Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

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# Insulation

## Heat transfer and heat loss from buildings and technical applications - heat transfer coefficients and insulation methods to reduce energy consumption.

### Arithmetic and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference in Heat Exchangers - AMTD - and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference - LMTD - formulas with examples - Online Mean Temperature Calculator.

### Building Elements - Heat Loss vs. Thermal Resistivity

Thermal resistance in building elements like walls, floors and roofs above and below the ground.

### Building Materials - Vapour Resistance

Diffusion of vapor through building materials.

### Calcium Silicate Insulation

Thermal conductivity of calcium silicate insulation - temperature and k-values.

### Conductive Heat Transfer

Conductive heat transfer takes place in a solid if there is a temperature gradient.

### Copper Tubes - Insulated Heat Loss

Heat loss to surrounding air from insulated copper tubes.

### Copper Tubes - Uninsulated Heat Losses

Heat loss from uninsulated copper pipes - dimensions ranging 1/2 - 4 inches.

### Duct Wrap Insulation - Thermal Resistance

Heat flow thermal resistance of unfaced and faced duct wrap insulation.

### Fiberglass Insulation

Thermal conductivity of fiberglass insulation - temperature and k-values.

### Heat Traced Pipes - Wrapping Factor

Wrapping factor when the heat loss from a pipe or tube is higher than the capacity of the heat trace cable.

### Insulation Materials - Operating Temperature Limits

Temperature limits for commonly used insulation materials.

### Insulation of Cooling Systems

Cooling systems and insulation thickness.

### Mineral Wool Insulation

Thermal conductivity - k-values - vs. temperature.

### Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients

Walls or heat exchangers - calculate overall heat transfer coefficients.

### Perlite Insulation

Thermal conductivity - k-values - vs. temperature.

### Pipes - Bare Surface Heat Loss

Heat loss vs. surface temperature.

### Pipes - Insulated Heat Loss Diagrams

Heat loss (W/m) from 1/2 to 6 inches insulated pipesĀ - ranging insulation thickness 10 to 80 mm and temperature differences 20 to 180 oC.

### Pipes - Insulated Heat Loss Diagrams

Heat loss (W/ft) diagrams for 1/2 to 6 inches insulated pipesĀ - ranging insulation thickness 0.5 to 4 inches and temperature differences 50 to 350 oF.

### Pipes and Cylinders - Conductive Heat Losses

Conductive heat losses through cylinder or pipe walls.

### Piping - Recommended Insulation Thickness

Recommended insulation thickness for heating systems like hot water and low, medium or high pressure steam systems.

### Polyurethane Insulation

Thermal conductivity - k-values - vs. temperature.

Radiation emissivity of common materials like water, ice, snow, grass and more.

Heat transfer due to emission of electromagnetic waves is known as thermal radiation.

### Solids, Liquids and Gases - Thermal Conductivities

Thermal conductivity coefficients for insulation materials, aluminum, asphalt, brass, copper, steel, gases and more.

### Steel Pipes - Heat Loss Diagram

Heat loss from steel pipes and tubes - dimensions 1/2 to 12 inches.

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Temperature

oC
oF

Length

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km
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yards
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naut miles

Area

m2
km2
in2
ft2
miles2
acres

Volume

m3
liters
in3
ft3
us gal

Weight

kgf
N
lbf

Velocity

m/s
km/h
ft/min
ft/s
mph
knots

Pressure

Pa (N/m2)
bar
mm H2O
kg/cm2
psi
inches H2O

Flow

m3/s
m3/h
US gpm
cfm

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