# Fluid Mechanics

## The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involves various properties of the fluid, such as velocity, pressure, density and temperature, as functions of space and time.

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### Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity Online Converter

Convert between dynamic or absolute viscosity units - Poiseuille, Poise, centPoise and more

### Absolute, Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Dynamic, absolute and kinematic viscosity - and how to convert between *CentiStokes (cSt), centipoises (cP), Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU) and degree Engler*

### Air - Altitude, Density and Specific Volume

The density and the specific volume of air varies with elevation above sea level

### Air - Temperature, Pressure and Density

Air density for pressure range *0 - 1000 psi* and temperature range *30 - 600 deg F*

### Air Duct Components and Minor Loss Coefficients

Minor loss - pressure or head loss - coefficients for air duct distribution systems components

### Archimedes' Principle

A body submerged in a liquid

### Baumé's Hydrometer

Liquids - Degrees on Baumé's Hydrometer converted to Specific Gravity

### Bernoulli Equation

Conservation of energy - non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady flow

### Bulk Modulus and Fluid Elasticity

Introduction and definition of Bulk Modulus Elasticity - commonly used to characterize compressibility of fluids

### Buoyancy

The resultant force on a submerged body

### Capillarity

Capillarity or capillary action is the ability of a narrow tube to draw a liquid upwards against the force of gravity

### Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Rooms

Carbon dioxide concentration in rooms can be used to indicate air quality and ventilation system efficiency

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### Cauchy Number

Introduction to the Cauchy Number

### Cavitation - an Introduction

Cavitation occurs in fluid flow systems where the local static pressure is below vapor pressure

### Cavitation Number

An introduction to and a definition of the Cavitation Number

### Center of Gravity - Center of Buoyancy

Stability - center of gravity and center of buoyancy

### Chezy Equation

Conduits flow and mean velocity - the Chezy equation

### Colebrook Equation

Calculating friction loss coefficients in pipes, tubes or ducts

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### Compressible Gas Flow - Entropy

Calculating entropy in a compressible gas flow

### Compression and Expansion of Gases

Isothermal and Isentropic compression and expansion processes

### Conservation of Mass

The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass can neither be created or destroyed

### Darcy-Weisbach Pressure and Head Loss Equation

The Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to calculate the pressure or head loss due to friction in ducts, pipes or tubes

### Density of Fluids - with Changing Pressure and Temperature

Calculating density of fluids when changing the pressure or temperature

### Density, Specific Weight and Specific Gravity

An introduction to definition of density, specific weight and specific gravity - formulas with examples

### Drag Coefficient

The drag coefficient express the drag of an object in a moving fluid

### Dynamic Absolute Viscosity Converting Chart

Absolute Dynamic viscosity converting chart - with units like *Poiseuille - Poise - centiPoise and more*

### Dynamic Pressure

Dynamic pressure is the kinetic energy per unit volume of a fluid

### Dynamic Viscosities for some common Liquids

Absolute or dynamic viscosities for some fluids

### Dynamic Viscosity of Motor Oils

SAE 10 to 50 - temperature ranging 0 - 100 deg C

### Energy and Hydraulic Grade Line

The hydraulic grade and the energy line are graphical presentations of the Bernoulli equation

### Entrance Length and Developed Flow

The entrance length is the length in a tube or duct after an obstruction until the flow velocity profile is fully developed

### Equation of Continuity

The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation

### Equation of Mechanical Energy and Bernoulli

The mechanical energy equations in terms of Energy per Unit Mass, Energy per Unit Volume and Energy per Unit Weight involving head

### Equations in Fluid Mechanics

Common fluid mechanics equations - Bernoulli, conservation of energy, conservation of mass, pressure, Navier-Stokes, ideal gas law, Euler equations, Laplace equations, Darcy-Weisbach Equation and more

### Equivalent Diameter

Convert rectangular and oval duct geometry to a equivalent circular diameter - online calculator with imperial and SI-units

### Euler Equations

The behavior of ideal compressible gas can be described with Euler equations

### Euler Number

Introduction to the Euler Number used in fluid mechanics

###
Flow Coefficient *C*_{v} and Flow Factor *K*_{v}

_{v}

_{v}

Comparing the flow coefficient *C _{v}* with the flow factor

*K*

_{v}

### Flow Section Channels - Geometric Relationships

Geometric relationships in flow channels - area, wetted perimeter and hydraulic diameter

### Flow of Liquids from Containers

Flow from tanks

### Fluid Mechanics - Imperial and SI Units Dimensions

Imperial (USCS) and SI dimensions and units terminology in fluid mechanics

### Friction Coefficient at Laminar Flow

Laminar flow and friction coefficients

### Friction Loss Viscous Liquids

Friction loss in steel pipes - viscosities ranging *32 - 80000 SSU*

### Froude Number

Introduction to the Froude Number

### Gas Mixtures and Properties

Special care must be taken for gas mixtures when using the ideal gas law, calculating the mass, the individual gas constant or the density

### Gases - Ratios of Specific Heats

Ratios of specific heats for gases in constant pressure and constant volume processes

### Hazen-Williams Coefficients

Hazen-Williams coefficients for common piping materials

### Hazen-Williams Equation - calculate Head Loss in Water Pipes

Friction head loss (*ft _{H2O} per 100 ft pipe*) in water pipes can be estimated with the empirical Hazen-Williams equation

### Heating Systems and Steel Pipes - Pressure Loss Diagram

Steel pipes and tubes - pressure loss diagram for hot water heating systems

### Hydraulic Diameter

Hydraulic diameter of ducts and tubes

### Hydrostatic Pressure

Relationship between depth and pressure

### Ideal Gas Law

In perfect or ideal gas the change in density is directly related to the change of temperature and pressure as expressed by the Ideal Gas Law

### Isentropic Flow

Constant entropy flow is called isentropic flow

### Jet Discharge Propulsion

Propulsive force or thrust induced by a jet

### Kinematic Conversion Diagram

Convert between Centistokes, Saybolt and Redwood seconds

### Kinematic Viscosity - Online Converter

Convert between different kinematic viscosity units - centistokes, poise, lentor and more

### Laminar, Transitional or Turbulent Flow

When calculating heat transfer or pressure and head loss it is important to know if a fluid flow is laminar, transitional or turbulent

### Laplace Equation

The Laplace equation is important in fluid dynamics describing the behavior of gravitational and fluid potentials

### Lift and Drag

Body in fluid flow - Airfoil - lift and drag

### Liquids - Kinematic Viscosities

Kinematic viscosities of some common liquids - motor oil, diesel fuel, peanut oil and many more

### Mach Number

Introduction to the Mach Number

### Major Loss Online Calculator using the Darcy-Weisbach Friction Loss Equation

An online major loss calculator based on the Darcy-Weisbach friction loss equation. Energy (or head) loss is expressed in length units

### Major loss in Ducts, Tubes and Pipes

Major loss - head loss or pressure loss - due to friction in ducts, pipes and tubes

### Manning's Formula for Gravity Flow

Manning's equation for calculating gravity flow in open channels

### Manning's Roughness Coefficients

Manning's roughness coefficients for common materials

### Mass and Weight

Mass and Weight - the difference

### Minor Loss Coefficients in Pipes and Tubes Components

Minor loss coefficients for common used components in pipe and tube systems

### Minor Loss in Pipe or Duct Components

Minor loss, pressure or head loss in pipe, tube and duct system components

### Mixing Fluids

Mass and temperature when mixing fluids

### Mixtures, Solutions and Suspensions

The difference between mixtures, solutions and suspensions

### Moody Diagram

A Moody diagram that can be used to estimate friction coefficients

### Moody Friction Flow Factor

Online Moody friction flow factor calculator - as used in the Darcy-Weisbach major loss equation

### Navier-Stokes Equations

The Navier-Stokes equations are the fundamental partial differentials equations used to describe incompressible fluid flows

### Nozzles

Gas flow through nozzles - sonic chokes

### Oil Viscosity - Convert Values

Convert between common oil viscosity units

### Orifice, Nozzle and Venturi Flow Rate Meters

The orifice, nozzle and venturi flow rate meters use the Bernoulli Equation to calculate the fluid flow rate using pressure difference through obstructions in the flow

### Pascal's Laws

Pascal's laws relates to pressures in fluids

### Pipes and Fluid Flow Velocities

Calculate fluid flow and pipe velocities in pipes and tubes

### Pipes in Series and Parallel

Pressure loss in pipes in series and parallel

### Poiseuille's Formula

Volume discharged through a smooth-walled circular pipe

### Prandtl Number

The Prandtl Number is a dimensionless number approximating the ratio of momentum diffusivity to thermal diffusivity

### Pressure

Introduction to pressure - *psi* and *Pa* - online pressure units converter

### Pressure Coefficient

The pressure coefficient is important in most fluid flow situations

### Pressure Energy

Pressure energy in a incompressible fluid

### Pressure Gradient Diagrams

A pressure gradient diagram is a graphical presentation of the static pressure throughout a fluid flow system

### Pressure Units - Online Converter

Convert between pressure units like *Pa, bar, atmosphere, pound square feet, psi and more*

### Pump Affinity Laws

Turbo machines affinity laws are used to calculate volume capacity, head or power consumption in centrifugal pumps with changing speed - rpm - or wheel diameters

### Pumps, Compressors, Blowers and Fans

Comparing pumps, compressors, blowers and fans

### Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - with online calculators

### Solubility

A measure of the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a solvent

### Specific Work of Turbo Machines - Pumps, Compressors and Fans

Specific work from pumps, fans, compressors and turbines

### Speed of Sound Formulas

Calculation formulas for velocity of sound - sonic velocity - in gases, fluids or solids

### Static Pressure and Pressure Head in Fluids

Static pressure and pressure head

### Stokes' Formula

Viscosity force acting on a smooth sphere

### Strouhal Number

Introduction to the Strouhal Number

### Surface Tension

Surface tension of liquids like water, mercury, oils and more

### Technical Terms in Fluid Mechanics

Some of the most commonly used technical terms in fluid mechanics

### The Individual and Universal Gas Constants

The Individual and Universal Gas Constants used in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics

### Thrust on a Submerged Surface

Force acting on a submerged surface

### Total Pressure or Head Loss in Pipe or Duct Systems

Major and minor loss in pipe, tubes and duct systems

### U-Tube Manometer

The inclined and vertical u-tube manometers are inexpensive and common in the differential pressure measurement with flow meters like pitot tubes, orifices and nozzles

### Velocity Head

Dynamic pressure and velocity head

### Viscosity Converting Chart

Convert between viscosity units like *Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU*

### Water - Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity

Absolute or dynamic viscosity of water in centipoises for temperatures between *32 - 200 ^{o}F*

### Water - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Viscosity of water at temperatures ranging *0 - 100 ^{o}C (32 - 212^{o}F)* - Imperial and SI Units

### Water Flow in Tubes - Reynolds Number

Clean cold waterflow in pipes and the Reynolds number

###
Water Systems - Valves and *K*_{v} diagram

_{v}

*K _{v}* diagram for sizing control valves

### Water and Speed of Sound

Speed of sound in water at temperatures ranging *32 - 212 ^{o}F (0 - 100^{o}C)* - Imperial and SI units

### Weber Number

Introduction to the Weber Number

### Wind Energy

Available wind energy

### Wind Power

Power generated from the wind

### Wind Shear

Wind slowed down at the surface by trees and obstructions - wind shear

### Wind Turbine Power Calculator

Online wind turbine calculator