Pasteurization is a heat-treatment process that destroys pathogenic microorganisms in foods and beverages.
|63ºC (145ºF)1)||30 minutes||Vat Pasteurization|
|72ºC (161ºF)1)||15 seconds||High temperature short time Pasteurization (HTST)|
|89ºC (191ºF)||1.0 second||Higher-Heat Shorter Time (HHST)|
|90ºC (194ºF)||0.5 seconds||Higher-Heat Shorter Time (HHST)|
|94ºC (201ºF)||0.1 seconds||Higher-Heat Shorter Time (HHST)|
|96ºC (204ºF)||0.05 seconds||Higher-Heat Shorter Time (HHST)|
|100ºC (212ºF)||0.01 seconds||Higher-Heat Shorter Time (HHST)|
|138ºC (280ºF)||2.0 seconds||Ultra Pasteurization (UP)|
1)If the fat content of the milk product is ten percent (10%) or more, or if it contains added sweeteners, or if it is concentrated (condensed), the specified temperature shall be increased by 3ºC (5ºF).
Engineering related topics like Beaufort Wind Scale, CE-marking, drawing standards and more.
Energy in carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
pH in common food products - like apples, butter, wines and more.
Specific heat of common food and foodstuff like apples, bass, beef, pork and many more.
Bulk densities of some common food products like grain, corn, barley, sugar and more.
Osmotic pressure in food products.
Absolute (dynamic) viscosity for common food products.
Thermal conductivity of selected foodstuff like apples, beef, sugar and more.
Thermal diffusivity of some selected food products.
Practical storage life for common frozen food products.
Optimal temperature and humidity conditions for common fruits and vegetables.
The most common units of heat BTU - British Thermal Unit, Calorie and Joule.
Water content before and after drying - in food and other products cork, grain, soap, peat, wood and more.