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Roman Numerals

Roman numerals are combinations of the seven letters

• I = 1
• V = 5
• X = 10
• L = 50
• C = 100
• D = 500
• M = 1000

Roman numbers are expressed by adding or subtracting combinations of the number values of the letters.

• smaller numbers before larger numbers are subtracted
• smaller number after larger numbers are added

Note that Roman numerals are without zero.

Large numbers are indicated with horizontal lines above them. With a horizontal line the number should be multiplied by 1000.

Example - the Roman number 51

• LI => 50 + 1 = 51

Example - the Roman number 9

• IX => -1 + 10 = 9

Example - Years

• MCMLXXXII => 1000 + (-100 + 1000) + 50 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 1 + 1  = 1982
• MCMLXXVII => 1977

Example - Large Roman Numbers

• V => 5 x 1000 = 5000

• 1 = I
• 2 = II
• 3 = III
• 4 = IV
• 5 = V
• 6 = VI
• 7 = VII
• 8 = VIII
• 9 = IX
• 10 = X
• 11 = XI
• 12 = XII
• 13 = XIII
• 14 = XIV
• 15 = XV
• 16 = XVI
• 17 = XVII
• 18 = XVIII
• 19 = XIX
• 20 = XX
• 30 = XXX
• 40 = XL
• 50 = L
• 60 = LX
• 70 = LXX
• 80 = LXXX
• 90 = XC
• 100 = C
• 150 = CL
• 200 = CC
• 300 = CCC
• 400 = CD
• 500 = D
• 600 = DC
• 700 = DCC
• 800 = DCCC
• 900 = CM
• 1000 = M
• 1600 = MDC
• 1700 = MDCC
• 1900 = MCM

Related Topics

• Miscellaneous

Engineering related topics like Beaufort Wind Scale, CE-marking, drawing standards and more.

Related Documents

Decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal numbers.

Complex Numbers

Complex numbers are used in alternating current theory and mechanical vector analysis.

Designation of Large Numbers

Designation of large number in US vs. other countries.

Morse Code Alphabet

The morse code alphabet.

Numbers - Square, Cube, Square Root and Cubic Root Calculator

Calculate square, cube, square root and cubic root. Values tabulated for numbers ranging 1 to 100.

Numbers - Standard Form, Scientific and Engineering Notation

The difference between standard, scientific and engineering number notation.

Prime Numbers

Prime numbers up to 1000.

Real Numbers Algebra

The commutative and associative law for addition and more.

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