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Fluid Flow and Pressure Loss

Pipe lines - fluid flow and pressure loss - water, sewer, steel pipes, pvc pipes, copper tubes and more.

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Boiling Fluids - Max Suction Flow Velocity

Recommended max suction flow velocity when pumping boiling fluids.

Boiling Liquids - Max Pumping Flow Velocity

Recommended max flow velocity on the delivery (pressure) side when pumping boiling liquids.

Copper Tubes - Heat Carrying Capacities

Hot water heat carrying capacities in copper tubes type L.

Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss in Fittings and Valves Expressed as Equivalent Length of Tube

Copper tube fittings and equivalent lengths - in feets of straight tube.

Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow

Water flow and pressure loss (psi/ft) due to friction in copper tubes ASTM B88 Types K, L and M.

CTS (Copper Tube Sized) and CPVC Tubes - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow

Volume flow and pressure loss in CTS - Copper Tube Sized CPVC (Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride) tubes.

Darcy-Weisbach Equation - Major Pressure and Head Loss due to Friction

The Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to calculate the major pressure and head loss due to friction in ducts, pipes or tubes.

Download ANSI, American National Standards Institute, Standards

ANSI is a private, not-for-profit, membership organization that acts not as a standards developer, but as a standards coordinating and approval body.

Energy Equation - Pressure Loss vs. Head Loss

Calculate pressure loss - or head loss - in ducts, pipes or tubes.

Equivalent Length Method - Minor Pressure Loss in Piping Systems

Calculate minor pressure loss in piping systems with the Equivalent Pipe Length Method.

Equivalent Length vs. Minor Pressure Head Loss in Pipe and Duct Components

Minor pressure and head loss in pipes vs. equivalent length in tubes and duct systems.

Fluid Flow - Equation of Continuity

The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation.

Fluid Flow - Hydraulic Diameter

Calculate hydraulic diameter for pipes and ducts.

Friction Loss in Steel, Copper and Plastic Pipes

Friction head loss (ft/100 ft) vs. water flow in steel, copper and PVC plastic pipes.

Gas Pipes - Low Pressure Sizing

Sizing gas pipes for apartment service lines.

Hazen-Williams Friction Loss Equation - calculating Head Loss in Water Pipes

Friction head loss (ftH2O per 100 ft pipe) in water pipes can be estimated with the empirical Hazen-Williams equation.

Hazen-Williams Pressure Loss Equation

The Hazen-Williams equation can be used to calculate the pressure drop (psi) or friction loss in pipes or tubes.

Hoses - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow

Pressure loss in hoses due to water flow and friction.

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Hot Water Heating Systems - Pressure Loss in Steel Pipes

Pressure loss nomogram for hot water steel pipes.

Hot Water Systems - Equivalent Length vs. Fittings Resistance

Equivalent length of fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves in hot water heating systems - equivalent length in feet and meter.

House Gas Pipes - Capacities vs. Dimensions

Carrying capacity of house gas pipes - in imperial and metric units.

Light Oil Pumping - Flow Velocities

Recommended max. flow velocities on the delivery side when pumping light oils.

Light Oil Suction - Flow Velocities

Recommended max. suction flow velocities when pumping light oils.

Lined Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow

Pressure drop diagrams for PTFE, PP, PFA and PVDF lined pipes.

Liquids - Densities

Densities of common liquids like acetone, beer, oil, water and more.

Liquids - Specific Gravities

Specific gravities of liquids like alcohol, oils, benzene, water and many more.

LPG Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Gas Flow

Resistance and pressure loss in liquid LPG pipes.

Mechanical Energy Equation vs. Bernoulli Equation

The Mechanical Energy Equation compared to the Extended Bernoulli Equation.

Natural Gas Pipes - Low Pressure Capacities vs. Size

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Imperial units.

Natural Gas Piping - Sizing of Low Pressure Pipes vs. Capacity

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Metric units.

Natural Gas Piping - Sizing vs. Capacity

Sizing natural gas pipes - pressures above 5 psi (35 kPa).

Oil Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Oil Flow

Pressure drop in oil pipes - viscosities ranging 100 - 600 Saybolt Universal Seconds.

Oil Pipes - Recommended Flow Velocities

Oil pipes flow velocities should be kept within certain limits.

PE (PolyEthylene) Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow

Water flow in SDR pressure rated PE-pipes - pressure loss and velocities - Imperial and SI units.

PE, PEH and PVC Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow Diagram

Pressure loss (bar/100 m) and velocy in PE, PEH or PVC pipes with water flow.

Pipe and Duct Systems - Total Head Loss

Major and minor loss in pipes, tubes and duct systems.

Pipe and Tube System Components - Minor (Dynamic) Loss Coefficients

Minor loss coefficients for components used in pipe and tube systems.

Pipe Line Velocities vs. Fluid

Typical fluid flow velocities for common liquids, gases and vapors.

Pipes - Fluid Flow Velocities

Calculate fluid velocity and volume flow in pipes and tubes.

Pipes with Water Content - Weight and Volume

Estimate water content in pipes - weight and volume.

Plastic Pipes - Friction Head Loss vs. Water Flow

Friction head loss (ft/100 ft) vs. water flow in plastic pipes like PVC, PP, PE or PEH.

Pneumatic Piping - Pressure Loss vs. Air Flow

Pressure loss in pneumatic tubes - sizes ranging 5 - 36 mm.

Pneumatic Powder and Solid Transport Systems

Pneumatic transport systems used to move powder and other solid products.

Pneumatic Transport and Conveying - Carrying Velocities

Recommended air velocity for pneumatic transport of products like cement, coal, flour and more.

Pneumatic Transporting

An introduction to pneumatic transport of powders.

Pressfit Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Water Flow Diagram

Water flow pressure loss diagram.

Pressfit Piping - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow

Water flow friction loss in pressfit piping.

Pressure Gradient Diagrams

Static pressure graphical presentation throughout a fluid flow system.

Pressure vs. Head Unit Converter

Pressure vs. head units - like lb/in2, atm, inches mercury, bars, Pa and more.

Propane Gas - Sizing Pipe Lines

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Metric units.

Propane Gas Piping - Capacity vs. Size

Sizing of propane gas pipe lines with pressures above 5 psig (35 kPa).

Propane Gas Piping - Low Pressure Capacity vs. Size

Sizing of low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Imperial units.

PVC Pipes - Equivalent Length and Pressure Loss in Fittings

Minor loss in PVC and CPVC fittings expressed as equivalent length of straight pipe.

PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 40 - friction loss (ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft) and flow velocities at dimensions ranging 1/2 to 16 inches.

PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow Diagrams

Friction loss (psi/100 ft) and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40.

PVC Pipes Schedule 80 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 80 - friction loss (ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft) and flow velocities at dimensions ranging 1/2 to 16 inches.

Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - online calculators.

SDR (Standard Dimension Ratio) and S Pipe Series

The Standard Dimension Ratio - SDR - is used to rate pressure pipes.

Secondary Coolants - Properties

Comparing properties like specific gravity, freezing points and viscosity for secondary coolants like calcium chloride, sodium chloride, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol.

Sewer Pipes - Capacities vs. Slope

Carrying capacities of sewer and wastewater pipes - gpm and liter per second.

Slurry Transport - Minimum Flow Velocities

Flow velocities in slurry transport systems to avoid settling of solids.

Steel Pipes - Friction Loss vs. Viscous Liquid Flow

Friction loss in schedule 40 steel pipe with viscous liquids - viscosities ranging from water to oil.

Steel Pipes - Maximum Water Flow Capacities vs. Size

Maximum water flow capacities in steel pipes - pipe dimensions ranging 2 - 24 inches.

Steel Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow Diagram

Friction loss and velocity diagrams - in imperial (psi/100 ft, ft/s) and SI (Pa/100m, m/s) units.

Steel Pipes Schedule 40 - Pressure Loss

Water flow and pressure loss in schedule 40 steel pipes - Imperial and SI units - gallons per minute, liters per second and cubic meters per hour.

Steel Pipes Schedule 40 - Velocity Head vs. Water Flow

Velocity head can be used to calculate minor pressure or head loss in fluid flow systems.

Steel Pipes Schedule 80 - Friction Loss vs. Water Flow Diagram

Water flow in steel pipes schedule 80 - pressure drop and velocity diagrams in SI and Imperial units.

Vacuum Pipes - Pressure Loss vs. Air Flow

Calculate pressure drops in vacuum pipe lines.

Viscosity - Absolute (Dynamic) vs. Kinematic

Vicosity is a fluid's resistance to flow and can be valued as dynamic (absolute) or kinematic.

Viscosity - Converter Chart

Convert between viscosity units like Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU.

Viscous Liquids - Friction Loss vs. Viscosity and Flow

Friction loss in steel pipes for fluids with viscosities ranging 32 - 80000 SSU.

Viscous Liquids - Max. Delivery Flow Velocities

Recommended max. flow velocities on delivery sides of pumps in viscous systems.

Viscous Liquids - Max. Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended max. pump suction flow velocity for viscous fluids.

Volume Flow - Online Unit Converter

Convert between volume flow units like gpm, liter/sec, cfm, m3/h.

Water - Absolute (Dynamic) Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Absolute viscosity for water in centipoises for temperatures between 32 - 200oF.

Water - Max. Suction Flow Velocities vs. Pipe Size

Recommended max. water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps.

Water Flow - Max. Delivery Velocities vs. Pipe Size

Recommended maximum flow velocities in water systems on the delivery side of the pump.

Water Flow in Tubes and Reynolds Number

Reynolds number for clean cold water flow.

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Unit Converters

Temperature

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oF


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Length

m
km
in
ft
yards
miles
naut miles


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Area

m2
km2
in2
ft2
miles2
acres


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Volume

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liters
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ft3
us gal


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Weight

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N
lbf


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Velocity

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km/h
ft/min
ft/s
mph
knots


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Pressure

Pa (N/m2)
bar
mm H2O
kg/cm2
psi
inches H2O


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Flow

m3/s
m3/h
US gpm
cfm


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