Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

This is an AMP page - Open full page! for all features.

Fluid Flow and Pressure Loss

Pipe lines - fluid flow and pressure loss - water, sewer, steel pipes, pvc pipes, copper tubes and more

Sponsored Links

Boiling Fluids - Max Suction Flow Velocity

Recommended max suction flow velocity when pumping boiling fluids

Boiling Liquids - Max Pumping Flow Velocity

Recommended max flow velocity on the delivery (pressure) side when pumping boiling liquids

Comparing Friction Loss in Steel, Copper and Plastic Pipes

Water flow and friction head loss (ft/100 ft) in steel, copper and PVC plastic pipes

Comparing Secondary Coolants

Specific gravity, freezing points and viscosity for secondary coolants like calcium chloride, sodium chloride, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol

Copper Tubes - Heat Carrying Capacities

Hot water heat carrying capacity for copper tubes type L

Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss in Fittings and Valves Expressed as Equivalent Length of Tube

Copper tube fittings and equivalent lengths - in feets of straight tube

Darcy-Weisbach Pressure and Major Head Loss Equation

The Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to calculate the major pressure or head loss due to friction in ducts, pipes or tubes

Download ANSI, American National Standards Institute, Standards

ANSI is a private, not-for-profit, membership organization that acts not as a standards developer, but as a standards coordinating and approval body

Energy Equation - Pressure Head Loss in Ducts, Tubes and Pipes

Pressure and head loss in ducts, pipes and tubes

Equation of Continuity

The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation

Equivalent Length Method - Calculating Minor Pressure Loss in Piping Systems

Pressure loss in piping systems by using the Equivalent Pipe Length Method

Fluid Velocities common in Pipes

Typical fluid flow velocities for common liquids, gases and vapors

Hazen-Williams Equation - calculating Head Loss in Water Pipes

Friction head loss (ftH2O per 100 ft pipe) in water pipes can be estimated with the empirical Hazen-Williams equation

Hazen-Williams Pressure Drop Equation

The Hazen-Williams equation can be used to calculate the pressure drop (psi) or friction loss in pipes or tubes

Hoses - Water Flow and Pressure Losses

Water flow and pressure loss due to friction in hoses

Hot Water Heating Systems - Steel Pipes Pressure Loss Nomogram

Steel pipes in hot water heating systems - pressure loss nomogram

House Gas Pipe Capacity

Carrying capacity of house gas pipes - in imperial and metric units

Hydraulic Diameter

Hydraulic diameter of pipes and ducts

Sponsored Links

Light Oil Pumping Flow Velocity

Max light oil flow velocity on pump delivery side

Light Oil Suction Flow Velocity

Recommended suction flow velocity when pumping light oils

Lined Pipes and Pressure Drop

Pressure drop diagrams for PTFE, PP, PFA and PVDF lined pipes

Liquid Densities

Densities of common liquids like acetone, beer, oil, water and more

Liquid Specific Gravities

Specific gravity of common liquids and fluids like alcohol, oils, benzene, water and many more

Low Pressure Gas Pipe Sizing

Apartments gas pipe service lines

LPG Pipes and Pressure Loss

Resistance and pressure loss in liquid LPG pipes

Mechanical Energy and the Bernoulli Equation

The mechanical energy equation related to energy per unit mass, energy per unit volume and energy per unit weight involving head

Minor or Dynamic Loss Coefficients for Pipe or Tube System Components

Minor loss coefficients for commonly used components in pipe and tube systems

Minor Pressure Head Loss in Pipe and Duct Components - Equivalent Lengths

Minor pressure and head loss in pipes, tubes and duct systems

Natural Gas - Low Pressure Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - imperial units

Natural Gas - Low Pressure Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Metric values

Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing pipes for natural gas - pressures above 5 psi (35 kPa)

Oil Pipes - Recommended Flow Velocities

Oil pipes flow velocities should be kept within certain limits.

Oil Pipes and Pressure Drop

Pressure drop in oil pipes - viscosities ranging 100 - 600 Saybolt Universal Seconds

PE - PolyEthylene Pipes, Flow and Pressure Loss

Water flow in SDR pressure rated PE-pipes - pressure loss and velocities - Imperial and SI units

PE, PEH or PVC Pipes - Pressure Loss Diagram

Pressure drop (bar/100 m) and velocy in PE, PEH or PVC pipes

Pipe Fluid Flow Velocity

Calculate fluid flow and pipe velocities in pipes and tubes

Pipes - Water Content - Weight and Volume

Estimate water content in pipes - weight and volume

Plastic Pipes - Friction Head Loss

Friction head loss (ft/100 ft) in plastic pipes - PVC, PP, PE, PEH

Pneumatic Piping - Pressure Loss

Pressure loss in pneumatic tubes - sizes ranging 5 - 36 mm

Pneumatic Powder and Solids - Transport Systems

Pneumatic transport systems are used to move powder and other solid products

Pneumatic Transport and Conveying - Carrying Velocities

Recommended air velocity for pneumatic transport of products like cement, coal, flour and more

Pneumatic Transporting

An introduction to pneumatic transport of powders

Pressfit Pipes - Pressure Loss Diagram

Pressure loss diagram for water flow in pressfit piping

Pressfit Piping - Friction Loss

Pressfit piping with water flow and friction loss

Pressure Gradient Diagrams

A pressure gradient diagram is a graphical presentation of the static pressure throughout a fluid flow system

Pressure Loss in Steel Pipes Schedule 40

Water flow and pressure loss in schedule 40 steel pipes - Imperial and SI units - gallons per minute, liters per second and cubic meters per hour

Pressure to Head - Unit Converter

Pressure vs. head units - like lb/in2, atm, inches mercury, bars, Pa and more.

Propane Gas Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Imperial units

Propane Gas Pipe Sizing

Sizing propane gas pipe lines - for pressures above 5 psig (35 kPa)

PVC - Friction Loss in Fittings and Equivalent Length

Minor loss in PVC and CPVC fittings as equivalent length of straight pipe

PVC Pipes - Friction Loss and Flow Velocities Schedule 40

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 40 - friction loss (ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft) and flow velocities at dimensions ranging 1/2 to 16 inches

PVC Pipes - Friction Loss and Flow Velocities Schedule 80

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 80 - friction loss (ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft) and flow velocities at dimensions ranging 1/2 to 16 inches

PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagrams

Friction loss (psi/100 ft) and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40

Resistance and Fittings Equivalent Length in Hot Water Systems

Equivalent length of fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves in hot water heating systems - equivalent length in feet and meter

Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - online calculators

SDR - Standard Dimension Ratio and S - Pipe Series

It is common to use the Standard Dimension Ratio - SDR - as method of rating pressure piping

Sewer Pipe Capacities

Carrying capacity of sewer and wastewater pipes - gpm and liter per second

Sizing Propane Gas Pipe Lines

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Metric units

Slurry Transport - Minimum Flow Velocity

Avoid settling of solids in slurry transport systems with flow velocities above certain levels

Steel Pipes and Maximum Water Flow Capacity

Maximum water flow capacities in steel pipes - pipe dimensions ranging 2 - 24 inches

Steel Pipes Friction Loss with Viscous Liquids

Friction loss in schedule 40 steel pipe with viscous liquids - viscosities ranging from water to oil

Steel Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagram

Friction loss and velocity diagrams - in imperial (psi/100 ft, ft/s) and SI (Pa/100m, m/s) units

Steel Pipes Schedule 80 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagrams

Water flow in steel pipes schedule 80 - pressure drop and velocity diagrams in SI and Imperial units

Total Head Loss in Pipe or Duct Systems

Major and minor loss in pipe, tubes and duct systems

Vacuum Pipe Lines - Pressure Drops

Vacuum pipes and pressure drops

Viscosity - Absolute (Dynamic) and Kinematic

Vicosity is a fluid's resistance to flow and can be valued as dynamic (absolute) or kinematic.

Viscosity Converting Chart

Convert between the viscosity units Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU

Viscous Fluids - Recommended Suction Flow Velocity

Recommended pump suction flow velocity for viscous fluids

Viscous Liquids - Friction Loss

Friction loss in steel pipes - for fluids with viscosities ranging 32 - 80000 SSU

Viscous Liquids - Recommended Delivery Flow Velocity

Flow velocities on delivery sides of pumps in viscous systems

Volume Flow - Online Unit Converter

Convert between volume flow units like gpm, liter/sec, cfm, m3/h.

Volume Flow and Friction Loss in CTS - Copper Tube Sized CPVC Tubes

Volume flow and pressure loss in CTS - Copper Tube Sized CPVC (Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride) tubes

Water - Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity

Absolute or dynamic viscosity of water in centipoises for temperatures between 32 - 200oF

Water - Suction Flow Velocity

Recommended water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps

Water Flow - Delivery Velocity

Required maximum flow velocity in water systems - delivery side of the pump

Water Flow and Velocity Head in Steel Pipes - Schedule 40

Velocity head used to calculate minor pressure or head loss in fluid flow systems

Water Flow in Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss due to Fricton

Water flow and pressure loss (psi/ft) due to friction in copper tubes ASTM B88 Types K, L and M

Water Flow in Tubes - Reynolds Number

Clean cold waterflow in pipes and the Reynolds number


Search Engineering ToolBox

  • the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!

SketchUp Extension - Online 3D modeling!

Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro .Add the Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the Sketchup Extension Warehouse!


We don't collect information from our users. Only emails and answers are saved in our archive. Cookies are only used in the browser to improve user experience.

Some of our calculators and applications let you save application data to your local computer. These applications will - due to browser restrictions - send data between your browser and our server. We don't save this data.

Google use cookies for serving our ads and handling visitor statistics. Please read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can control adserving and the information collected.

AddThis use cookies for handling links to social media. Please read AddThis Privacy for more information.


Unit Converters



Load Calculator!


naut miles

Load Calculator!



Load Calculator!


us gal

Load Calculator!



Load Calculator!



Load Calculator!


Pa (N/m2)
mm H2O
inches H2O

Load Calculator!


US gpm

Load Calculator!

10 15

This website use cookies. By continuing to browse you are agreeing to our use of cookies! Learn more