# Insulation

## Heat transfer and heat loss from buildings and technical applications - heat transfer coefficients and insulation methods to reduce energy consumption.

### Arithmetic and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference in Heat Exchangers - *AMTD* - and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference - *LMTD* - formulas with examples - Online Mean Temperature Calculator.

### Building Elements - Heat Loss vs. Thermal Resistivity

Thermal resistance in building elements like walls, floors and roofs above and below the ground.

### Building Materials - Vapour Resistance

Diffusion of vapor through building materials.

### Calcium Silicate Insulation

Thermal conductivity of calcium silicate insulation - temperature and k-values.

### Conductive Heat Transfer

Conductive heat transfer takes place in a solid if there is a temperature gradient.

### Copper Tubes - Insulated Heat Loss

Heat loss to surrounding air from insulated copper tubes.

### Copper Tubes - Uninsulated Heat Losses

Heat loss from uninsulated copper pipes - dimensions ranging *1/2 - 4 inches*.

### Duct Wrap Insulation - Thermal Resistance

Heat flow thermal resistance of unfaced and faced duct wrap insulation.

### Fiberglass Insulation

Thermal conductivity of fiberglass insulation - temperature and k-values.

### Heat Traced Pipes - Wrapping Factor

Wrapping factor when the heat loss from a pipe or tube is higher than the capacity of the heat trace cable.

### Insulation Materials - Operating Temperature Limits

Temperature limits for commonly used insulation materials.

### Insulation of Cooling Systems

Cooling systems and insulation thickness.

### Mineral Wool Insulation

Thermal conductivity - k-values - vs. temperature.

### Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients

Walls or heat exchangers - calculate overall heat transfer coefficients.

### Perlite Insulation

Thermal conductivity - k-values - vs. temperature.

### Pipes - Bare Surface Heat Loss

Heat loss vs. surface temperature.

### Pipes - Insulated Heat Loss Diagrams

Heat loss *(W/m)* from *1/2 to 6 inches* insulated pipesĀ - ranging insulation thickness *10 to 80 mm* and temperature differences *20 to 180 ^{o}C*.

### Pipes - Insulated Heat Loss Diagrams

Heat loss *(W/ft)* diagrams for *1/2 to 6 inches* insulated pipesĀ - ranging insulation thickness *0.5 to 4 inches* and temperature differences *50 to 350 ^{o}F*.

### Pipes and Cylinders - Conductive Heat Losses

Conductive heat losses through cylinder or pipe walls.

### Piping - Recommended Insulation Thickness

Recommended insulation thickness for heating systems like hot water and low, medium or high pressure steam systems.

### Polyurethane Insulation

Thermal conductivity - k-values - vs. temperature.

### Radiation Emissivity Coefficients

Radiation emissivity of common materials like water, ice, snow, grass and more.

### Radiation Heat Transfer

Heat transfer due to emission of electromagnetic waves is known as thermal radiation.

### Solids, Liquids and Gases - Thermal Conductivities

Thermal conductivity coefficients for insulation materials, aluminum, asphalt, brass, copper, steel, gases and more.

### Steel Pipes - Heat Loss Diagram

Heat loss from steel pipes and tubes - dimensions *1/2 to 12 inches*.