# Steam Thermodynamics

## Thermodynamics of steam and condensate applications

### Air and Steam Mixture

Air in the steam will lower the surface temperatures in heat exchangers - and less heat will be transferred

### Arithmetic and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Differences in Heat Exchangers

Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference - *AMTD* - and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference - *LMTD* - formulas with examples - Online Mean Temperature Calculator

### Boiler Capacity

Steam boilers output can be expressed in Boiler Horsepower, MBTU or in Pounds of Steam delivered per hour

### Boiler Horsepower

Heat transfer area and boiler horsepower

### Conductive Heat Transfer

Heat transfer takes place as conduction in a solid if there is a temperature gradient

### Cylinders and Pipes - Conductive Heat Losses

Conductive heat losses through cylinder or pipe walls

### Diffusion Coefficients Gases in Water

Diffusion flux [kg/m^{2}s] tells how fast a substanse solved in another substance flows due to concentration gradients. Diffusion constants [m^{2}/s] are given for several gases in water

### Electric Heating of Mass

Electric heating of an object or mass - energy supply and temperature change

### Enthalpy of Superheated Steam

Enthalpy of steam superheated to temperatures above boiling point

### Enthalpy of Wet Steam

Wet steam, the dryness fraction and enthalpy

### Entropy of Superheated Steam

Entropy of steam superheated to temperatures above saturation point

### Fluid Heat Transfer Coefficients - Heat Exchanger Surface Combinations

Average overall heat transmission coefficients for some common fluids and surface combinations as Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more

### Heating Air with Steam

Calculate air heating with steam

### Heating Water by Injecting Steam

Water can be heated by injecting steam

### Humidifying Air with Steam - SI units

Use steam to humidify air

### Ice / Water - Melting Points at Higher Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing melting points of ice to water at pressures ranging from 0 to 29000 psia (0 to 2000 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

### Moisture Holding Capacity of Air

Moisture holding capacity of air increases with temperature

### Mollier Diagram for Water-Steam

Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam

### Online Saturated Steam Table Calculator

Online calculator to compute the thermodynamic properties of saturated steam

### Power Plant Performance Efficiency

Power plant heat rate, thermal efficiency, capacity factor, load factor, economic efficiency, operational efficiency, energy efficiency

### Properties of Saturated Steam - Imperial Units

Steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures

### Properties of Saturated Steam - Pressure in Bar

Saturated Steam Table with properties like boiling point, specific volume, density, specific enthalpy, specific heat and latent heat of vaporization

### Properties of Saturated Steam - SI Units

A Saturated Steam Table with steam properties as specific volume, density, specific enthalpy and specific entropy

### Specific Volume of Wet Steam

Wet steam and specific volume

### Steam & Condensate Equations

Steam consumption and condensate generation when heating liquid or gas flows

### Steam - Enthalpy and Entropy Diagram

An enthalpy and entropy chart for steam

### Steam and Vapor Enthalpy

Introduction and definition of vapor and steam enthalpy - specific enthalpy of saturated liquid, saturated vapor and superheated vapor

### Steam Condensation and Heat Transfer

Heat transfer when condensing steam

### Steam Entropy

Basic steam thermodynamics and the entropy diagram

### Steam Flow Rate versus kW Rating

Calculate steam flow rate when kW rating is known

### Steam Heating Process - Load Calculating

Calculating the amount of steam in non-flow batch and continuous flow heating processes

### Steam Viscosity

Absolute viscosity of steam at pressure ranging *1 - 10000 psia*

### Total Dissolved Solids - TDS

In a boiler generating steam impurities from the feedwater will concentrate in the boiling water

### Vapor and Steam

Introduction to vapor and steam

### Water - Boiling Points at Vacuum Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables giving the boiling temperatures of water in varying vacuum, SI and Imperial units.

### Water - Heat of Vaporization

Online calculator, figures and tables showing heat of vaporization of water, at temperatures from 0 - 370 °C (32 - 700 °F) - SI and Imperial units

### Water - Prandtl Number

Figures and tables showing Prandtl Number of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

### Water - Properties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions

Figures and tables showing how the properties of water changes along the boiling/condensation curve (vapor pressure, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, Prandtl number, thermal diffusivity, entropy and enthalpy).

### Water - Saturation Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging from 0 to 370 °C and from 32 to 700°F - in Imperial and SI Units

### Water - Thermal Conductivity

Figures and tables showing thermal conductivity of water (liquid and gas phase) with varying temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units

### Water - Thermal Diffusivity

Figures and tables showing thermal diffusivity of liquid and gaseous water at varying temperarure and pressure, SI and Imperial units

### Water Boiling Points at Higher Pressure

Online calculator, figures and tables showing boiling points of water at pressures ranging from 14.7 to 3200 psia (1 to 220 bara). Temperature given as °C, °F, K and °R.

### Water vs Steam - Critical and Triple Point

Critical point is where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable and triple point is where ice, water and vapor coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium

### Wet Steam Quality and Dryness Fraction

Introduction and definition of steam quality and dryness fraction including calculating wet steam enthalpy and specific volume