Definitions of organic compounds
Hydrocarbon: An organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Main groups of hydrocarbons:
Alkane: An acyclic saturated hydrocarbon, with the general formula C n H 2n+2 . Also called paraffin .
Alkene: An unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond, with the general formula C n H 2n . Also called olefine .
Cycloalkane: A one-ring (monocyclic) saturated hydrocarbon, with the general formula C n H 2n . Also called naphthene .
Aromatic hydrocarbon : A cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms. The simplest of the aromatics have 6 carbon atoms and contains 3 double bounds. A one ring aromatic without any substituents is called benzene, with the formula C 6 H 6 .
Some under-groups of hydrocarbons given in this document:
Alkyl: An alkane substituent missing one hydrogen, with general formula C n H 2n+1
Branched alkyl: An alkyl with one or several side chains of carbon atoms connected to the main carbon atom chain.
Phenyl: An phenyl group is a benzene substituent missing one hydrogen, with general formula C6H5.
Classes of alcohols:
Alcohol: an organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom
Alkanol: An alcohol where the hydroxyl group is bound to an alkyl. If the hydroxyl group is bound to a carbon atom at the end of the alkyl, it is a 1-alkanol, if it is bound to the second carbon, it is a 2-alkanol, etc.
Branched alcohol: An alcohol where the hydroxyl group is bound to a branched alkyl.
Cyclo alcohol: An alcohol where the hydroxyl group is bound to a cycloalkane.
Phenol: An alcohol where the hydroxyl group is bound to a phenyl group, with the formula C6H5OH.
Phenols: A group of compounds consisting of a phenol molecule with one or more substiuents.
Diol: An organic compound containing two hydroxyl groups, R(-OH) 2 .
Triol : An organic compound containing three hydroxyl groups, R(-OH) 3 .
Classes of carboxylic acids:
Carboxylic acid: an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH). The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R–COOH, with R referring to the rest of the molecule.
Alkanoic acid: A carboxylic acid where the R is an alkyl.
Branched alkanoic acid: A carboxylic acid where the R is a branched alkyl.
Phenyl-alkanoic acid: An alkanoic acid bound to a phenyl.
Benzoic acid: A carboxylic acid where the acid group is substituted to one carbon of a benzene ring.
Hydroxy acid: A carboxylic acid containing an additional hydroxyl group.
Dioic acid: A carboxylic acid with two acid groups, R(-COOH) 2
Boiling points of elements, products and chemical species at varying conditions.
Densities of solids, liquids and gases. Definitions and convertion calculators.
Material properties of gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more.
Melting and freezing points of elements and chemical species at varying conditions.
pH range vs. color change for acid and base indicators - together with pKa and structures of the indicators.
pH values of acids like sulfuric, acetic and more..
Values for the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant, pKa, of the conjugated acid of amines, diamines and cyclic organic nitrogen compounds, shown together with the molecular structure of the acids.
API expresses the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products. Online API to Specific Gravity calculator.
Salts contains ions that may affect the pH in aqueous solutions in both acidic and basic directions.
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Online density converter with commonly used units.
Changes in density of aqueous solutions with changes in concentration at 20°C. Density of some sugars, alcohols and other organic substances in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution.
An introduction to density, specific weight and specific gravity.
The elements of the periodic system with names, symbols, atomic numbers and weights, melting and boiling points, density, electronegativity and electron affinity, and electron configuration.
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Variations in fuel oils density as function of temperatur, together with volume correction factors.
Boiling and freezing points of glycerine aqueous solutions.
Formulas and examples of calculation of boiling point of hydrocarbon mixtures from gravity and molecular weight.
Formulas and examples of calculation of average molecular weight of hydrocarbon mixtures from gravity and average boiling point, achieved from distillation data.
Molweight, melting and boiling point, density, flash point and autoignition temperature, as well as number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in each molecule for 200 different hydrocarbons.
Calculate melting point of hydrocarbons from molecular weight (molar mass).
Boiling temperatures (°C and °F) with varying carbon numbers up to C33.
Density of hydrocarbons like alcohols and acids as function of carbon number at 20°C / 68°.
Values for the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant, pKa, of inorganic acids and bases, as well as hydrated metal ions.
Physical constants for more than 280 common inorganic compounds. Density is given for the actual state at 25°C and for liquid phase at melting point temperature.
Variations in jet fuel density as function of temperatur, together with volume correction factors.
It is possible to estimate the density of a liquid-liquid solution from the density of the solute and the solvent. However, due to shrinkage, the estimate will be a bit too low.
Densities of common liquids like acetone, beer, oil, water and more.
Densities and specific volume of liquids vs. pressure and temperature change.
Common fluids and their freezing and melting points.
Specific gravities of liquids like alcohol, oils, benzene, water and many more.
Boiling temperatures for common liquids and gases - acetone, butane, propane and more.
Variations in lubricating oil density as function of temperatur, together with volume correction factors.
Melting and boiling point temperatures, latent heat of evaporation, and melting heat of common substances like copper, gold, lead and more - SI units.
Melting temperature (°C and °F) with carbon number up to C33.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic and kinematic viscosity of liquid methanol,CH3OH, at varying temperature - Imperial and SI Units.
Nomenclature rules for different groups of organic compounds and functional groups, together with examples of use of the rules.
Boiling and melting points of amines, diamines, pyrroles, pyridines, piperidines and quinolines shown together with their molecular structures, as well as molweights and density.
Liquid density of different kinds of organic sulfur compounds with varying carbon number (20°C/68°F). Comparison of thiols, sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes.
Boiling and melting points of thoils, sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes shown together with molecular structures, as well as molweights and density.
Definition, explanation and examples of calculation of various types of average boiling point of petroleum products and other mixtures of hydrocarbons: VABP, MABP, WABP, CABP and MeABP.
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Introduction to pH - the acidic and basic (alkaline) definition.
Densities of selected solids.
The most common strong acids and bases, and some examples of weak acids and bases, together with definition of strong and weak acids and bases.
Density of sulfuric acid at various temperatures and concentrations.
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