# Thermodynamics

## Calculate heat, work, temperature and energy. The thermodynamics of steam and condensate systems. Water and Ice properties.

### Air - Humidifying with Steam, SI units

Using steam to humidify air.

### Air - Moisture Holding Capacity vs. Temperature

The moisture holding capacity of air increases with temperature.

### Air and Steam Mixtures

Air in the steam will lower the surface temperatures in heat exchangers - and less heat will be transferred.

### Arithmetic and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference in Heat Exchangers - *AMTD* - and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference - *LMTD* - formulas with examples - Online Mean Temperature Calculator.

### Boiler Capacities

Steam boilers output can be expressed in Boiler Horsepower, MBTU or in Pounds of Steam delivered per hour.

### Boiler Horsepower

Boiler horsepower vs. heat transfer area.

### Boiler Water - Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

Impurities from the feedwater will concentrate in the boiling water.

### Condensation of Steam - Heat Transfer

Heat transfer when steam condensates.

### Conductive Heat Transfer

Conductive heat transfer takes place in a solid if there is a temperature gradient.

### Electric Heating of Mass

Electric heating of an object or mass - temperature change vs. energy supplied.

### Gases Solved in Water - Diffusion Coefficients

Diffusion flux [kg/m^{2}s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m^{2}/s] for several gases in water.

### Heat Transfer Coefficients in Heat Exchanger Surface Combinations

Average overall heat transmission coefficients for fluid and surface combinations like Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more.

### Heating Water by Injecting Steam

Water can be heated by injecting steam.

### Ice and Water - Melting Points vs. Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables with melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

### Online Saturated Steam Table Calculator

Online calculator to compute the thermodynamic properties of saturated steam.

### Pipes and Cylinders - Conductive Heat Losses

Conductive heat losses through cylinder or pipe walls.

### Power Plants - Performance Efficiencies

Power plants heat rates, thermal efficiencies, capacity factors, load factors, economic efficiencies, operational efficiencies and energy efficiencies.

### Properties of Saturated Steam - SI Units

Saturated Steam Table with steam properties as specific volume, density, specific enthalpy and specific entropy.

### Saturated Steam - Properties - Imperial Units

Steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures.

### Saturated Steam - Properties for Pressure in Bar

Saturated Steam Table with properties like boiling point, specific volume, density, specific enthalpy, specific heat and latent heat of vaporization.

### Steam & Condensate Equations

Steam consumption and condensate generation when heating liquid or gas flows

### Steam - Enthalpy and Entropy Diagram

An enthalpy and entropy chart for steam

### Steam - Flow vs. kW Rating

Calculate steam flow rate vs. kW rating.

### Steam - Viscosity vs. Pressure

Absolute viscosity of steam at pressure ranging *1 - 10000 psia*.

### Steam and Vapor Enthalpy

Vapor and steam enthalpy, specific enthalpy of saturated liquid, saturated vapor and superheated vapor.

### Steam Entropy

Basic steam thermodynamics - entropy diagram.

### Steam Heating Air

Calculate steam heated air systems.

### Steam Heating Processes - Load Calculating

Calculating the amount of steam in non-flow batch and continuous flow heating processes.

### Superheated Steam - Enthalpy

Enthalpy of steam superheated to temperatures above it's boiling point.

### Superheated Steam - Entropy

The entropy of steam superheated to temperatures above saturation points.

### Vapor and Steam

An introduction to vapor and steam.

### Water - Boiling Points at Higher Pressures

Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

### Water - Boiling Points at Vacuum Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Heat of Vaporization vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Prandtl Number vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables with Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).

### Water - Saturation Pressure vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables with water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging 0 to 370 °C (32 to 700°F) - in Imperial and SI Units.

### Water - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature

Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Thermal Diffusivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Figures and tables with thermal diffusivity of liquids and gaseous water at varying temperarures and pressures - SI and Imperial units.

### Water vs. Steam - Critical and Triple Points

Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

### Water-Steam Mollier Diagram

Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam.

### Wet Steam - Enthalpy

Wet steam, dryness fraction and enthalpy.

### Wet Steam - Quality vs. Dryness Fractions

Introduction and definition of steam quality and dryness fraction including calculating wet steam enthalpy and specific volume.

### Wet Steam - Specific Volume

Wet steam and specific volume.