Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

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Air Conditioning

Air Conditioning systems - heating, cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for thermal comfort

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Air Conditioner Efficiency

Air conditioner efficiency is the ratio between heat removed and power (watt) used - EER and SEER

Air Conditioning - Cooling of Air and Generated Condensate

Water may condensate when air is cooled in an air conditioning system

Air Humidity measured by Dry and Wet Bulb Temperature

Estimate moist air relative humidity by measuring dry and wet bulb temperature

Ammonia - NH3 - Concentration in Air and Health Effects

Ammonia and health symptoms - smell and threat to life

Ammonia - NH3 - Thermodynamic Properties

Thermodynamic properties of saturated and superheated ammonia R-717 - specific volume, enthalpy and entropy

Ammonia - Density at Varying Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of ammonia at temperatures ranging -50 to 425 °C (-50 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Ammonia - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Online calculator, figures and tables showing dynamic (absolute) and kinematic viscosity of gasous and liquid ammonia at temperatures ranging from -73 to 425°C (-100 to 800°F) at pressure ranging from 1 to 1000 bara (14.5 - 14500 psia) - SI and Imperial Units

Ammonia - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of liquid and gaseous ammonia changes along the boiling/condensation curve (temperature and pressure between triple point and critical point conditions). An ammonia phase diagram are included.

Ammonia - Specific Heat at varying Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing specific heat, CP and CV, of gasous and liquid ammonia at temperatures ranging from -73 to 425°C (-100 to 800°F) at pressure ranging from 1 to 100 bara (14.5 - 1450 psia) - SI and Imperial Units

Ammonia - Thermal Conductivity at Varying Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of liquid and gaseous ammonia at temperatures ranging -70 to 425 °C (-100 to 800 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Ammonia - Vapour Pressure at gas-liquid equilibrium

Figures and table showing ammonia saturation pressure at boiling point, SI and Imperial units

Antifreeze - Required Amount

Protected cooling system temperature and required amount of antifreeze

Antifreeze Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol

Comparing ethylene glycol and propylene glycol properties as antifreeze

ASTM B280 - Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration - ACR - Dimensions and Working Pressures

Standard specification for seamless copper tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Field Service

Calculating Cooling Loads

Calculating chiller and cooling tower refrigeration - in tons

Chilled Water Systems

Chilled water system equations - evaporator and condenser flow rates

Cooling and Heating - Performance and Efficiency Terminology

Performance and efficiency terminology related to heat pumps and air condition systems

Cooling and Heating Equations

Latent and sensible cooling and heating equations - imperial units

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Cooling Load - Convert kW/ton to COP or EER

Convert cooling load units kW/ton, COP and EER

Cooling Load - Latent and Sensible Heat

Latent and sensible cooling loads to consider in design of HVAC systems


Classification of dehumidifiers

Equivalent Diameter - Rectangular and Circular HVAC Ducts

Equivalent diameter for rectangular and circular ducts - air flows between 100 - 50000 cfm

Ethylene Glycol Heat-Transfer Fluid

Freezing point, viscosity, specific gravity and specific heat of ethylene glycol based heat-transfer fluids, or brines

Freeze Protection of Water based Heat Transfer Fluids

Antifreezes used in water based heat transfer fluids or brines

Fruits and Vegetables and Optimal Storage Conditions

Optimal temperature and humidity conditions for some common fruits and vegetables

Heat Emission from Animals

Heat energy produced by animals

Heat Gain from Electrical Motors in Continuous Operation

Heat transferred from an electrical motor to the ambient room - different locations of fan and motor

Heat Gain from Lights

Heat contribution from lights may have a major impact on an air condition system

Heat Index

Equivalent heat index - temperature vs relative humidity - in degrees Fahrenheit and Celsius

Heat Loss from Electrical Equipment

Heat loss from electrical equipment like switch gear, transformers and variable frequency drives

Heat Pumps - Performance and Efficiency Ratings

Rating the performance and efficiency of heat pumps

Heat Removed with Cooled Air

Heat removed when air is cooled to storage room conditions

Human Heat Gain

Heat gain from persons in air conditioned spaces - in btu/hr

Humidifying Air with Steam - SI units

Use steam to humidify air

HVAC Diagram - Online Drawing

Draw HVAC diagrams - Online with the Google Drive drawing tool

Indoor Comfort Temperature versus Outdoor Temperature

Recommended indoor comfort temperature vs outdoor temperature

Indoor Design Conditions - Summer and Winter

Recommended indoor design conditions

Indoor Design Conditions for Industrial Products and Production Processes

Recommended indoor temperature and humidity for some common industrial products and production processes

Lights and Power Installed

Light power in common types of buildings and rooms

Liquid ammonia - Thermal Properties at saturation pressure

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity and Prandtls no. of liquid ammonia at its saturation pressure

Metabolic Heat Gain from Persons

Human metabolic heat gain in air conditioned rooms

Net Refrigeration Effect

The quantity of heat absorbed from refrigerated space

Outdoor Temperature and Relative Humidity - US Winter and Summer Conditions

Outdoor summer and winter design temperature and relative humidity in US states and cities

R-12 Dichlorodifluoromethane Properties

Thermodynamic properties of saturated and superheated - Dichlorodifluoromethane - CF2Cl2 - specific volume, enthalpy and entropy

Refrigerant Compressors - Evaporation Temperature, Condensating Temperature and Capacity

Evaporation temperature, condensing temperature and refrigerant compressor capacity

Refrigerant R134a Properties

Thermodynamic properties of refrigerant R-134a

Refrigerant R22 - Properties

Properties of Refrigerant R22 Dichlorodifluoromethane - saturated liquid and saturated vapor - imperial and metric units


Commonly used refrigerants - methane series, ethane series, propane series, cyclic organic compounds, zeotropic blends, azeotropic blends and organic compounds

Refrigerants - Color Codes

Refrigerants and their color codes

Refrigerants - Environmental Properties

Refrigerants - Ozone Depletion (ODP) and Global Warming Potential (GWP)

Refrigerants - Environmental Properties

Physical and environmental properties of some common refrigerants

Refrigerants - Temperature and Pressure at Constant Boiling

Temperature and pressure diagram for constant boiling refrigerants - imperial and SI units

Refrigerants - Temperature and Pressure Charts

Temperature and pressure chart for refrigerants R22, R410A, R12, R134A, R401A, R409A, R502, R404A, R507A, R408A and R402A

Refrigeration Formulas

Compression work, coefficient of performance and more

Refrigeration Machinery and required Ventilation

Ventilation required for refrigeration machinery and compressors in hot areas

Relative Humidity in Production and Process Environments

Recommended relative humidity in production and process environments - like libraries, breweries, storages and more

Required Space for Ventilation and Air Conditioning Equipment

Sizes of ventilation and air conditioning rooms according DIN 1946

Sensible Heat Ratio - SHR

Sensible Heat Ratio - SHR - is defined as the sensible heat or cooling load divided by the total heat or cooling load

Solar Heat Transmission and Type of Glass

Relative solar heat transmission through different types of glass windows

Solar Heat Transmission through Windows

Solar heat gain through windows with roller shades, vertical blinds and Venetian blinds

Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerant R-22

Properties of R-22 - vapor volume, enthalpy and entropy at pressures from 30 to 260 psia

Tons Cooling vs. Airflow and Duct Sizes

Typical relations between tons cooling, air flow and duct size

Water Evaporator and Condenser Equations

Air conditioner heat loads, and evaporator and condenser water flow rates


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