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Air Conditioning

Air Conditioning systems - heating, cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for thermal comfort

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Air - Humidifying with Steam, SI units

Using steam to humidify air.

Air - Humidity measurement from Dry and Wet Bulb Temperature

Relative humidity in moist air can estimated by measuring the dry and wet bulb temperature.

Air Conditioner Efficiency

The ratio between heat removed and power (watt) used - EER and SEER.

Air Conditioning - Cooling of Air and Condensate Generated

Water may condensate when air is cooled in air conditioning systems.

Air Cooling of Storage Roooms

Heat removed from storage rooms with cooled air.

Ammonia - NH3 - Concentration in Air and Health Effects

Ammonia and health symptoms - smell and threat to life.

Ammonia - NH3 - Thermodynamic Properties

Thermodynamic properties of saturated and superheated ammonia R-717 like specific volume, enthalpy and entropy.

Ammonia - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic (absolute) and kinematic viscosity of gasous and liquid ammonia at temperatures ranging from -73 to 425°C (-100 to 800°F) at pressure ranging from 1 to 1000 bara (14.5 - 14500 psia) - SI and Imperial Units.

Ammonia - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of liquid and gaseous ammonia changes along the boiling/condensation curve (temperature and pressure between triple point and critical point conditions). An ammonia phase diagram are included.

Ammonia - Specific Heat vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat, CP and CV, of gasous and liquid ammonia at temperatures ranging from -73 to 425°C (-100 to 800°F) at pressure ranging from 1 to 100 bara (14.5 - 1450 psia) - SI and Imperial Units.

Ammonia - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of liquid and gaseous ammonia at temperatures ranging -70 to 425 °C (-100 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Ammonia - Vapour Pressure at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium

Figures and table with ammonia saturation pressure at boiling points, SI and Imperial units.

Ammonia Gas - Density vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ammonia for temperatures ranging -50 to 425 °C (-50 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Antifreeze - Ethylene Glycol Volume vs. Temperature Rating

Freeze protecting of cooling systems - temperature rating vs. required amount of antifreeze.

Antifreeze - Ethylene Glycol vs. Propylene Glycol

Comparing ethylene glycol and propylene glycol antifreeze properties.

ASTM B280 Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (ACR) - Dimensions and Working Pressures

Standard specifications for seamless copper tube used in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Field Services.

Calculating Cooling Loads

Calculating chiller and cooling tower refrigeration loads - in tons.

Chilled Water Systems

Chilled water system equations - evaporator and condenser flow rates.

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Cooling and Heating - Performance and Efficiency Terminology

Performance and efficiency terminology related to heat pumps and air condition systems.

Cooling and Heating Equations

Latent and sensible cooling and heating equations - imperial units.

Cooling Load - Convert between kW/ton to COP or EER

Convert between cooling load units like kW/ton, COP and EER.

Cooling Load - Latent and Sensible Heat

Latent and sensible cooling loads to consider when designing HVAC systems.

Cooling Power vs. Airflow and Duct Sizes

Typical relations between cooling power (tons cooling), air flow and duct size

Dehumidifiers

Classification of dehumidifiers.

Equivalent Diameter - Rectangular vs. Circular HVAC Ducts

Rectangular equivalent diameter for air flows between 100 - 50000 cfm.

Ethylene Glycol Heat-Transfer Fluid Properties

Properties like freezing point, viscosity, specific gravity and specific heat of ethylene glycol based heat-transfer fluids, or brines.

Freeze Protection of Water based Heat Transfer Fluids

Comparing antifreezes used in water based heat transfer fluids or brines.

Fruits and Vegetables - Optimal Storage Conditions

Optimal temperature and humidity conditions for common fruits and vegetables.

Heat Emission from Animals

Heat energy produced by animals.

Heat Gain from Electrical Motors in Continuous Operation

Amount of heat transferred from electrical motor to ambient room vs. locations of fan and motor.

Heat Gain from Lights

Heat contributed by lights may have major impact on air-condition systems.

Heat Index

Equivalent heat index vs. air temperature and relative humidity - in degrees Fahrenheit and Celsius.

Heat Loss from Electrical Equipment

Heat loss from electrical equipment like switch-gear, transformers and variable frequency drives.

Heat Pumps - Performance and Efficiency Ratings

Performance and efficiency rating of heat pumps.

Human Heat Gain

Heat gain from persons in air conditioned spaces - in btu/hr.

HVAC Diagram - Online Drawing Tool

Draw HVAC diagrams online with this Google Drive drawing tool.

Indoor Comfort Temperatures vs. Outdoor Temperatures

Recommended indoor comfort temperatures vs. outdoor temperatures.

Indoor Conditions - Summer or Winter

Recommended indoor design conditions summer or winter.

Industrial Product and Production Processes - Climate Conditions

Recommended indoor temperature and humidity for common industrial products and production processes.

Lights vs. Power Installation

Lights vs. power installations in common types of buildings and rooms.

Liquid Ammonia - Thermal Properties at Saturation Pressure

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity and Prandtls no. of liquid ammonia at saturation pressure.

Metabolic Heat Gain from Persons

Human metabolic heat gain in air conditioned rooms.

Net Refrigeration Effect

The quantity of heat absorbed from a refrigerated space.

Outdoor Temperatures and Relative Humidity - US Winter and Summer Conditions

Outdoor summer and winter design temperatures and relative humidity for US states and cities.

R-12 Dichlorodifluoromethane - Properties

Thermodynamic properties of saturated and superheated Dichlorodifluoromethane (CF2Cl2), like specific volume, enthalpy and entropy.

R22 Refrigerant - Properties

Properties of Refrigerant R22 Dichlorodifluoromethane - saturated liquid and saturated vapor - imperial and metric units.

Refrigerant Compressors - Evaporation Temperature, Condensating Temperature and Capacity

Evaporation temperature, condensing temperature and refrigerant compressor capacity.

Refrigerant R134a - Properties

Thermodynamic properties of refrigerant R-134a.

Refrigerant R22 - Thermodynamic Properties

Thermodynamic properties of R22, like vapor volume, enthalpy and entropy at pressures from 30 to 260 psia.

Refrigerants

Commonly used refrigerants - the methane series, ethane series, propane series, cyclic organic compounds, zeotropic blends, azeotropic blends and organic compounds.

Refrigerants - Color Codes

Common refrigerants and their color codes.

Refrigerants - Environmental Properties

Refrigerants - Ozone Depletion (ODP) and Global Warming Potential (GWP).

Refrigerants - Environmental Properties

Physical and environmental properties of some common refrigerants.

Refrigerants - Pressure vs. Temperature Charts

Temperature and pressure chart for refrigerants R22, R410A, R12, R134A, R401A, R409A, R502, R404A, R507A, R408A and R402A.

Refrigerants - Saturation Pressures vs. Temperatures

Temperature and pressure diagram for constant boiling refrigerants - imperial and SI units.

Refrigeration Formulas

Calculate compression work, coefficients of performance and more.

Refrigeration Machinery - Required Ventilation

Ventilation required for refrigeration machinery and compressors in hot areas.

Relative Humidity in Production and Process Environments

Recommended relative humidity in production and process environments - like libraries, breweries, storages and more.

Sensible Heat Ratio - SHR

The ratio Sensible Heat (or Cooling) Load to the Total Heat (or Cooling) Load.

Solar Heat Transmission and Type of Glass

Relative solar heat transmission through different types of glass windows

Solar Heat Transmission through Windows

Solar heat gain through windows with roller shades, vertical blinds and Venetian blinds

Ventilation and Air Conditioning Equipment - Area Required

Required size of ventilation and air conditioning rooms according DIN 1946.

Water Evaporator and Condenser Equations

Air conditioner heat loads and evaporator and condenser water flow rates.

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