is

• the amount of heat produced by combustion a unit quantity of a fuel

We differentiate between gross and net heating values:

### Gross (or high, upper) Heating Value

The gross or high heating value is the amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a unit quantity of fuel.

The gross heating value is obtained when

• all products of the combustion are cooled down to the temperature before the combustion
• the water vapor formed during combustion is condensed

In thermodynamics, the term standard heat of combustion corresponds to Gross heating value. See Heat of combustion for examples of calculation of gross heating values from standard heat of formation of substances.

### Net (or lower) Heating Value

The net or lower heating value is obtained by

• subtracting the latent heat of vaporization of the water vapor formed by the combustion

from the gross or higher heating value.

### Common Units

Common units for heating value:

• 1 Btu/lb = 2326.1 J/kg = 0.55556 kcal/kg
• 1 J/kg = 0.00043 Btu/lb = 2.39x10-4 kcal/kg
• 1 kcal/kg = 1.80 Btu/lb = 4187 J/kg

## Related Topics

• ### Combustion

Boiler house topics, fuels like oil, gas, coal, wood - chimneys, safety valves, tanks - combustion efficiency.
• ### Thermodynamics

Work, heat and energy systems.

## Related Documents

• ### Alternative Fuels - Properties

Properties of alternative fuels like biodiesel, E85, CNG and more.
• ### Biogas - Energy Content

Energy content in biogas produced from municipal and industrial waste.
• ### Combustion Heat

Heat of combustion (energy content) for som common substances - with examples how to calculate heat of combustion.
• ### Energy Content in common Energy Sources

Heating fuels and their energy content.
• ### Food - Calorific Combustion Values

Combustion heat values of some foods.
• ### Fuel Gases - Heating Values

Combustion heat values for gases like acetylene, blast furnace gas, ethane, biogas and more - Gross and Net values.
• ### Fuels - Higher and Lower Calorific Values

Higher and lower calorific values (heating values) for fuels like coke, oil, wood, hydrogen and others.
• ### Gases - Gross and Net Heat Values

Gross heat and net heat values for gases like hydrogen, methane and more.
• ### Paraffins and Alkanes - Combustion Properties

Properties like heat values, air/fuel ratios, flame speed, flame temperatures, ignition temperatures, flash points and flammability limits.

• ### Waste Fuel - Heat Values

Fuel from waste products and their heat values.
• ### Wood - Combustion Heat Values

Combustion of wood and firewood heat values for species like Pine, Elm, Hickory and more.

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## Citation

• The Engineering ToolBox (2005). High and Low Heat Values. [online] Available at: https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/gross-net-heating-value-d_824.html [Accessed Day Month Year].

Modify the access date according your visit.

12.8.9