# Insulation

## Heat transfer and heat loss from buildings and technical applications - heat transfer coefficients and insulation methods and to reduce energy consumption

### Arithmetic and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Differences in Heat Exchangers

Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference - *AMTD* - and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference - *LMTD* - formulas with examples - Online Mean Temperature Calculator

### Building Elements - Heat Loss and Thermal Resistivity

Thermal resistance in common building elements - like walls, floors and roofs above and below the ground

### Building Materials - Vapour Resistance

Diffusion of vapor through building materials

### Calcium Silicate Insulation

Thermal conductivity of calcium silicate insulation - temperature and k-values

### Conductive Heat Transfer

Heat transfer takes place as conduction in a solid if there is a temperature gradient

### Copper Tubes - Insulation and Heat Loss

Heat loss to surrounding air from insulated copper tubes

### Duct Wrap Insulation - Thermal Resistance

Thermal resistance to heat flow of unfaced and faced duct wrap insulation

### Emissivity Coefficients common Materials

Radiation emissivities of some common materials like water, ice, snow, grass and more

### Fiberglass Insulation

Thermal conductivity of fiberglass insulation - temperature and k-values

### Heat Loss from Bare Pipe Surface

Heat losses from bare pipe surfaces

### Heat Loss from Uninsulated Copper Tubes

Heat loss from uninsulated copper pipes - dimensions ranging *1/2 - 4 inches*

### Heat Traced Pipes - Wrapping Factor

Wrapping factor when heat loss from a pipe or tube is higher than the heat trace cable capacity

### Insulated Pipes - Heat Loss Diagrams

Heat loss *(W/m)* from insulated pipesĀ - ranging *1/2 - 6 inches* - insulation thickness *10 - 80 mm* - temperature differences *20 - 180 deg C*

### Insulated Pipes - Heat Loss Diagrams

Heat loss *(W/ft)* diagrams for insulated pipesĀ - ranging *1/2 - 6 inches* - insulation thickness* 0.5 - 4 inches* - temperature difference *50 - 350 deg F *

### Insulation Materials - Temperature Ranges

Temperature limits for some commonly used insulation materials

### Insulation of Cooling Systems

Cooling systems and insulation thickness

### Mineral Wool Insulation

Thermal conductivity - temperature and k-values

### Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Calculate overall heat transfer coefficients for walls or heat exchangers

### Perlite Insulation

Thermal conductivity of perlite insulation - temperature and k-values

### Piping - Recommended Insulation Thickness

Recommended insulation thickness of heating systems like hot water, low, medium or high pressure steam systems

### Polyurethane Insulation

Thermal conductivity of polyurethane insulation - temperatures and k-values

### Radiation Heat Transfer

Heat transfer due to emission of electromagnetic waves is known as thermal radiation

### Steel Pipes Heat Loss Diagram

Heat loss from steel pipes and tubes - dimensions ranging *1/2 - 12 inches *

### Thermal Conductivity - selected Materials and Gases

Thermal conductivity of some selected gases, insulation products, aluminum, asphalt, brass, copper, steel and other common materials