Boiler house topics - fuels like oil, gas, coal, wood - chimneys, safety valves, tanks - combustion efficiency
Adiabatic flame temperatures for hydrogen, methane, propane and octane - in Kelvin.
Incomplete boiler combustion may generate carbon monoxide - CO - and re-ignition may cause disastrous effects on personnel and property.
Properties of alternative fuels like biodiesel, E85, CNG and more.
Anthracite coal is available in a number of different grades.
API expresses the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products. Online API to Specific Gravity calculator.
An overview of ASTM Section 5 - Petroleum Products, Lubricants, and Fossil Fuels - Volume 05.06 Gaseous Fuels, Coal and Coke.
Typical composition of biogas produced from household waste.
Energy content in biogas produced from municipal and industrial waste.
Biomass fuels and their energy content.
Some biomass fuels and their higher heating values (HHV).
Combustion gross and net calorific value.
Recommended boiler exhaust velocities.
Minimum area in a boiler room.
Calculate chimney draft and required chimney area - online calculator.
Recommended size of explosion doors or draught stabilizers in oil fired installations.
The size of chimney vs. boiler's heat load.
Chimneys and single wall vents roof termination.
Chimneys and fireplaces for stoves burning wood or coal as fuel.
Oxidizers vs. inert vs. flammable gases.
Classification of coal based on volatile matter and cooking power of clean material.
Optimizing boilers efficiency is important to minimize fuel consumption and unwanted excess to the environment.
Heat of combustion (energy content) for som common substances - with examples how to calculate heat of combustion.
Environmental emission of carbon dioxide CO2 when combustion fuels like coal, oil, natural gas, LPG and bio energy.
Typical furnace combustion efficiencies in fireplaces, space heaters, boilers and more.
Combusting testing of fuel oil and gas burners.
Combustion of biomasses and their emission.
Heating fuels and their energy content.
The cord unit for purchasing fuel wood.
Adiabatic flame temperatures for common fuel gases - propane, butane, acetylene and more - in air or oxygen atmospheres.
The flash points for some common liquids and fuels.
Flue gas dew point temperatures and condensation of water vapor.
Net (low) and gross (high) energy content in fossil and alternative fuels.
Online fuels energy equivalents calculator for oil, gas and more.
Combustion values for fuel gases like natural gas, propane and butane - Btu per cubic feet.
Combustion heat values for gases like acetylene, blast furnace gas, ethane, biogas and more - Gross and Net values.
Wobbe index for fuel gases like propane, butane, methane and more.
Pot types, gun types and rotary types fuel burners.
Combustion values in Btu/gal for fuel oils No.1 to No.6.
Single stage and double stage fuel oil pumps and their suction capacities.
Fuel oil storage tanks dimensions.
Fuels and their boiling points.
Combustion air and flue gas for common fuels - coke, oil, wood, natural gas and more.
Densities and specific volumes fuels like anthracite, butane, gasoil, diesel, coke, oil, wood and more.
Exhaust and outlet temperatures fuels like natural gas, liquefied petroleum, diesel and more.
Higher and lower calorific values (heating values) for fuels like coke, oil, wood, hydrogen and others.
Online petroleum-based fuels properties database.
Fuels oil viscosities vs. temperature.
Autoignition points for fuels and chemicals like butane, coke, hydrogen, petroleum and more.
Flue gas dew point temperatures for some fuels.
Chemical composition of gaseous fuels like coal gas, natural gas, propane and more.
Flame and explosion limits for gases like propane, methane, butane, acetylene and more.
Gross heat and net heat values for gases like hydrogen, methane and more.
Gross combustion values for materials like - carbon, methane, ethylene and more - values in Btu/lb.
Cost comparison formulas for heating fuels like Natural Gas, Propane LP Gas, Fuel Oil and Electricity.
The gross (high) and net (low) heating values.
Boiler power and water flow - Imperial and SI-units.
Efficiency reduction due to intermittent boiler operation.
LNG or Liquefied Natural Gas.
LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas.
Convert between liquid and gaseous LNG and Methane units.
Natural gas consumption for equipment like boiling pans, ovens, cookers, kettles and more.
Emission of Nitrogen Oxides - NOx - with combustion of fuels like oil, coal, propane and more.
Head or pressure loss due to friction in oil pipes - various viscosity and laminar flow.
Heat loss in W/mK and Btu/hr ft oF from oil tubes ranging temperatures 10 - 38oC (50 - 100oF).
Oil pipes flow velocities should be kept within certain limits.
Stable and efficient combustion requires correct mixture of fuels and oxygen.
Properties like heat values, air/fuel ratios, flame speed, flame temperatures, ignition temperatures, flash points and flammability limits.
Chemical, physical and thermal properties of propane gas - C3H8.
Vapor pressure vs. temperature.
Evaporation pressure of propane butane mixture vs. temperature.
Standard grades coal heat values.
Convert between fuel equivalents.
Stoichiometric combustion and excess air.
Coal stokers classified on basis of coal burning capacities.
Fuel from waste products and their heat values.
Combustion of wood and firewood heat values for species like Pine, Elm, Hickory and more.
Combustion heat values for wet and dry wood - Btu/pounds, kJ/kg and kcal/kg.
Weight of green and air-dried fire wood.