Fluid Flow and Pressure Loss
Pipe lines - fluid flow and pressure loss - water, sewer, steel pipes, pvc pipes, copper tubes and more.
Boiling Fluids - Max Suction Flow Velocity
Recommended max suction flow velocity when pumping boiling fluids.
Boiling Liquids - Max Pumping Flow Velocity
Recommended max flow velocity on the delivery (pressure) side when pumping boiling liquids.
Copper Tubes - Heat Carrying Capacities
Hot water heat carrying capacities in copper tubes type L.
Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss in Fittings and Valves Expressed as Equivalent Length of Tube
Copper tube fittings and equivalent lengths - in feets of straight tube.
Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow
Water flow and pressure loss (psi/ft) due to friction in copper tubes ASTM B88 Types K, L and M.
CTS (Copper Tube Sized) and CPVC Tubes - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow
Volume flow and pressure loss in CTS - Copper Tube Sized CPVC (Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride) tubes.
Darcy-Weisbach Equation - Major Pressure and Head Loss due to Friction
The Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to calculate the major pressure and head loss due to friction in ducts, pipes or tubes.
Download ANSI, American National Standards Institute, Standards
ANSI is a private, not-for-profit, membership organization that acts not as a standards developer, but as a standards coordinating and approval body.
Energy Equation - Pressure Loss vs. Head Loss
Calculate pressure loss - or head loss - in ducts, pipes or tubes.
Equivalent Length Method - Minor Pressure Loss in Piping Systems
Calculate minor pressure loss in piping systems with the Equivalent Pipe Length Method.
Equivalent Length vs. Minor Pressure Head Loss in Pipe and Duct Components
Minor pressure and head loss in pipes vs. equivalent length in tubes and duct systems.
Fluid Flow - Equation of Continuity
The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation.
Fluid Flow - Hydraulic Diameter
Calculate hydraulic diameter for pipes and ducts.
Friction Loss in Steel, Copper and Plastic Pipes
Friction head loss (ft/100 ft) vs. water flow in steel, copper and PVC plastic pipes.
Gas Pipes - Low Pressure Sizing
Sizing gas pipes for apartment service lines.
Hazen-Williams Friction Loss Equation - calculating Head Loss in Water Pipes
Friction head loss (ftH2O per 100 ft pipe) in water pipes can be estimated with the empirical Hazen-Williams equation.
Hazen-Williams Pressure Loss Equation
The Hazen-Williams equation can be used to calculate the pressure drop (psi) or friction loss in pipes or tubes.
Hoses - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow
Pressure loss in hoses due to water flow and friction.
Hot Water Heating Systems - Pressure Loss in Steel Pipes
Pressure loss nomogram for hot water steel pipes.
Hot Water Systems - Equivalent Length vs. Fittings Resistance
Equivalent length of fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves in hot water heating systems - equivalent length in feet and meter.
House Gas Pipes - Capacities vs. Dimensions
Carrying capacity of house gas pipes - in imperial and metric units.
Light Oil Pumping - Flow Velocities
Recommended max. flow velocities on the delivery side when pumping light oils.
Light Oil Suction - Flow Velocities
Recommended max. suction flow velocities when pumping light oils.
Lined Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow
Pressure drop diagrams for PTFE, PP, PFA and PVDF lined pipes.
Liquids - Densities
Densities of common liquids like acetone, beer, oil, water and more.
Liquids - Specific Gravities
Specific gravities of liquids like alcohol, oils, benzene, water and many more.
LPG Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Gas Flow
Resistance and pressure loss in liquid LPG pipes.
Mechanical Energy Equation vs. Bernoulli Equation
The Mechanical Energy Equation compared to the Extended Bernoulli Equation.
Natural Gas Pipes - Low Pressure Capacities vs. Size
Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Imperial units.
Natural Gas Piping - Sizing of Low Pressure Pipes vs. Capacity
Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Metric units.
Natural Gas Piping - Sizing vs. Capacity
Sizing natural gas pipes - pressures above 5 psi (35 kPa).
Oil Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Oil Flow
Pressure drop in oil pipes - viscosities ranging 100 - 600 Saybolt Universal Seconds.
Oil Pipes - Recommended Flow Velocities
Oil pipes flow velocities should be kept within certain limits.
PE (PolyEthylene) Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow
Water flow in SDR pressure rated PE-pipes - pressure loss and velocities - Imperial and SI units.
PE, PEH and PVC Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow Diagram
Pressure loss (bar/100 m) and velocy in PE, PEH or PVC pipes with water flow.
Pipe and Duct Systems - Total Head Loss
Major and minor loss in pipes, tubes and duct systems.
Pipe and Tube System Components - Minor (Dynamic) Loss Coefficients
Minor loss coefficients for components used in pipe and tube systems.
Pipe Line Velocities vs. Fluid
Typical fluid flow velocities for common liquids, gases and vapors.
Pipes - Fluid Flow Velocities
Calculate fluid velocity and volume flow in pipes and tubes.
Pipes with Water Content - Weight and Volume
Estimate water content in pipes - weight and volume.
Plastic Pipes - Friction Head Loss vs. Water Flow
Friction head loss (ft/100 ft) vs. water flow in plastic pipes like PVC, PP, PE or PEH.
Pneumatic Piping - Pressure Loss vs. Air Flow
Pressure loss in pneumatic tubes - sizes ranging 5 - 36 mm.
Pneumatic Powder and Solid Transport Systems
Pneumatic transport systems used to move powder and other solid products.
Pneumatic Transport and Conveying - Carrying Velocities
Recommended air velocity for pneumatic transport of products like cement, coal, flour and more.
An introduction to pneumatic transport of powders.
Pressfit Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow Diagram
Water flow pressure loss diagram.
Pressfit Piping - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow
Water flow friction loss in pressfit piping.
Pressure Gradient Diagrams
Static pressure graphical presentation throughout a fluid flow system.
Pressure vs. Head Unit Converter
Pressure vs. head units - like lb/in2, atm, inches mercury, bars, Pa and more.
Propane Gas - Sizing Pipe Lines
Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Metric units.
Propane Gas Piping - Capacity vs. Size
Sizing of propane gas pipe lines with pressures above 5 psig (35 kPa).
Propane Gas Piping - Low Pressure Capacity vs. Size
Sizing of low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Imperial units.
PVC Pipes - Equivalent Length and Pressure Loss in Fittings
Minor loss in PVC and CPVC fittings expressed as equivalent length of straight pipe.
PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow
Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 40 - friction loss (ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft) and flow velocities at dimensions ranging 1/2 to 16 inches.
PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow Diagrams
Friction loss (psi/100 ft) and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40.
PVC Pipes Schedule 80 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow
Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 80 - friction loss (ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft) and flow velocities at dimensions ranging 1/2 to 16 inches.
Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - online calculators.
SDR (Standard Dimension Ratio) and S Pipe Series
The Standard Dimension Ratio - SDR - is used to rate pressure pipes.
Secondary Coolants - Properties
Comparing properties like specific gravity, freezing points and viscosity for secondary coolants like calcium chloride, sodium chloride, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol.
Sewer Pipes - Capacities vs. Slope
Carrying capacities of sewer and wastewater pipes - gpm and liter per second.
Slurry Transport - Minimum Flow Velocity
Flow velocities in slurry transport systems to avoid settling of solids.
Steel Pipes - Friction Loss vs. Viscous Liquid Flow
Friction loss in schedule 40 steel pipe with viscous liquids - viscosities ranging from water to oil.
Steel Pipes - Maximum Water Flow Capacities vs. Size
Maximum water flow capacities in steel pipes - pipe dimensions ranging 2 - 24 inches.
Steel Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow Diagram
Friction loss and velocity diagrams - in imperial (psi/100 ft, ft/s) and SI (Pa/100m, m/s) units.
Steel Pipes Schedule 40 - Pressure Loss
Water flow and pressure loss in schedule 40 steel pipes - Imperial and SI units - gallons per minute, liters per second and cubic meters per hour.
Steel Pipes Schedule 40 - Velocity Head vs. Water Flow
Velocity head can be used to calculate minor pressure or head loss in fluid flow systems.
Steel Pipes Schedule 80 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow Diagram
Water flow in steel pipes schedule 80 - pressure drop and velocity diagrams in SI and Imperial units.
Vacuum Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Air Flow
Calculate pressure drops in vacuum pipe lines.
Viscosity - Absolute (Dynamic) vs. Kinematic
Vicosity is a fluid's resistance to flow and can be valued as dynamic (absolute) or kinematic.
Viscosity - Converter Chart
Convert between viscosity units like Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU.
Viscous Liquids - Friction Loss vs. Viscosity and Flow
Friction loss in steel pipes for fluids with viscosities ranging 32 - 80000 SSU.
Viscous Liquids - Max. Delivery Flow Velocities
Recommended max. flow velocities on delivery sides of pumps in viscous systems.
Viscous Liquids - Max. Suction Flow Velocities
Recommended max. pump suction flow velocity for viscous fluids.
Volume Flow - Online Unit Converter
Convert between volume flow units like gpm, liter/sec, cfm, m3/h.
Water - Absolute (Dynamic) Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure
Absolute viscosity for water in centipoises for temperatures between 32 - 200oF.
Water - Max. Suction Flow Velocities vs. Pipe Size
Recommended max. water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps.
Water Flow - Max. Delivery Velocities vs. Pipe Size
Recommended maximum flow velocities in water systems on the delivery side of the pump.
Water Flow in Tubes and Reynolds Number
Reynolds number for clean cold water flow.