# Fluid Mechanics

## The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involves various properties of the fluid, such as velocity, pressure, density and temperature, as functions of space and time.

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### Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity Online Converter

Convert between dynamic or absolute viscosity units - Poiseuille, Poise, centPoise and more

### Air - Altitude, Density and Specific Volume

The density and the specific volume of air varies with the elevation above sea level

### Air - Temperature, Pressure and Density

Air density for pressures and temperatures ranging* 0 - 1000 psi *and *30 - 600 deg F*

### Archimedes' Principle

A body immersed in a liquid

### Baumé's Hydrometer

Liquids - Degrees on Baumé's Hydrometer converted to Specific Gravity

### Bernoulli Equation

Conservation of energy - non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady flow

### Bulk Modulus and Fluid Elasticity

Introduction and definition of Bulk Modulus Elasticity - commonly used to characterize compressibility of fluids

### Buoyancy

The resultant force on a submerged body

### Capillarity

Capillarity or capillary action is the ability of a narrow tube to draw a liquid upwards against the force of gravity

### Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Rooms

The carbon dioxide concentration in rooms can be used to indicate air quality and ventilation system efficiency

### Cauchy Number

An introduction and a definition of the Cauchy Number

### Cavitation - an Introduction

Cavitation may occur in fluid flow systems where local static pressure is below the vapor pressure

### Cavitations Number

An introduction to and a definition of the Cavitations Number

### Center of Gravity - Center of Buoyancy

Stability - Center of gravity and center of buoyancy

### Chezy Formula

Conduits flow and mean velocity

### Colebrook Equation

Calculate friction loss coefficients in pipes, tubes and ducts

### Compressible Gas Flow - Entropy

Calculating entropy in compressible gas flow

### Compression and Expansion of Gases

Isothermal and Isentropic processes

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### Conservation of Mass

The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass can neither be created or destroyed

### Darcy-Weisbach Equation for Pressure and Head Loss

The Darcy-Weisbach formula can be used to calculate pressure or head loss due to friction in ducts, pipes and tubes

### Density of Fluids - Changing Pressure and Temperature

Calculating density of fluids when changing pressure and temperature

### Density, Specific Weight and Specific Gravity

An introduction and definition of density, specific weight and specific gravity - formulas with examples

### Drag Coefficient

The drag coefficient expresses the drag of an object in a moving fluid

### Dynamic Pressure

Dynamic pressure is the component of fluid pressure representing the fluid kinetic energy

### Dynamic Viscosity of Motor Oils

SAE 10 to 50 - temperature ranging 0 - 10 deg C

### Dynamic Viscosity of some common Liquids

Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity viscosity of some common fluids

### Dynamic or Absolute Viscosity Converting Chart

Absolute or dynamic viscosity converting chart - units like *Poiseuille - Poise - centiPoise and more*

### Dynamic, Absolute and Kinematic Viscosity

An introduction to dynamic, absolute and kinematic viscosity and how to convert between *CentiStokes (cSt), CentiPoises (cP), Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU), degree Engler and more*

### Energy and Hydraulic Grade Line

The hydraulic grade and the energy line are graphical presentations of the Bernoulli equation

### Entrance Length and Developed Flow

The entrance length is the length in a tube or duct until the flow velocity profile is fully developed after an obstruction

### Equation of Continuity

The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation

### Equation of Mechanical Energy

The equation of mechanical energy in terms of Energy per Unit Mass, Energy per Unit Volume and Energy per Unit Weight involving head

### Equations in Fluid Mechanics

Common fluid mechanics equations - Bernoulli, conservation of energy, conservation of mass, pressure, Navier-Stokes, ideal gas law, Euler equations, Laplace equations, Darcy-Weisbach Equation and more

### Equivalent Diameter

Convert rectangular and oval duct geometry to a equivalent circular diameter - online calculator with imperial and SI-units

### Euler Number

An introduction and definition of the Euler Number in fluid mechanics

### Euler equations

The behavior of ideal compressible gas can be described by the Euler equations

### Flow Coefficient *C*_{v} and Flow Factor *K*_{v}

_{v}

_{v}

Comparing flow coefficient *C _{v}* with flow factor

*K*

_{v}

### Flow Section Channels - Geometric Relationships

Geometric relationships like area, wetted perimeter and hydraulic diameter

### Flow of Liquids from Containers

Flow from tanks

### Friction Coefficient at Laminar Flow

Laminar flow and friction coefficients

### Friction Loss Viscous Liquids

Friction loss in steel pipes - viscosities ranging *32 - 80000 SSU*

### Froude Number

An introduction to and a definition of the Froude Number

### Gas Mixture Properties

Special care must be taken for gas mixtures when using the ideal gas law, calculating the mass, the individual gas constant or the density

### Gases - Ratios of Specific Heat

Heat capacity of a gas in a constant pressure process - to heat capacity in a constant volume process

### Hazen-Williams Coefficients

Hazen-Williams factor for some common piping materials

### Hazen-Williams Equation - calculating Friction Head Loss in Water Pipes

Friction head loss (*ft _{H2O} per 100 ft pipe*) in water pipes can be estimated by using the empirical Hazen-Williams equation

### Heating Systems - Steel Pipe Pressure Loss Diagram

Steel pipes and tubes - pressure loss diagram hot water heating systems

### Hydraulic Diameter

Hydraulic diameter of ducts and tubes

### Hydrostatic Pressure

Relationship between depth and pressure

### Ideal Gas Law

In perfect or ideal gas the change in density is directly related to the change of temperature and pressure as expressed by the Ideal Gas Law

### Imperial and SI Fluid Mechanics Dimensions and Units

Imperial (USCS) and SI dimensions and units terminology

### Isentropic Flow

Constant entropy flow is called isentropic flow

### Jet Discharge Propulsion

Propulsive force or thrust induced by a jet

### K_{v} Diagram Water Valves

*K _{v}* diagram for modulating water valves

### Kinematic Conversion Diagram

Convert diagram between Centistokes, Saybolt and Redwood seconds

### Kinematic Viscosity Online Calculator

Convert between different kinematic viscosity units - centistokes, poise, lentor and more

### Laminar, Transitional or Turbulent Flow

When calculating heat transfer or pressure and head loss it is important to know if the fluid flow is laminar, transitional or turbulent

### Laplace Equation

Laplace equation are important in fluid dynamics describing the behavior of gravitational and fluid potentials

### Lift and Drag

Body in fluid flow - Airfoil - lift and drag

### Liquids - Kinematic Viscosities

Kinematic viscosities of some common liquids - motor oil, diesel fuel, peanut oil and many more

### Mach Number

Introduction and definition of the Mach Number

### Major Loss Online Calculator for Fluid Flow using Darcy-Weisbach Friction Loss Equation

An online major loss calculator using Darcy-Weisbach friction loss equation. Energy (or head) loss is expressed in length units

### Major loss in Ducts, Tubes and Pipes

Major loss - head loss or pressure loss - due to friction in ducts, pipes and tubes

### Manning's Formula for Gravity Flow

Manning's equation for calculating gravity flow in open channels

### Manning's Roughness Coefficient

Manning's roughness coefficient values for some common materials

### Mass and Weight

Weight and mass - the difference

### Minor Loss Coefficients for Air Duct Components

Minor loss - pressure or head loss - coefficients for air duct distribution systems components

### Minor Loss Coefficients in Pipes and Tubes Components

Minor loss coefficients for common used components in pipe and tube systems

### Minor Loss in Pipe or Duct Components

Minor loss, pressure or head loss in pipe, tube and duct system components

### Mixing Fluids

Mass and temperature when mixing fluids

### Mixtures, Solutions and Suspensions

The difference between mixtures, solutions and suspensions

### Moody Diagram

Moody Diagram to estimate friction coefficients

### Moody Friction Flow Factor

Online Moody friction flow factor calculator - used in the Darcy-Weisbach major loss equation

### Navier-Stokes Equations

The Navier-Stokes equations are the fundamental partial differentials equations describing incompressible fluid flow

### Nozzles

Gas flow through nozzles - sonic chokes

### Oil Viscosity Conversion Values

Convert between common oil viscosity units

### Orifice, Nozzle and Venturi Flow Rate Meters

The orifice, nozzle and venturi flow rate meters use the Bernoulli Equation to calculate the fluid flow rate using pressure difference through obstructions in the flow

### Pascal's Laws

Pascal's laws relates to pressures in fluids

### Pipe Fluid Flow Velocity

Calculate fluid flow and pipe velocity

### Pipes in Series and Parallel

Pressure loss in pipes in series and parallel

### Poiseuille's Formula

Volume discharged through a smooth-walled circular pipe

### Prandtl Number

The Prandtl Number is a dimensionless number approximating the ratio of momentum diffusivity and thermal diffusivity

### Pressure

Introduction to pressure - relationship *psi* and *Pa*- online pressure units converter

### Pressure Coefficient

The pressure coefficient is important in most fluid flow situations

### Pressure Energy

Pressure energy in a incompressible fluid

### Pressure Units Online Converter

Convert between common pressure units like *Pa, bar, atmosphere, pound square feet, psi and more*

### Pressure-Gradient Diagrams

A pressure-gradient diagram is a graphical presentation of the static pressure throughout a fluid flow system

### Pump Affinity Laws

Turbo machines affinity laws are used to calculate volume capacity, head or power consumption in centrifugal pumps when changing speed - rpm - or wheel diameters

### Pumps, Compressors, Blowers and Fans

Comparing pumps, compressors, blowers and fans

### Reynolds Number

An introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - with online calculators

### Solubility

Measure of the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a solvent

### Specific Work of Turbo Machines - Pumps, Compressors and Fans

Specific work of pumps, fans, compressors and turbines

### Speed of Sound Formulas

Calculation formulas for velocity of sound - sonic velocity - in gases, fluids or solids

### Static Pressure and Pressure Head in Fluids

Static pressure and pressure head

### Stokes' Formula

Viscosity force acting on a smooth sphere

### Strouhal Number

An introduction to and a definition of the Strouhal Number

### Surface Tension

Surface tension of some common liquids like water, mercury, oils and more

### Technical Terms in Fluid Mechanics

Some of the most common used technical terms used in fluid mechanics

### The Individual and Universal Gas Constant

The Individual and Universal Gas Constant in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics

### Thrust on a Submerged Surface

Force acting on a submerged surface

### Total Pressure or Head Loss in Pipe or Duct Systems

Major and minor loss in pipe, tubes and duct systems

### U-Tube Manometer

The inclined and vertical u-tube manometers are inexpensive and common in differential pressure measurements of flow meters like pitot tubes, orifices and nozzles

### Velocity Head

Dynamic pressure and velocity head

### Viscosity Converting Chart

A viscosity converting table between units like *Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU*

### Water - Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity

Absolute, or dynamic viscosity of water in centipoises for temperatures between *32 - 200 ^{o}F*

### Water - Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Viscosity of water at temperatures between *0 - 100 ^{o}C (32 - 212^{o}F) *- in Imperial and SI Units

### Water - Speed of Sound

Speed of sound in water at temperatures between *32 - 212 ^{ o}F (0 - 100^{ o}C)* - imperial and SI units

### Water Flow in Tubes - Reynolds Number

Reynolds Number in pipes transporting clean cold water

### Weber Number

An introduction to and a definition of the Weber Number

### Wind Energy

Available wind energy

### Wind Power

Power generated from the wind

### Wind Shear

Wind is slowed down at the surface by trees and obstructions

### Wind Turbine Power Calculator

Online wind turbine calculator